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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633955/the-microbiome-and-transfusion-in-cancer-patients
#1
REVIEW
Hadi Goubran, Jerard Seghatchian, Julia Radosevic, Gaafar Ragab, Thierry Burnouf
Our microbiota is determined by many variables including ABO blood groups. The microbiota is not only confined to the gut and skin but is also recoverable from blood of healthy donors. The microbiota shape our immune system through cross reactivity with antigens, the expression of direct molecular patterns, the release of cytokines, the effects on nutrients and micronutrients and even through an interplay with epigenetics. It is likely, therefore, that a donor's microbiota could alter the antigenicity of blood and its components and potentially contribute to transfusion-related immune modulation [TRIM]...
June 3, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630433/gut-microbiota-of-liver-transplantation-recipients
#2
Li-Ying Sun, Yun-Sheng Yang, Wei Qu, Zhi-Jun Zhu, Lin Wei, Zhi-Sheng Ye, Jian-Rui Zhang, Xiao-Ye Sun, Zhi-Gui Zeng
The characteristics of intestinal microbial communities may be affected by changes in the pathophysiology of patients with end-stage liver disease. Here, we focused on the characteristics of intestinal fecal microbial communities in post-liver transplantation (LT) patients in comparison with those in the same individuals pre-LT and in healthy individuals. The fecal microbial communities were analyzed via MiSeq-PE250 sequencing of the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA and were then compared between groups. We found that the gut microbiota of patients with severe liver disease who were awaiting LT was significantly different from that of healthy controls, as represented by the first principal component (p = 0...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626097/-visceral-sensitivity-gut-barrier-function-and-autonomic-nerve-function-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#3
Xiaojuan Xu, Liang Liu, Shukun Yao, Yanli Zhang
To evaluate visceral sensitivity, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore their roles in IBS-D pathophysiology.
 Methods: A total of 46 IBS-D patients (IBS-D group) were selected from the Department of Gastroenterology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from October 2015 to March 2016, and 20 healthy volunteer were served as a control group (HC group). Clinical and psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaire, and visceral sensitivity to rectal balloon distention, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) were examined...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624575/intestinal-fungal-dysbiosis-associates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-rats
#4
Sara Botschuijver, Guus Roeselers, Evgeni Levin, Daisy M Jonkers, Olaf Welting, Sigrid Em Heinsbroek, Heleen H de Weerd, Teun Boekhout, Matteo Fornai, Ad A Masclee, Frank H J Schuren, Wouter J de Jonge, Jurgen Seppen, Rene M van den Wijngaard
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Visceral hypersensitivity is one feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Bacterial dysbiosis might be involved in activation of nociceptive sensory pathways, but there have been few studies of the role of the mycobiome (the fungal microbiome) in development of IBS. We analyzed intestinal mycobiomes of patients with IBS and a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity. METHODS: We used internal transcribed spacer 1-based metabarcoding to compare fecal mycobiomes of 18 healthy volunteers with those of 39 patients with IBS (with visceral hypersensitivity or normal levels of sensitivity)...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622510/microbial-genetic-composition-tunes-host-longevity
#5
Bing Han, Priya Sivaramakrishnan, Chih-Chun J Lin, Isaiah A A Neve, Jingquan He, Li Wei Rachel Tay, Jessica N Sowa, Antons Sizovs, Guangwei Du, Jin Wang, Christophe Herman, Meng C Wang
Homeostasis of the gut microbiota critically influences host health and aging. Developing genetically engineered probiotics holds great promise as a new therapeutic paradigm to promote healthy aging. Here, through screening 3,983 Escherichia coli mutants, we discovered that 29 bacterial genes, when deleted, increase longevity in the host Caenorhabditis elegans. A dozen of these bacterial mutants also protect the host from age-related progression of tumor growth and amyloid-beta accumulation. Mechanistically, we discovered that five bacterial mutants promote longevity through increased secretion of the polysaccharide colanic acid (CA), which regulates mitochondrial dynamics and unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) in the host...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#6
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621109/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-gb-lp1-isolated-from-traditional-korean-fermented-food
#7
Jihyun Yu, Sojin Ahn, Kwondo Kim, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Chanho Lee, Jungsun Kang, Kyungjin Cho, SookHee Yoon, Dae-Kyung Kang, Heebal Kim
As probiotics play an important role in maintaining a healthy gut flora environment through antitoxin activity and inhibition of pathogen colonization, they have been of interest to the medical research community for quite some time now. Probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, which can be found in fermented food, are of particular interest given their easy accessibility. We performed whole genome sequencing and genomic analysis on a GB-LP1 strain of L. plantarum isolated from Korean traditional fermented food; this strain is well known for its functions in immune response, suppression of pathogen growth and anti-toxin effects...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620481/tolerability-and-safety-of-the-intake-of-bovine-milk-oligosaccharides-extracted-from-cheese-whey-in-healthy-human-adults
#8
Jennifer T Smilowitz, Danielle G Lemay, Karen M Kalanetra, Elizabeth L Chin, Angela M Zivkovic, Melissa A Breck, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Carolyn Slupsky, Daniela Barile
Mechanistic research suggests a unique evolutionary relationship between complex milk oligosaccharides and cognate bifidobacteria enriched in breast-fed infants. Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) were recently identified as structurally and functionally similar to human milk oligosaccharides. The present single-blind three-way crossover study is the first to determine the safety and tolerability of BMO consumption by healthy human participants (n 12) and its effects on faecal microbiota and microbial metabolism...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618278/interindividual-variability-of-soil-arsenic-metabolism-by-human-gut-microbiota-using-shime-model
#9
Naiyi Yin, Huili Du, Pengfei Wang, Xiaolin Cai, Peng Chen, Guoxin Sun, Yanshan Cui
Arsenic (As) metabolism by human gut microbiota has been evidenced with in vitro experiments from contaminated soils. In this study, the variability in the metabolic potency toward As-contaminated soils and gut microbial diversity were investigated between healthy individuals (Adult versus Child). Arsenic bioaccessibility in the colon phase increased by 1.4-6.8 and 1.2-8.7 folds for adult and child, respectively. We found a high degree of As methylation for the colon digests of the adult (mean 2 μg methylarsenicals/hr/g biomass), 3-folds higher than that of the child...
June 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#10
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614379/microbiome-restoration-diet-improves-digestion-cognition-and-physical-and-emotional-wellbeing
#11
Kate Lawrence, Jeannette Hyde
Manipulating gut bacteria in the microbiome, through the use of probiotics and prebiotics, has been found to have an influence on both physical and emotional wellbeing. This study uses a dietary manipulation 'The Gut Makeover' designed to elicit positive changes to the gut bacteria within the microbiome. 21 healthy participants undertook 'The Gut Makeover' for a four week period. Weight and various aspects of health were assessed pre and post intervention using the Functional Medicine Medical Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613228/rna-seq-reveals-transcriptomic-differences-in-inflamed-and-noninflamed-intestinal-mucosa-of-crohn-s-disease-patients-compared-with-normal-mucosa-of-healthy-controls
#12
Sung Noh Hong, Je-Gun Joung, Joon Seol Bae, Chan Soo Lee, Ja Seol Koo, Soo Jung Park, Jong Pil Im, You Sun Kim, Ji Won Kim, Woong Yang Park, Young-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Aberrant gene expression in the gut mucosa might contribute to the initiation and progression of Crohn's disease (CD). RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides precise measurements of expression levels of transcripts and their isoforms. The aim of this study was to use RNA-seq to investigate transcriptomic differences and identify significantly differentially expressed transcripts in inflamed and noninflamed intestinal mucosa of CD patients. METHODS: RNA-seq was performed on 13 pairs of inflamed and noninflamed intestinal mucosa from 13 CD patients and on sex-matched normal mucosa of 13 healthy controls...
July 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611755/efficacy-of-phage-therapy-in-controlling-rabbit-colibacillosis-and-changes-in-cecal-microbiota
#13
Jian Zhao, Yan Liu, Chenwen Xiao, Shaojie He, Huochun Yao, Guolian Bao
Phage therapy is a valid weapon that we could use to fight against pathogens. Bacteriophages kill bacteria and self-proliferate in the digestive tract. Furthermore, it was assumed that phage therapy could preserve the existing gut microbiota. In this study, 45 rabbits were equally divided into three groups after they were orally inoculated with pathogenic Escherichia coli to induce gut infection. Each group was treated with bacteriophage ZRP1 (Group P), ciprofloxacin lactate (Group A), or phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (Group N)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611517/urinary-metabolic-insights-into-host-gut-microbial-interactions-in-healthy-and-ibd-children
#14
Francois-Pierre Martin, Ming-Ming Su, Guo-Xiang Xie, Seu Ping Guiraud, Martin Kussmann, Jean-Philippe Godin, Wei Jia, Andreas Nydegger
AIM: To identify metabolic signatures in urine samples from healthy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) children. METHODS: We applied liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling to identify and quantify bile acids and host-gut microbial metabolites in urine samples collected from 21 pediatric IBD patients monitored three times over one year (baseline, 6 and 12 mo), and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy children...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609251/intestinal-microbiota-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Alexa R Weingarden, Byron P Vaughn
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex set of diseases that lead to chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is well-known that the intestinal microbiota is associated with the development and maintenance of IBD. Manipulation of the gut microbiota, therefore, may represent a target for IBD therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), where fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted into a patient's GI tract, is already a successful therapy for Clostridium difficile infection...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607413/early-gut-microbiota-intervention-suppresses-dss-induced-inflammatory-responses-by-deactivating-tlr-nlr-signalling-in-pigs
#16
Yi Xiao, Honglin Yan, Hui Diao, Bing Yu, Jun He, Jie Yu, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Yuheng Luo, Daiwen Chen
Recent metagenomic studies suggest that innate and adaptive immune phenotypes can be programmed via gut microbiota-host interactions mediated via activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells. In this study, we used two extremely different pig lines (the Yorkshire and the Tibetan) to test the hypothesis that the transplantation of gut microbiota could transfer certain immunologic characteristics from donor to recipient. The faecal microbiota of these two pig lines was transplanted in healthy commercial hybrid newborn piglets to establish the "Tibetan-intervened" and "Yorkshire-intervened" porcine models...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606969/faecal-microbiota-study-reveals-specific-dysbiosis-in-spondyloarthritis
#17
Maxime Breban, Julien Tap, Ariane Leboime, Roula Said-Nahal, Philippe Langella, Gilles Chiocchia, Jean-Pierre Furet, Harry Sokol
OBJECTIVE: Altered microbiota composition or dysbiosis is suspected to be implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as spondyloarthritis (SpA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on faecal DNA isolated from stool samples in two consecutive cross-sectional cohorts, each comprising three groups of adult volunteers: SpA, RA and healthy controls (HCs). In the second study, HCs comprised a majority of aged-matched siblings of patients with known HLA-B27 status...
June 12, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602746/role-of-oral-and-gut-microbiome-in-nitric-oxide-mediated-colon-motility
#18
REVIEW
Miriam Y Walker, Pratap S, Janet H Southerland, C Farmer-Dixon, L Kesavalu, P Gangula
Periodontal disease (PD), a severe form of gum disease, is among the most prevalent chronic infection in humans and is associated with complex microbial synergistic dysbiosis in the subgingival cavity. The immune system of the body interacts with the microbes as the plaque extends and propagates below the gingival sulcus. Once bacteria reach the gingival sulcus, it can enter the blood stream and affect various areas of the human body. The polymicrobial nature of periodontal disease, if left untreated, promotes chronic inflammation, not only within the oral cavity, but also throughout the human body...
June 7, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597514/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-induces-inflammation-and-predicts-spinal-progression-in-ankylosing-spondylitis
#19
Vidya Ranganathan, Francesco Ciccia, Fanxing Zeng, Ismail Sari, Guiliana Guggino, Janogini Muralitharan, Eric Gracey, Nigil Haroon
OBJECTIVES: To understand the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the pathogenesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). METHODS: AS patients satisfying the modified New York criteria were recruited for the study. Healthy volunteers, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients were included as controls. Based on the annual rate of increase in mSASSS scores, AS patients were classified as progressors or non-progressors. MIF levels were quantitated by ELISA in the serum and synovial fluid...
June 8, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596023/prebiotic-reduces-body-fat-and-alters-intestinal-microbiota-in-children-with-overweight-or-obesity
#20
Alissa C Nicolucci, Megan P Hume, Inés Martínez, Shyamchand Mayengbam, Jens Walter, Raylene A Reimer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity...
June 3, 2017: Gastroenterology
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