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Ming Zhong, Yan-Hong Wang, Lu Wang, Rui-Qing Long, Chun-Lin Chen
A novel type of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers was prepared for the selective enrichment and isolation of chelerythrine from Macleaya cordata (Willd) R. Br.. The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared using functional Fe3 O4 @SiO2 as a magnetic support, chelerythrine as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker. Density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level with Gaussian 09 software was applied to calculate the interaction energies of chelerythrine, methacrylic acid and the complexes formed from chelerythrine and methacrylic acid in different ratios...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Youjun Zhang, Alisdair R Fernie
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the canonical energy pathways of living systems, as well as being an example of a pathway in which dynamic enzyme assemblies, or metabolons, are well characterized. The role of the enzymes have been the subject of saturated transgenesis approaches, whereby the expression of the constituent enzymes were reduced or knocked out in order to ascertain their in vivo function. Some of the resultant plants exhibited improved photosynthesis and plant growth, under controlled greenhouse conditions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Mehrnoosh Sedighi, Afshin Nazari, Mahdieh Faghihi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Arash Karimi, Maryam Moghimian, Seyyed Ali Mozaffarpur, Marzieh Rashidipour, Mehrdad Namdari, Mostafa Cheraghi, Bahram Rasoulian
Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) is a plant with potent antioxidant activity and has been used in traditional medicine for improvement of heart function. The effects of cinnamon bark ethanolic extract were investigated against ischemia-induced arrhythmias and heart injury in an in vivo rat model of regional heart ischemia. The extract was also standardized, and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 5 days of reperfusion...
June 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
L R Rivkin, Spencer C H Barrett, Marc T J Johnson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The strength of plant-herbivore interactions varies in space and time, but the factors that explain this variation are poorly understood. Several lines of research suggest that variation in plant reproductive systems and latitude may explain resistance against herbivores, but how these factors jointly affect plant-herbivore interactions has not been investigated in detail. We examined the effects of latitude, sexual system, and plant gender on herbivory in Sagittaria latifolia, an aquatic plant in which populations are typically monoecious (separate female and male flowers) or dioecious (separate female and male plants)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Botany
April M Randle, Rachel B Spigler, Susan Kalisz
Coexisting plant congeners often experience strong competition for resources. Competition for pollinators can result in direct fitness costs via reduced seed set or indirect costs via heterospecific pollen transfer (HPT), causing subsequent gamete loss and unfit hybrid offspring production. Autonomous selfing may alleviate these costs, but to preempt HPT, selfing should occur early, before opportunities for HPT occur (i.e. "preemptive selfing hypothesis"). We evaluated conditions for this hypothesis in Collinsia sister species, C...
June 19, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Yufei Sun, Bin Liang, Juan Wang, Wenbin Kai, Pei Chen, Li Jiang, Yangwei Du, Ping Leng
Although the role of ethylene-response factor (ERF) Pti4 in disease resistance has been demonstrated in higher plants, it is presently unknown whether the tomato SlPti4 protein plays a role in the regulation of fruit development and the stress response. Here, we show that SlPti4 is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, seed germination, and responses to drought and Botrytis cinerea infection through adjustments to ABA metabolism and signaling. SlPti4 gene expression is very low early in fruit development, but increases rapidly during ripening and can be induced by exogenous ABA and 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC)...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yong Han, Shuya Yin, Lu Huang, Xuelong Wu, Jianbin Zeng, Xiaohui Liu, Long Qiu, Rana Munns, Zhong-Hua Chen, Guoping Zhang
Our previous studies showed that high salt tolerance in Tibetan wild barley accessions was associated with HvHKT1;1, a member of high-affinity potassium transporter family. However, molecular mechanisms of HvHKT1;1 for salt tolerance and its roles in K+/Na+ homeostasis remain to be elucidated. Functional characterization of HvHKT1;1 was conducted in the present study. NaCl-induced transcripts of HvHKT1;1 were significantly higher in the roots of Tibetan wild barley XZ16 relative to other genotypes, being closely associated with its higher biomass and lower tissue Na+ content under salt stress...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xiaoqing Liu, Suzhen Li, Wenzhu Yang, Bona Mu, Yong Jiao, Xiaojin Zhou, Chunyi Zhang, Yunliu Fan, Rumei Chen
Tissue-specific promoters play an important role in plant molecular farming. Here, we describe a strategy to modify the tissue specificity of a maize embryo-specific bidirectional promoter PZmBD1. Six types of cis elements: RY repeats (R), GCN4 (G), the prolamin box (P), Skn-1 (S), and the ACGT and AACA (A) motifs, were collected and fused to PZmBD1 to generate eight chimeric putative bidirectional promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of reporter genes driven by the promoters showed that two promoters exhibited high seed-specific bidirectional activity in maize transient and stable transformed system...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Zhi-Jun Shen, Juan Chen, Kabir Ghoto, Wen-Jun Hu, Gui-Feng Gao, Mei-Rong Luo, Zan Li, Martin Simon, Xue-Yi Zhu, Hai-Lei Zheng
Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is one of the most salt-tolerant mangrove species. Our previous study revealed that nitric oxide (NO) enhanced the salt tolerance of A. marina by promoting salt secretion and Na+ sequestration under salt stress. However, little is known about the regulation of NO on proteomic profiling for this mangrove species. In this study, we used sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, to investigate the regulatory mechanism of NO on salt tolerance of A. marina according to physiological and proteomic aspects...
June 15, 2018: Tree Physiology
Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho, Caitlin Adair Peterson, Pedro Arthur de Albuquerque Nunes, Amanda Posselt Martins, William de Souzsa Filho, Vanessa Thoma Bertolazi, Taíse Robinson Kunrath, Aníbal de Moraes, Ibanor Anghinoni
Sustainable intensification of land-use practices has never been more important to ensure food security for a growing world population. When combined under thoughtful management, cover cropping and crop-livestock integration under no-till systems can benefit from unexpected synergies due to their unique features of plant-animal diversification and complex agroecosystem functions. Mimicking the nutrient coupling/decoupling processes of natural ecosystems by diversifying plant and animal components of no-till integrated crop-livestock operations is an essential feature of the design of agroecological systems that support self-regulating feedbacks and lend resilience while increasing productivity and ecosystem service provision...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Carlos A Manacorda, Sebastian Asurmendi
Background: Recently, much technical progress was achieved in the field of plant phenotyping. High-throughput platforms and the development of improved algorithms for rosette image segmentation make it now possible to extract shape and size parameters for genetic, physiological and environmental studies on a large scale. The development of low-cost phenotyping platforms and freeware resources make it possible to widely expand phenotypic analysis tools for Arabidopsis. However, objective descriptors of shape parameters that could be used independently of platform and segmentation software used are still lacking and shape descriptions still rely on ad hoc or even sometimes contradictory descriptors, which could make comparisons difficult and perhaps inaccurate...
June 18, 2018: GigaScience
Fei Gao, Xue Wang, Xuming Li, Mingyue Xu, Huayun Li, Merhaba Abla, Huigai Sun, Shanjun Wei, Jinchao Feng, Yijun Zhou
Background: Ammopiptanthus nanus is a rare broad-leaved shrub in the desert and arid regions of Central Asia. This plant species exhibits extremely high tolerance to drought and freezing and has been used in abiotic tolerance research in plants. As a relic of the Tertiary period, A. nanus is of great significance to plant biogeographic research in the ancient Mediterranean region. Here we report a draft genome assembly using the PacBio platform and gene annotation for A. nanus. Findings: A total of 64...
June 18, 2018: GigaScience
Krzysztof A Zacharski, Mark Southern, Alan Ryan, Catherine C Adley
Microbiological hazards can occur when foodstuffs come into contact with contaminated surfaces or infectious agents dispersed by air currents in the manufacturing environment. An environmental monitoring program (EMP) is a critical aspect of sustainable and safe food manufacturing used to evaluate the effectiveness of the microbial controls in place. An effective EMP should be based on risk analysis, taking into account previous sampling history to determine the selection of the sampling points, the scope of the test, and the frequency of analysis...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Xinlong Dai, Guifu Zhao, Tianming Jiao, Yingling Wu, Xinmin Li, Kan Zhou, Liping Gao, Tao Xia
UDP-rhamnose synthase (RHM), the branch-point enzyme controlling the nucleotide sugar interconversion pathway, converts UDP-D-glucose into UDP-rhamnose. As a rhamnose residue donor, UDP-L-rhamnose is essential for the biosynthesis of pectic polysaccharides and secondary metabolites in plants. In this study, three CsRHM genes from tea plants (Camellia sinensis) were cloned and characterized. Enzyme assays showed that three recombinant proteins displayed RHM activity and were involved in the biosynthesis of UDP-rhamnose in vitro...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Beibei Chen, Jinhui Chen, Qingzhang Du, Daling Zhou, Longxin Wang, Jianbo Xie, Ying Li, Deqiang Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as key regulators of complex traits, but how genetic alterations in miRNA biogenesis genes (miRBGs) affect quantitative variation has not been elucidated. We conducted transcript analyses and association genetics to investigate how miRBGs, miRNA genes (MIRNAs) and their respective targets contribute to secondary growth in a natural population of 435 Populus tomentosa individuals. This analysis identified 29 843 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; frequency > 0.10) within 682 genes (80 miRBGs, 152 MIRNAs, and 457 miRNA targets)...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Bilal Ökmen, Bastian Kemmerich, Daniel Hilbig, Raphael Wemhöner, Jörn Aschenbroich, Andreas Perrar, Pitter F Huesgen, Kerstin Schipper, Gunther Doehlemann
Fungalysins from several phytopathogenic fungi have been shown to be involved in cleavage of plant chitinases. While fungal chitinases are responsible for cell wall remodeling during growth and morphogenesis, plant chitinases are important components of immunity. This study describes a dual function of the Ustilago maydis fungalysin UmFly1 in modulation of both plant and fungal chitinases. Genetic, biochemical and microscopic experiments were performed to elucidate the in vitro and in planta functions of U...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Yao Bian, Chunwu Yang, Xiufang Ou, Zhibin Zhang, Bin Wang, Weiwei Ma, Lei Gong, Huakun Zhang, Bao Liu
Polyploidy is a prominent route to speciation in plants; however, this entails resolving the challenges of meiotic instability facing abrupt doubling of chromosome complement. This issue remains poorly understood. We subjected progenies of a synthetic hexaploid wheat, analogous to natural common wheat, but exhibiting extensive meiotic chromosome instability, to heat or salt stress. We selected stress-tolerant cohorts and generated their progenies under normal condition. We conducted fluorescent in situ hybridization/genomic in situ hybridization-based meiotic/mitotic analysis, RNA-Seq and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-mediated assay of meiosis candidate genes...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Vadim Demidchik, Sergey Shabala, Stanislav Isayenkov, Tracey A Cuin, Igor Pottosin
Contents I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: Calcium is an essential structural, metabolic and signalling element. The physiological functions of Ca2+ are enabled by its orchestrated transport across cell membranes, mediated by Ca2+ -permeable ion channels, Ca2+ -ATPases and Ca2+ /H+ exchangers. Bioinformatics analysis has not determined any Ca2+ -selective filters in plant ion channels, but electrophysiological tests do reveal Ca2+ conductances in plant membranes. The biophysical characteristics of plant Ca2+ conductances have been studied in detail and were recently complemented by molecular genetic approaches...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Margaret R Baker, Travers Ching, David L Tabb, Qing X Li
plantGlycoMS is a set of tools, implemented in R, which is used to assess and validate glycopeptide spectrum matches (gPSMs). Validity of gPSMs is based on characteristic fragmentation patterns of glycopeptides (gPSMvalidator), adherence of the glycan moiety to the known N-glycan biosynthesis pathway in plants (pGlycoFilter), and elution of the glycopeptide within the observed retention time window of other glycopeptides sharing the same peptide backbone (rt.Restrict). plantGlycoMS also contains a tool for relative quantitation of glycoforms based on selected ion chromatograms of glycopeptide ion precursors in the mass spectrometry level 1 data (glycoRQ)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alessandro Occhialini
The bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) is a fluorescent complementation method largely used to investigate protein-protein interaction in living cells. This method is based on the ability of two nonfluorescent fragments to assemble forming a native fluorescent reporter with the same spectral properties of the native reporter. Such fragments are fused to putative protein partners that in case of interaction will bring the two halves in close proximity, allowing for the reconstitution of an active fluorescent reporter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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