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Osteoarthritis, septic arthritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513981/exposure-to-fermentation-supernatant-of-staphylococcus-aureus-accelerated-dedifferentiation-of-chondrocytes-and-production-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#1
Shuaijun Li, Yun Zhang, Yidan Sun, Weigang Cao, Lei Cui
Staphylococcus aureus is the most popular pathogen found in septic arthritis. Despite bacteria was eradicated from joint cavity during acute infection, destruction of articular cartilage often continues for years, leading to permanent joint damage. The mechanism responsible for this consistent catabolic reaction in septic arthritis remains unclear. Here, we found that fermentation supernatant (FS) of Staphylococcus aureus accelerated dedifferentiation of chondrocytes and induced expression of catabolic factors including A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin-1 motifs 5, NO synthase 2, matrix metalloproteinase -3, -13...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464432/septic-arthritis-in-the-emergency-departments-in-the-u-s-a-national-study-of-healthcare-utilization-and-time-trends
#2
Jasvinder A Singh, Shaohua Yu
OBJECTIVE: To assess health care utilization and emergency department (ED) charges for septic arthritis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of ED visits with septic arthritis as the primary diagnosis using the U.S. Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) data from 2009-12. We examined ED charges, hospitalization and associated time-trends. Multivariable models adjusted for demographics (age, sex, insurance status, residence, household income), comorbidity and hospital characteristics to assess factors associated with ED charges and hospitalization...
May 2, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399605/cementless-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-patients-older-than-75-years
#3
Jared M Newman, Anton Khlopas, Morad Chughtai, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Jaydev B Mistry, George A Yakubek, Steven F Harwin, Michael A Mont
Some surgeons have been hesitant to use cementless fixation for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in elderly patients due to concerns regarding successful bone biological fixation. Therefore, this study evaluated: (1) implant survivorship, (2) functional outcomes, (3) radiographic outcomes, and (4) complications in patients over 75 years of age who underwent cementless total knee arthroplasty. A total of 134 patients (142 TKAs) older than 75 years at a single institution between June 2008 and June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326213/a-fatal-sepsis-caused-by-hyaluronate-knee-injection-how-much-the-medical-history-and-the-informed-consent-might-be-important
#4
F Manfreda, G Rinonapoli, A Nardi, P Antinolfi, A Caraffa
The incidence of Osteoarthritis (OA) is gradually increasing worldwide due to two main reasons: longer life expectation and increased functional demand. Several treatment options have been proposed for this disease. Conservative treatment has the goal to improve the quality of life, reduce pain, and prevent the progression of the disease. Hyaluronate viscosupplementation is one of the most used infiltrative treatments for OA, but, despite its common use, clinical efficacy is still under question. Though adverse reactions for this medical option are actually rare, septic arthritis is a very scaring complication...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255620/spontaneous-radioscapholunate-fusion-after-septic-arthritis-of-the-wrist-a-case-report
#5
S Quadlbauer, Ch Pezzei, J Jurkowitsch, T Keuchel, T Hausner, M Leixnering
Bacterial septic arthritis rarely occurs in the upper extremities. Yet, early diagnosis and treatment is important, as a delay in diagnosis results in pain, impaired hand function, and degenerative joint disease. Radioscapholunate (RSL) arthrodesis is a well-established procedure for treating inflammatory arthritis and osteoarthritis (primary or posttraumatic), primarily to achieve pain relief. The wrist deformity correction offers an alternative option to total wrist arthrodesis. Indications for a RSL arthrodesis are osteoarthritis of the radiolunate and radioscaphoid joint with a concomitant intact midcarpal joint...
March 2, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187026/an-algorithmic-approach-to-the-suspected-septic-wrist
#6
Jeffrey R Claiborne, Leslie G Branch, Michael Reynolds, Anthony J Defranzo
An acutely painful, erythematous wrist can be due to a variety of pathologic processes, including crystalline arthropathy, infection, trauma, osteoarthritis, and systemic disease. The broad differential diagnosis of the inflamed wrist and nonspecific clinical findings make accurate diagnosis challenging. There is no published clinical or laboratory criterion that reliably differentiates septic wrist arthritis from a sterile inflammatory arthropathy. For septic joint patients, long-term results are notably poorer in patients with a delay in treatment, therefore establishing evidenced-based guidelines deserves attention...
June 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026738/-infectious-inflammation-of-pubic-symphysis-symphysitis-pubis-purulenta-five-case-reports-and-literature-view
#7
REVIEW
F Fridrich, V Báča, V Džupa
Purulent inflammation of the pubic symphysis is a rare condition involving the symphysis and parasymphyseal parts of the pubic bones. It is usually found in immuno-compromised patients and its most frequent cause is Staphylococcus aureus. Conservative treatment is based on long-term administration of antibiotics and has been efficient, as reported, in about 50% of the patients. The authors treated five patients with a late diagnosis of purulent infection of the pubic symphysis in whom the antibiotic therapy had to be completed by surgical intervention...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942968/false-positive-cultures-after-native-knee-aspiration-true-or-false
#8
Jason M Jennings, Douglas A Dennis, Raymond H Kim, Todd M Miner, Charlie C Yang, David C McNabb
BACKGROUND: Synovial fluid aspiration is a routine practice used by most orthopaedic surgeons to aid in the diagnosis of joint infection. In patients for whom there is a low pretest probability of infection, a positive culture-particularly if it is a broth-only culture-may be considered a contaminant, especially if the bacterial species are skin pathogens. To our knowledge no study has evaluated the incidence of contamination of aspirations from the native knee. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: What is the frequency of false-positive cultures among knee aspirations of the native knee? METHODS: Two hundred patients, with a total of 200 knees, with the diagnosis of degenerative osteoarthritis undergoing a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were identified for this study...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929277/acute-monoarthritis-diagnosis-in-adults
#9
Jonathan A Becker, Jennifer P Daily, Katherine M Pohlgeers
Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities. A delay in diagnosis and treatment, particularly in septic arthritis, can have catastrophic results including sepsis, bacteremia, joint destruction, or death. The history and physical examination can help guide the use of laboratory and imaging studies...
November 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900509/conversion-of-hip-fusion-to-total-hip-arthroplasty-clinical-radiological-outcomes-and-complications-in-40-hips
#10
Mustafa Celiktas, Ozkan Kose, Adil Turan, Ferhat Guler, Cagri Ors, Emre Togrul
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the clinical and radiological outcome of total hip arthroplasty in patients with previous hip arthrodesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 28 (40 hips) prospectively followed patients in whom ankylosed hips were converted to total hip arthroplasty (THA) between 2010 and 2014 in our institution. The average age at the time of the conversion operation was 40.8 ± 9.8 years (range 24-62)...
January 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781977/treatment-of-unstable-distal-phalanx-fractures-by-extra-articular-dip-pinning-a-series-of-12-cases
#11
G Prunières, S Gouzou, S Facca, A-S Matheron, N Maire, J-J Hidalgo Díaz, P Liverneaux
Unstable distal phalanx fractures are typically treated by pinning of the distal phalanx or the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Complications include unstable fixation, K-wire migration, septic arthritis and osteoarthritis. To limit these complications, we wanted to explore the benefits of using locked extra-articular DIP pinning. The cohort consisted of 12 patients (mean age 36.3 years) who had an extra-articular (6 cases) or intra-articular distal phalanx fracture (6 cases). All patients were treated surgically with a construct consisting of two connected K-wires: one was placed inside the shaft of the distal phalanx and the other was placed perpendicular to the middle phalanx...
October 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749085/polymerase-chain-reaction-electrospray-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-versus-culture-for-bacterial-detection-in-septic-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis
#12
Michael P Palmer, Rachael Melton-Kreft, Laura Nistico, N Louisa Hiller, Leon H J Kim, Gregory T Altman, Daniel T Altman, Nicholas G Sotereanos, Fen Z Hu, Patrick J De Meo, Garth D Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have identified known bacterial pathogens in the knees of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) before arthroplasty. AIMS: The current study was designed to determine the incidence and types of bacteria present in the synovial fluid of native knee joints from adult patients with diagnoses of septic arthritis and OA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were enrolled between October 2010 and January 2013. Synovial fluid samples from the affected knee were collected and evaluated with both traditional microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (molecular diagnostics [MDx]) to prospectively characterize the microbial content...
December 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595091/septic-arthritis-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-a-case-report
#13
Sung-Won Yang, Jin-Yong Cho, Hyeon-Min Kim
Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare disease. The most common symptoms of this disease are acute malocclusion, limited mouth opening, swelling, and tenderness of affected TMJ. These symptoms are often confused with internal derangement of the articular disc, rheumatoid arthritis, retrodiscitis, or osteoarthritis. Therefore, differential diagnosis by image examination is required. Usually, antimicrobial treatment and surgical drainage by needle aspiration, arthroscopy, or arthrotomy are effective treatment approaches...
August 2016: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455444/epidemiology-and-management-of-acute-uncomplicated-septic-arthritis-and-osteomyelitis-spanish-multicenter-study
#14
Cristina Calvo, Esmeralda Núñez, Marisol Camacho, Daniel Clemente, Elisa Fernández-Cooke, Rosa Alcobendas, Luis Mayol, Pere Soler-Palacin, Miren Oscoz, Jesús Saavedra-Lozano
BACKGROUND: Acute osteoarticular infection (OAI) is a potentially severe disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology, clinical characteristics and therapeutic approach of OAI in children in Spain. METHODS: Medical records from children <14 years with OAI from 25 hospitals between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed. Confirmed osteomyelitis (OM) and septic arthritis (SA) required a positive bacterial isolate; otherwise, they were considered probable. Probable SA with <40,000 cells/mm in joint fluid was not included...
December 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366169/a-case-of-polyarticular-pasteurella-multocida-septic-arthritis
#15
Sarah Nitoslawski, Todd M McConnell, Makeda Semret, Michael A Stein
A 76-year-old man with a history of osteoarthritis presents with right leg erythema and inability to weight-bear and pain in his right shoulder. Synovial fluid cell count of the knee and shoulder showed abundant neutrophils, and cultures of the knee showed growth of Pasteurella multocida. The patient owned four cats with which he had frequent contact, but history and physical examination elicited no evidence of scratches or bites. This case highlights the invasive potential of Pasteurella multocida in an immunocompetent individual and its capacity to cause septic arthritis in the setting of frequent animal contact...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336451/imaging-in-foot-and-ankle-arthritis
#16
REVIEW
Victoria H Wilkinson, Emma L Rowbotham, Andrew J Grainger
The foot and ankle are commonly involved in a range of arthritides that affect the joints, bones, and soft tissues. Accurate plain film interpretation can often aid the diagnosis and monitor disease progression and treatment response. Ultrasound and MRI afford superior depiction of the soft tissues, and advances over recent years have centered on early detection of synovitis, enabling earlier diagnosis and treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of the imaging techniques of radiography, multidetector computed tomography, ultrasound, and MRI are discussed, as is optimization of these modalities for the assessment of the anatomically complex joints of the foot and ankle...
April 2016: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263425/combining-cytology-and-microcrystal-detection-in-nonpurulent-joint-fluid-benefits-the-diagnosis-of-septic-arthritis
#17
Marine Ferreyra, Guillaume Coiffier, Jean-David Albert, Claire David, Aleth Perdriger, Pascal Guggenbuhl
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of combined cytology and microcrystal detection in joint fluid for diagnosing septic arthritis. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study of joint fluid samples from patients with manifestations suggesting acute or chronic arthritis. The absolute leukocyte count (/mm(3)) was recorded; as well as the differential counts, particularly of neutrophils (%). Microcrystals were sought and bacteriological cultures performed. Septic arthritis was defined as positive cultures of joint fluid or blood samples...
January 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151075/total-hip-arthroplasty-with-femoral-subtrochanteric-osteotomy-after-schanz-osteotomy
#18
Motoki Sonohata, Masaru Kitajima, Shunsuke Kawano, Riki Tanaka, Masaaki Mawatari
BACKGROUND: Schanz osteotomy is one of the options for the management of hip instability caused by congenital or septic arthritis. Following Schanz osteotomy, there is risk of hip pain secondary to hip arthritis. It may be necessary to perform subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy in conjunction with total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study evaluates the outcomes and complications associated with THA. METHODS: We performed 36 THA after Schanz osteotomy. Patients were divided into three groups: (1) successful Schanz osteotomy, (2) highly dislocated hip with contact between the femoral head and pelvis, and (3) completely dislocated hip without contact between the femur and pelvis...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069705/unusual-mri-findings-in-a-polio-survivor
#19
Masaaki Sakamoto, Hitoshi Watanabe, Hitoshi Kubosawa, Takeshi Ishii
A 63-year-old male consulted our institution due to worsening of right hip pain for approximately one month. The patient had no apparent functional disorders besides rigidity of the right ankle secondary to childhood poliomyelitis. Plain radiographs demonstrated narrowing of the right hip joint space. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed unusual findings in the right gluteus medius muscle, suspecting a malignant musculoskeletal tumor. Further examinations clarified acute inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus with no atypia...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019806/review-of-acute-traumatic-closed-mallet-finger-injuries-in-adults
#20
REVIEW
Santiago Salazar Botero, Juan Jose Hidalgo Diaz, Anissa Benaïda, Sylvie Collon, Sybille Facca, Philippe André Liverneaux
In adults, mallet finger is a traumatic zone I lesion of the extensor tendon with either tendon rupture or bony avulsion at the base of the distal phalanx. High-energy mechanisms of injury generally occur in young men, whereas lower energy mechanisms are observed in elderly women. The mechanism of injury is an axial load applied to a straight digit tip, which is then followed by passive extreme distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) hyperextension or hyperflexion. Mallet finger is diagnosed clinically, but an X-ray should always be performed...
March 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
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