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RON and P3a

Erich S Tusch, Nicole C Feng, Phillip J Holcomb, Kirk R Daffner
In young adults, primary visual task processing can be either enhanced or disrupted by novel auditory stimuli preceding target events, depending on task demands. Little is known about this phenomenon in older individuals, who, in general, are more susceptible to distraction. In the current study, age-related differences in the electrophysiological effects of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli on visual target processing were examined. Under both low and high primary task loads, the categorization/updating process in response to visual targets preceded by auditory novels, as indexed by the target P3 component, was enhanced in young, but diminished in old adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
An important brain function is to predict upcoming events on the basis of extracted regularities of previous inputs. These predictive coding processes can disturb performance in concurrent perceptual decision-making and are known to depend on fronto-striatal circuits. However, it is unknown whether, and if so, to what extent striatal microstructural properties modulate these processes. We addressed this question in a human disease model of striosomal dysfunction, i.e. X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP), using high-density EEG recordings and source localization...
May 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Kenia S Correa-Jaraba, Susana Cid-Fernández, Mónica Lindín, Fernando Díaz
The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21-29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51-64 years old; and (3) Old: 65-84 years old...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
L Oja, M Huotilainen, E Nikkanen, H Oksanen-Hennah, M Laasonen, A Voutilainen, L von Wendt, K Alho
Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker...
February 1, 2016: Brain Research
L B Shestopalova, E A Petropavlovskaia, S Ph Vaitulevich, N I Nikitin
The current study investigates auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) and mismatch negativity (MMN) during active and passive discrimination of stationary and moving sound stimuli presented according to the oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli represented stationary midline sounds. Deviant stimuli simulated sound source location shifts (to the left/right from head midline) produced by linear or stepwise changes of interaural time delay (ITD). The event-related responses were evaluated by peak amplitudes of N1 waves and mean amplitudes of MMN, P3a, P3b and reorienting negativity (RON) components...
September 2015: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
Stephan Getzmann, Michael Falkenstein, Edmund Wascher
The ability to understand speech under adverse listening conditions deteriorates with age. In addition to genuine hearing deficits, age-related declines in attentional and inhibitory control are assumed to contribute to these difficulties. Here, the impact of task-irrelevant distractors on speech perception was studied in 28 younger and 24 older participants in a simulated "cocktail party" scenario. In a two-alternative forced-choice word discrimination task, the participants responded to a rapid succession of short speech stimuli ("on" and "off") that was presented at a frequent standard location or at a rare deviant location in silence or with a concurrent distractor speaker...
February 1, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Anthony J Rissling, Makoto Miyakoshi, Catherine A Sugar, David L Braff, Scott Makeig, Gregory A Light
Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42) and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47) participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant-Standard) tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR), comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON) peak sequence...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yuko Higuchi, Tomonori Seo, Tomohiro Miyanishi, Yasuhiro Kawasaki, Michio Suzuki, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
INTRODUCTION: We measured duration mismatch negativity (dMMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON) in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS), patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these event-related potentials provide a biomarker associated with progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects. METHODS: Nineteen ARMS subjects meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of ARMS, 38 patients with schizophrenia (19 first-episode and 19 chronic), and 19 healthy controls participated in the study...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
János Horváth
Event-related potentials (ERPs) offer unique insights into processes related to involuntary attention changes triggered by rare, unpredictably occurring sensory events, that is, distraction. Contrasting ERPs elicited by distracters and frequent standard stimuli in oddball paradigms allowed the formulation of a three-stage model describing distraction-related processing: first, the distracting event is highlighted by a sensory filter. Second, attention is oriented towards the event, and finally, the task-optimal attention set is restored, or task priorities are changed...
2014: Psychological Research
Stefan Berti
Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stefan Berti, Martin Grunwald, Erich Schröger
Adults of three age groups (18-27, 39-45, and 59-66 years) performed an auditory duration discrimination task with short (200 ms) or long (400 ms) sinusoidal tones. Performance was highly accurate and reaction times were on the same level in all groups, indicating no differences in auditory duration processing. Task irrelevant rare changes of the frequency of the stimuli were introduced to check whether the subjects, firstly, were distracted by changes in the environment while focusing on the task relevant information (indicated by prolonged responses), and, secondly, could re-focus on the relevant task after distraction...
January 23, 2013: Brain Research
Anthony J Rissling, David L Braff, Neal R Swerdlow, Gerhard Hellemann, Yuri Rassovsky, Joyce Sprock, Marlena Pela, Gregory A Light
OBJECTIVE: The disentangling of early sensory information processing deficits and examination of their relationships to demographic and clinical factors are important steps for the validation of potential biomarkers and/or endophenotypes of schizophrenia. The aims of the present study were to characterize commonly used sensory event-related potential deficits, to determine whether they are (1) distinct from one another and (2) independently associated with important clinical characteristics...
October 2012: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
C Jahshan, K S Cadenhead, A J Rissling, K Kirihara, D L Braff, G A Light
BACKGROUND: Deficits in automatic sensory discrimination, as indexed by a reduction in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a event-related potential amplitudes, are well documented in chronic schizophrenia. However, MMN and P3a have not been sufficiently studied early in the course of psychotic illness. The present study aimed to investigate MMN, P3a and reorienting negativity (RON) across the course of schizophrenia. METHOD: MMN, P3a, and RON were assessed in 118 subjects across four groups: (1) individuals at risk for psychosis (n=26); (2) recent-onset patients (n=31); (3) chronic patients (n=33); and (4) normal controls (n=28) using a duration-deviant auditory oddball paradigm...
January 2012: Psychological Medicine
Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Josefina Ricardo-Garcell, Mario Rodríguez-Camacho, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Ulises Rodríguez, Mayela Rodríguez-Violante, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo
Dopaminergic nigro-striatal depletion interferes with the detection of novel stimuli. This suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) may generate from the initial stages a failure in involuntary attention (IA), which can be studied through the distraction potential, composed by the mismatch negativity (MMN), the P3a and the reorientation negativity (RON). This study analyzed IA using event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with early PD with and without dopaminergic replacement therapy. Twenty-five medicated, and 17 non-medicated patients with early PD were studied, as well as 20 healthy control subjects...
May 16, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
Michael Schwartze, Kathrin Rothermich, Maren Schmidt-Kassow, Sonja A Kotz
Temporal regularity allows predicting the temporal locus of future information thereby potentially facilitating cognitive processing. We applied event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate how temporal regularity impacts pre-attentive and attentive processing of deviance in the auditory modality. Participants listened to sequences of sinusoidal tones differing exclusively in pitch. The inter-stimulus interval (ISI) in these sequences was manipulated to convey either isochronous or random temporal structure...
April 2011: Biological Psychology
János Horváth, Elyse Sussman, István Winkler, Erich Schröger
Rare irregular sounds (deviants) embedded into a regular sound sequence have large potential to draw attention to themselves (distraction). It has been previously shown that distraction, as manifested by behavioral response delay, and the P3a and reorienting negativity (RON) event-related potentials, could be reduced when the forthcoming deviant was signaled by visual cues preceding the sounds. In the present study, we investigated the type of information used in the prevention of distraction by manipulating the information content of the visual cues preceding the sounds...
April 2011: Biological Psychology
Frances H Gabbay, Connie C Duncan, Craig G McDonald
A behavioral drug preference procedure was used to identify two groups of healthy individuals. One group preferred 10 mg of d-amphetamine over placebo (Choosers) and the other preferred placebo (Nonchoosers). In separate sessions, participants were administered placebo, 10, and 15 mg of d-amphetamine, and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed two 3-stimulus oddball tasks. The effect of d-amphetamine on P3a, an ERP index of the orienting response, differed between groups: In Choosers, target stimuli elicited P3a after d-amphetamine but not after placebo; in Nonchoosers, the drug had no effect on P3a...
December 2010: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Philipp Ruhnau, Nicole Wetzel, Andreas Widmann, Erich Schröger
BACKGROUND: We investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and unexpected novel sounds and its modulation by working-memory load in children aged 9-10 and in adults. Environmental sounds (novels) were embedded amongst frequently presented standard sounds in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Each sound was followed by a visual target. In two conditions, participants evaluated the position of a visual stimulus (0-back, low load) or compared the position of the current stimulus with the one two trials before (2-back, high load)...
2010: BMC Neuroscience
Cordula Hölig, Stefan Berti
Attention is controlled by the interplay of sensory input and top-down processes. We compared attentional control processes during task switching and reorientation after distraction. The primary task was to discriminate laterally and centrally presented tones; these stimuli were composed of a frequent standard or an infrequent deviant pitch. In the distraction condition, pitch was irrelevant and could be ignored. In the switch condition, pitch changes were relevant: whenever a deviant tone was presented, participants had to discriminate its pitch and not its direction...
July 23, 2010: Brain Research
Alexandra Bendixen, Sabine Grimm, Leon Y Deouell, Nicole Wetzel, Andreas Mädebach, Erich Schröger
Vision often dominates audition when attentive processes are involved (e.g., the ventriloquist effect), yet little is known about the relative potential of the two modalities to initiate a "break through of the unattended". The present study was designed to systematically compare the capacity of task-irrelevant auditory and visual events to withdraw attention from the other modality. Sequences of auditory and visual stimuli were presented with different amounts of temporal offset to determine the presence, strength, and time-course of attentional orienting and reorienting as well as their impact on task-related processing...
June 2010: Neuropsychologia
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