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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340469/characterization-and-expression-patterns-of-key-c4-photosynthetic-pathway-genes-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-under-field-conditions
#1
Daoura Goudia Bachir, Iqbal Saeed, Quanhao Song, Tay Zar Linn, Liang Chen, Yin-Gang Hu
Wheat is a C3 plant with relatively low photosynthetic efficiency and is a potential target for C4 photosynthetic pathway engineering. Here we reported the characterization of four key C4 pathway genes and assessed their expression patterns and enzymatic activities at three growth stages in flag leaves of 59 bread wheat genotypes. The C4-like genes homologous to PEPC, NADP-ME, MDH, and PPDK in maize were identified in the A, B, and D sub-genomes of bread wheat, located on the long arms of chromosomes 3 and 5 (TaPEPC), short arms of chromosomes 1 and 3 (TaNADP-ME), long arms of chromosomes 1 and 7 (TaMDH), and long arms of chromosome 1 (TaPPDK), respectively...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340458/toxic-effects-of-environmental-pollutants-comparative-investigation-using-allium-cepa-l-and-lactuca-sativa-l
#2
Graciele Lurdes Silveira, Maria Gabriela Franco Lima, Gabriela Barreto Dos Reis, Marcel José Palmieri, Larissa Fonseca Andrade-Vieria
Studies that help understand the mechanisms of action of environmental pollutants are extremely important in environmental toxicology. In this context, assays using plants as models stand out for their simplicity and low performance cost. Among the plants used for this purpose, Allium cepa L. is the model most commonly applied for cytogenotoxic tests, while Lactuca sativa L., already widely used in phytotoxic investigations, has been gaining prominence in cytotoxic analyses. The present study aimed to compare the responses of A...
March 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340454/pea-cultivar-and-wheat-residues-affect-carbon-nitrogen-dynamics-in-pea-triticale-intercropping-a-microcosms-approach
#3
Antonella Scalise, Valentini A Pappa, Antonio Gelsomino, Robert M Rees
The underlying mechanisms by which legume cultivars contribute to nitrous oxide (N2O) generation are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of two pea cultivars (Zero4 and Nitouche) intercropped with triticale, with or without wheat (Triticum aestivum) residues incorporation, on soil C and N dynamics, on bacterial community structure and their links with N2O emissions. Monocrops and bare soil (no plant) treatments were used as an additional control in order to account for the level of mineralisation between treatments...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340453/long-term-nitrogen-deposition-increases-heathland-carbon-sequestration
#4
Chris D Field, Chris D Evans, Nancy B Dise, Jane R Hall, Simon J M Caporn
The large increases in reactive nitrogen (N) deposition in developed countries since the Industrial Revolution have had a marked impact on ecosystem functioning, including declining species richness, shifts in species composition, and increased N leaching. A potential mitigation of these harmful effects is the action of N as a fertiliser, which, through increasing primary productivity (and subsequently, organic matter production), has the potential to increase ecosystem carbon (C) storage. Here we report the response of an upland heath to 10years of experimental N addition...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340427/identification-and-characterization-of-a-%C3%AE-defensin-gene-involved-in-the-immune-defense-response-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#5
Jieyao Zhu, Hong Wang, Jun Wang, Xingli Wang, Shuang Peng, Yi Geng, Kaiyu Wang, Pin Ouyang, Zhiqiong Li, Xiaoli Huang, Defang Chen
Antimicrobial peptides are small peptides that play important roles in a host's innate immune response. As an important antimicrobial peptide, β-defensin widely distribute in mammals, insects and plants with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, the β-defensin gene of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was cloned, sequenced, and subjected to a bioinformatic analysis. The β-defensin gene of the channel catfish contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a precursor peptide consisting of two domains: a signal peptide of 24 amino acid residues and a mature peptide of 43 amino acid residues...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340420/extended-anaerobic-conditions-in-the-biological-wastewater-treatment-higher-reduction-of-toxicity-compared-to-target-organic-micropollutants
#6
Johannes Völker, Tobias Vogt, Sandro Castronovo, Arne Wick, Thomas A Ternes, Adriano Joss, Jörg Oehlmann, Martin Wagner
Extended anaerobic conditions during biological wastewater treatment may enhance the biodegradation of micropollutants. To explore this, we combined iron-reducing or substrate-limited anaerobic conditions and aerobic pilot-scale reactors directly at a wastewater treatment plant. To investigate the detoxification by these processes, we applied two in vitro bioassays for baseline toxicity (Microtox) and reactive toxicity (AREc32) as well as in vivo bioassays with aquatic model species in two laboratory experiments (Desmodesmus subspicatus, Daphnia magna) and two on-site, flow-through experiments (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Lumbriculus variegatus)...
March 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340419/photolytic-degradation-of-the-%C3%AE-blocker-nebivolol-in-aqueous-solution
#7
Alaa Salma, Holger V Lutze, Torsten C Schmidt, Jochen Tuerk
Nebivolol (NEB) is one of the top-sold prescription drugs belonging to the third generation of beta-blockers. However, so far, occurrence data in the environment are lacking. Within this study NEB has been found for the first time in effluent samples of wastewater treatment plants in Germany with an average concentration of 13 ng L(-1). Its photodegradation behavior in the environment and in technical processes is largely unknown. To fill this gap, three different UV treatment procedures (UV-C at 254 nm, UV-B at 312 nm and UV-A at 365 nm) were investigated in three different matrices: pure water, pure water in presence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger tert...
March 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340387/an-exploration-of-the-effect-and-interaction-mechanism-of-bisphenol-a-on-waste-sludge-hydrolysis-with-multi-spectra-isothermal-titration-microcalorimetry-and-molecule-docking
#8
Guangying Hou, Rui Zhang, Xiaoyan Hao, Chunguang Liu
An increasing amount of bisphenol A (BPA) is being produced and used, then discharged into sewage treatment plants and accumulated in sludge or soil, when the sludge is used as fertilizer. Accumulation of BPA in sludge or soil causes poisoning to the enzyme, which affects the biological treatment of sludge and the circulation and conversion of materials in soil. In this research, effect of BPA on sludge hydrolysis is studied from the respect of concentration and components of soluble organic matter in sludge, using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340366/effect-of-ezetimibe-on-low-and-high-density-lipoprotein-subclasses-in-sitosterolemia
#9
Rgia A Othman, Semone B Myrie, David Mymin, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, Robert D Steiner, Peter J H Jones
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sitosterolemia displays high plasma total sterols [high plant sterols (PS) + normal to high total cholesterol (TC)] with normal to moderately elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. High LDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and increased non-HDL and the ratios of TC and triglycerides (TG) to HDL can increase the risk for atherosclerosis. Ezetimibe (EZE) can reduce plasma PS and TC levels in sitosterolemia, but its effect on lipoprotein subclasses has not been previously reported...
March 10, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340328/the-role-of-auxin-response-factors-in-the-development-and-differential-growth-of-inflorescence-stems
#10
Nicholas S Carey, Naden T Krogan
Plants react to environmental cues by altering their growth and development, which can include organ tropic responses. These differential growth responses are triggered by the hormone auxin, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) have been implicated in numerous organ tropisms in Arabidopsis thaliana. Surprisingly, despite being critical for light capture and overall plant morphology, inflorescence stem tropic responses remain relatively understudied, with presumed direct links to ARF function yet to be established...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340327/polymorphic-responses-of-medicago-truncatula-accessions-to-potassium-deprivation
#11
Kevin Garcia, Jean-Michel Ané
Potassium (K(+)) is an essential macronutrient for plants and the most abundant cation in cells. Due to variable K(+) availability in the environment, plants must be able to adjust their developmental, physiological and transcriptional responses. The plant development to K(+) deprivation was not well studied in legumes thus far. We recently described the first adaptation mechanisms of the model legume Medicago truncatula Jemalong A17 to long-term K(+) deprivation and analyzed these responses in the context of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340324/vps36-mediated-plasma-membrane-protein-turnover-is-critical-for-arabidopsis-root-gravitropism
#12
Ya-Wen Hsu, Guang-Yuh Jauh
The gravitropic response is an evolutionary adaptation for plants to cope with the altered gravitational field. It involves reestablishing the distribution of the phytohormone auxin by differential degradation of auxin influx and efflux carriers. This process includes the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to recognize ubiquitinated proteins and deliver them to vacuoles for degradation, as evidenced by vps36-1 mutants. Here, we generated RNAi knockdown plants of Vacuolar Protein Sorting 36 (VPS36) that could survive to adulthood...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340301/ten-years-of-barcoding-at-the-african-centre-for-dna-barcoding
#13
Simeon Bezeng Bezeng, T Jonathan Davies, Barnabas H Daru, Ronny Mukala Kabongo, Olivier Maurin, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Herman van der Bank, Michelle Van der Bank
The African Centre for DNA Barcoding (ACDB) was established in 2005 as part of a global initiative to accurately and rapidly survey biodiversity using short DNA sequences. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (CO1) was rapidly adopted as the de facto barcode for animals. Following the evaluation of several candidate loci for plants, the Plant Working Group of the Consortium for the Barcoding of Life in 2009 recommended that the two plastid genes, rbcLa and matK, be adopted as core DNA barcodes for terrestrial plants...
March 24, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340278/path-analysis-and-canonical-correlations-for-indirect-selection-of-jatropha-genotypes-with-higher-oil-yield
#14
L A Silva, L A Peixoto, P E Teodoro, E V Rodrigues, B G Laviola, L L Bhering
Jatropha is a species with great potential for biodiesel production, and the knowledge on how the main agronomic traits are correlated will contribute to its improvement. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters of the traits: plant height at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection on the row at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection between the row at 12 and 40 months, number of branches at 40 months, grain yield, and oil yield; to verify the existence of phenotypic correlation between these traits; to verify the influence of the morphological traits on oil yield by means of path analysis; and to evaluate the relationship between the productive traits in Jatropha and the morphological traits measured at different ages...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340276/multivariate-diallel-analysis-allows-multiple-gains-in-segregating-populations-for-agronomic-traits-in-jatropha
#15
P E Teodoro, E V Rodrigues, L A Peixoto, L A Silva, B G Laviola, L L Bhering
Jatropha is research target worldwide aimed at large-scale oil production for biodiesel and bio-kerosene. Its production potential is among 1200 and 1500 kg/ha of oil after the 4th year. This study aimed to estimate combining ability of Jatropha genotypes by multivariate diallel analysis to select parents and crosses that allow gains in important agronomic traits. We performed crosses in diallel complete genetic design (3 x 3) arranged in blocks with five replications and three plants per plot. The following traits were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, canopy projection between rows, canopy projection on the line, number of branches, mass of hundred grains, and grain yield...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340270/genetic-progress-estimation-strategy-for-upright-common-bean-plants-using-recurrent-selection
#16
L A Pereira, A F B Abreu, I C Vieira Júnior, L P M Pires, M A P Ramalho
Common bean producers in Brazil tend to grow plants as upright as possible. Because the control of this trait involves a large number of genes, recurrent selection (RS) is the best approach for successful plant improvement. Because plant architecture (PA) is evaluated using scores and usually has high heritability, RS for PA is performed through visual selection in generation S0. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selection progress and investigate whether this progress varies with the number of selected progenies or the generation evaluated...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340266/rna-seq-based-transcriptome-and-the-reproduction-related-genes-for-the-aphid-schlechtendalia-chinensis-hemiptera-aphididae
#17
P Liu, Z X Yang, X M Chen, P Yang
Chinese galls form on sumac plants (Rhus chinensis) and are used for medicinal and chemical purposes, due to their richness in tannins. The galls are formed by aphids, the most prominent of which is Schlechtendalia chinensis, which forms horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of R. chinensis. S. chinensis has a complex life cycle, including both R. chinensis and certain mosses as hosts, as well as the existence of both sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). Previous studies have shown that the alternate occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction relies on many environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, and host-plant...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340173/f-box-protein-fbx92-affects-leaf-size-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Joke Baute, Stefanie Polyn, Jolien De Block, Jonas Blomme, Mieke Van Lijsebettens, Dirk Inzé
F-box proteins are part of one of the largest families of regulatory proteins that play important roles in protein degradation. In plants, F-box proteins are functionally very diverse, and only a small subset has been characterized in detail. Here, we identified a novel F-box protein FBX92 as a repressor of leaf growth in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of AtFBX92 resulted in plants with smaller leaves than wild type, whereas plants with reduced levels of AtFBX92 showed in contrast increased leaf growth by stimulating cell proliferation...
March 14, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340155/identification-of-jasmonic-acid-and-jasmonoyl-isoleucine-and-characterization-of-aos-aoc-opr-and-jar1-in-the-model-lycophyte-selaginella-moellendorffii
#19
Putri Pratiwi, Genta Tanaka, Tomohiro Takahashi, Xiaonan Xie, Koichi Yoneyama, Hideyuki Matsuura, Kosaku Takahashi
Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in a variety of physiological responses in seed plants. However, the detection and role of JA in lycophytes, a group of seedless vascular plants, have remained elusive until recently. This study provides the first evidence of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the model lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Mechanical wounding stimulated the accumulation of OPDA, JA and JA-Ile. These data were corroborated by the detection of enzymatically active allene oxide synthase (AOS), allene oxide cyclase (AOC), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) and JA-Ile synthase (JAR1) in S...
March 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340089/how-embryophytic-is-the-biosynthesis-of-phenylpropanoids-and-their-derivatives-in-streptophyte-algae
#20
Jan de Vries, Sophie de Vries, Claudio H Slamovits, Laura E Rose, John M Archibald
The origin of land plants from algae is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. It is becoming increasingly clear that many characters that were once assumed to be "embryophyte-specific" can in fact be found in their closest algal relatives, the streptophyte algae. One such case is the phenylpropanoid pathway. While biochemical data indicate that streptophyte algae harbor lignin-like components, the phenylpropanoid core pathway, which serves as the backbone of lignin biosynthesis, has been proposed to have arisen at the base of the land plants...
March 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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