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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808290/molecular-mr-imaging-of-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-pancreatic-cancer
#1
Miloslav Polasek, Yan Yang, Daniel T Schühle, Mohammad A Yaseen, Young R Kim, Yu Sub Sung, Alexander R Guimaraes, Peter Caravan
Fibrosis with excessive amounts of type I collagen is a hallmark of many solid tumours, and fibrosis is a promising target in cancer therapy, but tools for its non-invasive quantification are missing. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging with a gadolinium-based probe targeted to type I collagen (EP-3533) to image and quantify fibrosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. An orthotopic syngeneic mouse model resulted in tumours with 2.3-fold higher collagen level compared to healthy pancreas. Animals were scanned at 4...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806782/the-use-of-18f-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-18f-fdg-pet-as-a-non-invasive-pharmacodynamic-biomarker-to-determine-the-minimally-pharmacologically-active-dose-of-azd8835-a-novel-pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitor
#2
Juliana Maynard, Sally-Ann Emmas, Francois-Xavier Ble, Herve Barjat, Emily Lawrie, Urs Hancox, Urszula M Polanska, Alison Pritchard, Kevin Hudson
BACKGROUND: The phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K), AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway is frequently de-regulated and activated in human cancer and is an important therapeutic target. AZD8835 is a PI3K inhibitor, with selectivity against PI3K α and δ isoforms, which is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials. 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) is a non-invasive pharmacodynamic imaging biomarker that has become an integral part of drug development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806260/68ga-psma-ligand-pet-ct-uptake-in-anthracosilicosis
#3
Madeleine McGuiness, Brett Sounness
This interesting image illustrates a case of biopsy-proven pulmonary anthracosilicosis, a mixed dust pneumoconiosis, associated with Ga-PSMA-ligand uptake. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an emerging imaging biomarker, with clinical application in evaluation of prostate cancer using Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT. Contrary to its name, PSMA is expressed in a number of other normal tissues and pathological states. Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression has been linked to tumor angiogenesis in various other epithelial neoplasms, as well as neovasculature associated with tissue regeneration and repair...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803454/serum-carbohydrate-antigen-19-9-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-mini-review-for-surgeons
#4
REVIEW
Su Kah Goh, Grace Gold, Christopher Christophi, Vijayaragavan Muralidharan
The optimal management of oncological conditions is reflected by the careful interpretation of investigations for screening, diagnosis, staging, prognostication and surveillance. Serum tumour markers are examples of commonly requested tests in conjunction with other imaging and endoscopic tests that are used to help clinicians to stratify therapeutic decisions. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a key biomarker for pancreatic cancers. Although this biomarker is considered clinically useful and informative, clinicians are often challenged by the accurate interpretation of elevated serum CA19-9 levels...
August 13, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801876/tumor-dna-an-emerging-biomarker-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#5
Joseph A Bellairs, Rifat Hasina, Nishant Agrawal
Head and neck cancer (HNC) includes a diverse range of malignancies arising commonly from mucosal epithelia of the upper aerodigestive tract. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the most common form of HNC, develops in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx and is associated with tobacco exposure, alcohol abuse, and infection with oncogenic viruses. Despite global advances in cancer care, HNSCC often presents with advanced disease and is associated with poor 5-year survival of ~50%. Genotyping tumor tissue to guide clinical decision-making is becoming commonplace in modern oncology, but in the management of HNSCC, tissue biopsies with cytopathology or histopathology remain the mainstay for diagnosis...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801789/multimodal-laser-ablation-desorption-imaging-analysis-of-zn-and-mmp-11-in-breast-tissues
#6
Raquel González de Vega, María Luisa Fernández Sanchez, Noemí Eiro, Francisco J Vizoso, Michael Sperling, Uwe Karst, Alfredo Sanz Medel
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases. The main functions of these metalloproteinases are the degradation of the stromal connective tissue and basement membrane components. Recent data from model systems suggest that MMPs are involved in breast cancer (BC) initiation, invasion, and metastasis. Particularly, MMP-11 (stromelysin-3) is expressed in stromal fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial tumor cells, and high levels of this metalloproteinase were associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis of BC...
August 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801575/limits-of-radiomic-based-entropy-as-a-surrogate-of-tumor-heterogeneity-roi-area-acquisition-protocol-and-tissue-site-exert-substantial-influence
#7
Laurent Dercle, Samy Ammari, Mathilde Bateson, Paul Blanc Durand, Eva Haspinger, Christophe Massard, Cyril Jaudet, Andrea Varga, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Charles Soria, Charles Ferté
Entropy is a promising quantitative imaging biomarker for characterizing cancer imaging phenotype. Entropy has been associated with tumor gene expression, tumor metabolism, tumor stage, patient prognosis, and treatment response. Our hypothesis states that tumor-specific biomarkers such as entropy should be correlated between synchronous metastases. Therefore, a significant proportion of the variance of entropy should be attributed to the malignant process. We analyzed 112 patients with matched/paired synchronous metastases (SM#1 and SM#2) prospectively enrolled in the MOSCATO-01 clinical trial...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800286/clinical-pet-imaging-in-prostate-cancer
#8
Kathryn L Wallitt, Sairah R Khan, Suraiya Dubash, Henry H Tam, Sameer Khan, Tara D Barwick
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, with a wide spectrum of biologic behavior ranging from indolent low-risk disease to highly aggressive castration-resistant prostate cancer. Conventional imaging with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy is limited for the detection of nodal disease and distant bone metastases. In addition, advances in the available therapeutic options, both localized and systemic, drive the requirement for precise diagnostic and prognostic tools to refine the individual therapeutic approach at various times in the management of patients with prostate cancer...
August 11, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799592/rapid-determination-of-the-tumour-stroma-ratio-in-squamous-cell-carcinomas-with-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-desi-ms-a-proof-of-concept-demonstration
#9
Michael Woolman, Alessandra Tata, Delaram Dara, Jalna Meens, Elisa D'Arcangelo, Consuelo J Perez, Shamina Saiyara Prova, Emma Bluemke, Howard J Ginsberg, Demian Ifa, Alison McGuigan, Laurie Ailles, Arash Zarrine-Afsar
Squamous cell carcinomas constitute a major class of head & neck cancers, where the tumour stroma ratio (TSR) carries prognostic information. Patients affected by stroma-rich tumours exhibit a poor prognosis and a higher chance of relapse. As such, there is a need for a technology platform that allows rapid determination of the tumour stroma ratio. In this work, we provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) can be used to determine tumour stroma ratios...
August 11, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799122/prognostic-stratification-of-patients-with-advanced-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Dante De Paz, Huang-Kai Kao, Yenlin Huang, Kai-Ping Chang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prognosis of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma remains a challenge for clinicians despite progress in its diagnosis and treatment over the past decades. In this review, we assessed clinicopathological factors and potential biomarkers along with their prognostic relevance in an attempt to develop optimal treatment strategies for these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to several pathologic factors that have been proposed to improve prognostic stratification and treatment planning in the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee staging manual on cancer, we reviewed some other imaging and clinicopathological parameters demonstrated to be closely associated with patient prognosis, along with the biomarkers related to novel target or immune therapy...
August 10, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798963/computational-challenges-and-collaborative-projects-in-the-nci-quantitative-imaging-network
#11
Keyvan Farahani, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Thomas L Chenevert, Daniel L Rubin, John J Sunderland, Robert J Nordstrom, John Buatti, Nola Hylton
The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducts research in development and validation of imaging tools and methods for predicting and evaluating clinical response to cancer therapy. Members of the network are involved in examining various imaging and image assessment parameters through network-wide cooperative projects. To more effectively use the cooperative power of the network in conducting computational challenges in benchmarking of tools and methods and collaborative projects in analytical assessment of imaging technologies, the QIN Challenge Task Force has developed policies and procedures to enhance the value of these activities by developing guidelines and leveraging NCI resources to help their administration and manage dissemination of results...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797587/subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-characteristics-and-the-risk-of-biochemical-recurrence-in-men-with-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#12
Andrew M McDonald, John B Fiveash, Robert S Kirkland, Rex A Cardan, Rojymon Jacob, Robert Y Kim, Michael C Dobelbower, Eddy S Yang
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To assess subcutaneous adipose tissue characteristics by computed tomography (CT) as potential imaging biomarkers predictive of biochemical recurrence in men with high-risk prostate cancer receiving radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included men with high-risk prostate cancer (PSA>20ng/ml, Gleason score ≥8, or clinical extraprostatic extension) treated between 2001 and 2012. All patients received definitive, dose-escalated external beam RT along with a course of neoadjuvant, concurrent, and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)...
August 7, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797063/ct-texture-analysis-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-a-potential-imaging-biomarker-for-treatment-response-and-prognosis
#13
Choong Guen Chee, Young Hoon Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee, Yoon Jin Lee, Ji Hoon Park, Hye Seung Lee, Soyeon Ahn, Bohyoung Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of computed tomography (CT) texture features of locally advanced rectal cancer with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) response and disease-free survival (DFS). METHODS AND FINDINGS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 95 patients who received neoadjuvant CRT, followed by surgery, for locally advanced rectal cancer were included. Texture features (entropy, uniformity, kurtosis, skewness, and standard deviation) were assessed in pretreatment CT images and obtained without filtration and with Laplacian of Gaussian spatial filter of various filter values (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795252/ipet-study-an-flt-pet-window-study-to-assess-the-activity-of-the-steroid-sulfatase-inhibitor-irosustat-in-early-breast-cancer
#14
Carlo Palmieri, Richard Szydlo, Marie Miller, Laura Barker, Neva H Patel, Hironobu Sasano, Tara Barwick, Henry Tam, Dimitri Hadjiminas, Jasmin Lee, Abeer Shaaban, Hanna Nicholas, R Charles Coombes, Laura M Kenny
BACKGROUND: Steroid sulfatase (STS) is involved in oestrogen biosynthesis and irosustat is a first generation, irreversible steroid sulfatase inhibitor. A pre-surgical window-of-opportunity study with irosustat was undertaken in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer to assess the effect of irosustat on tumour cell proliferation as measured by 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F] fluorothymidine uptake measured by PET scanning (FLT-PET) and Ki67. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with untreated ER+ early breast cancer were recruited, and imaged with FLT-PET at baseline and after at least 2 weeks treatment with irosustat, 40 mg once daily orally...
August 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794990/photoacoustic-based-so2-estimation-through-excised-bovine-prostate-tissue-with-interstitial-light-delivery
#15
Trevor Mitcham, Houra Taghavi, James Long, Cayla Wood, David Fuentes, Wolfgang Stefan, John Ward, Richard Bouchard
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is capable of probing blood oxygen saturation (sO2), which has been shown to correlate with tissue hypoxia, a promising cancer biomarker. However, wavelength-dependent local fluence changes can compromise sO2 estimation accuracy in tissue. This work investigates using PA imaging with interstitial irradiation and local fluence correction to assess precision and accuracy of sO2 estimation of blood samples through ex vivo bovine prostate tissue ranging from 14% to 100% sO2. Study results for bovine blood samples at distances up to 20 mm from the irradiation source show that local fluence correction improved average sO2 estimation error from 16...
September 2017: Photoacoustics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794628/a-synthetic-urinary-probe-coated-nanoparticles-sensitive-to-fibroblast-activation-protein-%C3%AE-for-solid-tumor-diagnosis
#16
Xinwei Feng, Qifan Wang, Yuehua Liao, Xie Zhou, Yidan Wang, Wanli Liu, Ge Zhang
We developed fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα)-sensitive magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) by conjugating a substrate-reporter tandem peptide as a synthetic biomarker to the surface of MNPs (marker-MNPs). In vitro, the marker-MNPs showed stability when treated with serum or urine and exhibited high susceptibility and specificity for FAPα enzyme and 3T3/FAPα cell line. Furthermore, the marker-MNPs were administered to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft tumor mice; they reached the tumor tissues in the mice, where they were cleaved effectively by the local overexpressed FAPα to release the reporter peptide and filter it into the urine...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792880/analysis-of-plasma-epstein-barr-virus-dna-to-screen-for-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#17
K C Allen Chan, John K S Woo, Ann King, Benny C Y Zee, W K Jacky Lam, Stephen L Chan, Sam W I Chu, Constance Mak, Irene O L Tse, Samantha Y M Leung, Gloria Chan, Edwin P Hui, Brigette B Y Ma, Rossa W K Chiu, Sing-Fai Leung, Andrew C van Hasselt, Anthony T C Chan, Y M Dennis Lo
BACKGROUND: Circulating cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is a biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We conducted a prospective study to investigate whether EBV DNA in plasma samples would be useful to screen for early nasopharyngeal carcinoma in asymptomatic persons. METHODS: We analyzed EBV DNA in plasma specimens to screen participants who did not have symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Participants with initially positive results were retested approximately 4 weeks later, and those with persistently positive EBV DNA in plasma underwent nasal endoscopic examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
August 10, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790354/early-skeletal-muscle-loss-during-target-therapy-is-a-prognostic-biomarker-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#18
Weijie Gu, Junlong Wu, Xiaohang Liu, Hailiang Zhang, Guohai Shi, Yao Zhu, Dingwei Ye
Skeletal muscle depletion is common in patients with advanced cancer and may be associated with a poor outcome. To investigate whether the changes in skeletal muscle in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients receiving targeted therapy are associated with clinical outcome, we undertook an observational cohort study using data from a number of randomized clinical trials previously conducted at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The muscle mass was evaluated by comparing computed tomography images obtained at baseline with those obtained after 3-4 months of treatment...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790159/functional-imaging-and-circulating-biomarkers-of-response-to-regorafenib-in-treatment-refractory-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-in-a-prospective-phase-ii-study
#19
Khurum Khan, Mihaela Rata, David Cunningham, Dow-Mu Koh, Nina Tunariu, Jens C Hahne, George Vlachogiannis, Somaieh Hedayat, Silvia Marchetti, Andrea Lampis, Mahnaz Darvish Damavandi, Hazel Lote, Isma Rana, Anja Williams, Suzanne A Eccles, Elisa Fontana, David Collins, Zakaria Eltahir, Sheela Rao, David Watkins, Naureen Starling, Jan Thomas, Eleftheria Kalaitzaki, Nicos Fotiadis, Ruwaida Begum, Maria Bali, Massimo Rugge, Eleanor Temple, Matteo Fassan, Ian Chau, Chiara Braconi, Nicola Valeri
OBJECTIVE: Regorafenib demonstrated efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Lack of predictive biomarkers, potential toxicities and cost-effectiveness concerns highlight the unmet need for better patient selection. DESIGN: Patients with RAS mutant mCRC with biopsiable metastases were enrolled in this phase II trial. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was acquired pretreatment and at day 15 post-treatment. Median values of volume transfer constant (K(trans)), enhancing fraction (EF) and their product KEF (summarised median values of K(trans)× EF) were generated...
August 8, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783425/choosing-wisely-in-oncology-are-we-ready-for-value-based-care
#20
Gabrielle Rocque, Douglas W Blayney, Mohammad Jahanzeb, August Knape, Merry Jennifer Markham, Trang Pham, Jeremy Shelton, Preeti Sudheendra, Tracey Evans
INTRODUCTION: In 2012, ASCO created the Top Five Choosing Wisely (CW) list of low-value tests and procedures for which there is little evidence of benefit. ASCO's Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, an oncologist-led practice-based quality assessment program, includes measures on the basis of these recommendations. METHODS: CW test measures from spring and fall 2013, spring 2014, and spring 2015 were evaluated for concordance rates, change in the concordance over time, and variability by practice characteristics...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
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