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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096659/effects-of-multiple-dose-ponesimod-a-selective-s1p1-receptor-modulator-on-lymphocyte-subsets-in-healthy-humans
#1
Stipo Jurcevic, Pierre-Eric Juif, Colleen Hamid, Roseanna Greenlaw, Daniele D'Ambrosio, Jasper Dingemanse
This study investigated the effects of ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, on T lymphocyte subsets in 16 healthy subjects. Lymphocyte subset proportions and absolute numbers were determined at baseline and on Day 10, after once-daily administration of ponesimod (10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg each consecutively for 3 days) or placebo (ratio 3:1). The overall change from baseline in lymphocyte count was -1,292±340×10(6) cells/L and 275±486×10(6) cells/L in ponesimod- and placebo-treated subjects, respectively...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090679/effect-of-prucalopride-on-intestinal-gas-tolerance-in-patients-with-functional-bowel-disorders-and-constipation
#2
Carolina Malagelada, Adoración Nieto, Sara Mendez, Anna Accarino, Javier Santos, Juan-R Malagelada, Fernando Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Patients with functional bowel disorders develop gas retention and symptoms in response to intestinal gas loads that are well tolerated by healthy subjects. Stimulation of 5HT-4 receptors in the gut has both prokinetic and antinociceptive effects. AIM: To determine the effect of prucalopride, a highly selective 5HT-4 agonist, on gas transit and tolerance in women with functional bowel disorders complaining of constipation. METHODS: Twenty-four women with functional bowel disorders complaining of constipation were included in the study...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087531/salivary-gluten-degradation-and-oral-microbial-profiles-in-health-and-celiac-disease
#3
Na Tian, Lina Faller, Daniel A Leffler, Ciaran P Kelly, Joshua Hansen, Jos A Bosch, Guoxian Wei, Bruce J Paster, Detlef Schuppan, Eva J Helmerhorst
: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the GI tract after the colon. Moreover, saliva contains gluten-degrading enzymes produced by oral bacteria that may modify gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease (CD). AIM: To investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects vs patients with classical and refractory CD...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080210/pathogen-control-at-the-intestinal-mucosa-h2o2-to-the-rescue
#4
Ulla G Knaus, Rosanne Hertzberger, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, S Parsa M Yousefi, Filipe Branco Dos Santos
Intestinal infections are a global challenge, connected to malnutrition and inadequate hygiene in developing countries, and to expanding antibiotic resistance in developed countries. In general, a healthy host is capable of fighting off gut pathogens or at least to recover from infections quickly. The underlying protective mechanism, termed colonization resistance, is provided by indigenous commensal communities (microbiota) that are shaped and aided by the host's epithelial and innate immune system. (1) Commensal-pathogen interactions are governed by competition for a suitable niche for replication and stable colonization, nutrient availability, species-specific alterations of the metabolic environment, changes in oxygen tension and release of chemicals and proteinaceous toxins (bacteriocins)...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078750/metabolic-adaptation-of-colonic-microbiota-to-galactooligosaccharides-a-proof-of-concept-study
#5
M Mego, C Manichanh, A Accarino, D Campos, M Pozuelo, E Varela, J Vulevic, G Tzortzis, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics have been shown to reduce abdominal symptoms in patients with functional gut disorders, despite that they are fermented by colonic bacteria and may induce gas-related symptoms. AIM: To investigate changes in the metabolic activity of gut microbiota induced by a recognised prebiotic. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 20) were given a prebiotic (2.8 g/day HOST-G904, HOST Therabiomics, Jersey, Channel Islands) for 3 weeks...
January 12, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072880/characterisation-of-early-life-fecal-microbiota-in-susceptible-and-healthy-pigs-to-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#6
Samir Dou, Pascale Gadonna-Widehem, Véronique Rome, Dounia Hamoudi, Larbi Rhazi, Lyes Lakhal, Thibaut Larcher, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Arturo Pinon-Quintana, Alain Guyonvarch, Isabelle L E Huërou-Luron, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070290/cancer-brings-forward-oviposition-in-the-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Audrey Arnal, Camille Jacqueline, Beata Ujvari, Lucas Leger, Céline Moreno, Dominique Faugere, Aurélie Tasiemski, Céline Boidin-Wichlacz, Dorothée Misse, François Renaud, Jacques Montagne, Andreu Casali, Benjamin Roche, Frédéric Mery, Frédéric Thomas
Hosts often accelerate their reproductive effort in response to a parasitic infection, especially when their chances of future reproduction decrease with time from the onset of the infection. Because malignancies usually reduce survival, and hence potentially the fitness, it is expected that hosts with early cancer could have evolved to adjust their life-history traits to maximize their immediate reproductive effort. Despite the potential importance of these plastic responses, little attention has been devoted to explore how cancers influence animal reproduction...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069076/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-porridge-with-added-inulin-and-wheat-gluten-on-appetite-gut-fermentation-and-postprandial-glucose-metabolism-a-randomised-cross-over-breakfast-study
#8
Isabella Lee, Lin Shi, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Ulf Risérus, Rikard Landberg
Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin:gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068483/immunity-to-commensal-fungi-detente-and-disease
#9
Matthew L Wheeler, Jose J Limon, David M Underhill
Fungi are ubiquitous in our environment, and a healthy immune system is essential to maintain adequate protection from fungal infections. When this protection breaks down, superficial and invasive fungal infections cause diseases that range from irritating to life-threatening. Millions of people worldwide develop invasive infections during their lives, and mortality for these infections often exceeds 50%. Nevertheless, we are normally colonized with many of the same disease-causing fungi (e.g., on the skin or in the gut)...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066942/antioxidant-status-and-expression-of-inflammatory-genes-in-gut-and-liver-of-piglets-fed-different-dietary-methionine-concentrations
#10
J O Zeitz, S Kaltenböck, E Most, K Eder
This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary concentrations of methionine (Met), as a precursor of cysteine which is a constituent of glutathione (GSH), affect tissue antioxidant concentrations and the antioxidant defence system in pigs. Forty-five piglets (DanZucht × Pietrain) were allotted to three groups of similar mean body weight (11.0 ± 0.9 kg). The basal diet was composed of barley, wheat, corn starch, soybean oil, sucrose, cellulose and a mineral supplement with suboptimal concentrations of Met and was supplemented with dl-Met to reach 0...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057105/-precision-nutrition-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#11
P Z Chen, H Wang
Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050249/-congobacterium-massiliense-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-bacterium-isolated-from-the-gut-of-a-pygmy-baka-woman
#12
M Bilen, F Cadoret, Z Daoud, P E Fournier, D Raoult
We report the main characteristics of a new genus, 'Congobacterium,' and a new species, 'Congobacterium massiliense,' strain Marseille-P3295 (CSUR P3295), a new member in the order Coribacteriacea, which was isolated from a stool sample of a healthy 50-year-old pygmy (Baka) woman.
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049868/expression-of-epithelial-cell-derived-cytokine-genes-in-the-duodenal-and-colonic-mucosae-of-dogs-with-chronic-enteropathy
#13
Hironari Osada, Misato Ogawa, Ayana Hasegawa, Makoto Nagai, Junsuke Shirai, Kazuaki Sasaki, Minoru Shimoda, Hiroshi Itoh, Hirotaka Kondo, Keitaro Ohmori
It remains unclear whether epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), contribute to development of canine chronic enteropathy (CE), which includes antibiotic-responsive enteropathy (ARE), food-responsive enteropathy (FRE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we examined mRNA expression of il-25, il-33 and tslp in the duodenal and colonic mucosae of dogs with ARE, FRE and IBD. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of il-33 was significantly lower in the duodenum in dogs with FRE than in healthy dogs...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045919/alterations-in-gut-microbiome-composition-and-barrier-function-are-associated-with-reproductive-and-metabolic-defects-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-a-pilot-study
#14
Lisa Lindheim, Mina Bashir, Julia Münzker, Christian Trummer, Verena Zachhuber, Bettina Leber, Angela Horvath, Thomas R Pieber, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. In this pilot study, we compared the stool microbiome, gut permeability, and inflammatory status of women with PCOS and healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045459/faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-from-microbiology-to-diagnostics-and-prognostics
#15
Mireia Lopez-Siles, Sylvia H Duncan, L Jesús Garcia-Gil, Margarita Martinez-Medina
There is an increasing interest in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, one of the most abundant bacterial species found in the gut, given its potentially important role in promoting gut health. Although some studies have phenotypically characterized strains of this species, it remains a challenge to determine which factors have a key role in maintaining the abundance of this bacterium in the gut. Besides, phylogenetic analysis has shown that at least two different F. prausnitzii phylogroups can be found within this species and their distribution is different between healthy subjects and patients with gut disorders...
January 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045137/the-effects-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-on-small-intestinal-barrier-function-and-mucosal-gene-transcription-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Zlatan Mujagic, Paul de Vos, Mark V Boekschoten, Coen Govers, Harm-Jan H M Pieters, Nicole J W de Wit, Peter A Bron, Ad A M Masclee, Freddy J Troost
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains on in-vivo small intestinal barrier function and gut mucosal gene transcription in human subjects. The strains were selected for their differential effects on TLR signalling and tight junction protein rearrangement, which may lead to beneficial effects in a stressed human gut mucosa. Ten healthy volunteers participated in four different intervention periods: 7-day oral intake of either L. plantarum WCFS1, CIP104448, TIFN101 or placebo, proceeded by a 4 weeks wash-out period...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#17
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041735/beneficial-effects-of-probiotic-cholesterol-lowering-strain-of-enterococcus-faecium-wefa23-from-infants-on-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#18
Fen Zhang, Liang Qiu, Xiongpeng Xu, Zhengqi Liu, Hui Zhan, Xueying Tao, Nagendra P Shah, Hua Wei
The aim of this study was to select probiotic Enterococcus strains which have the potential to improve metabolic syndrome (MS). Ten Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy infants were evaluated for their probiotic properties in vitro, and Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 was selected due to its cholesterol removal ability (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/10(10) cfu), highest glycodeoxycholic acid-hydrolase activity (1.86 ± 0.01 U/mg), and strong adhesion capacity to Caco-2 cells (17.90 ± 0.19%). The safety of E. faecium WEFA23 was verified by acute oral administration in mice, and it was found to have no adverse effects on general health status, bacterial translocation, and gut mucosal histology...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040364/acute-intestinal-damage-following-severe-burn-correlates-with-the-development-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Akinori Osuka, Hirofumi Kusuki, Hiroshi Matsuura, Kentaro Shimizu, Hiroshi Ogura, Masashi Ueyama
BACKGROUND: Severely burned patients occasionally suffer intestinal ischemia leading to a fatal outcome, and the gut is considered a "motor" driving the development of multiple organ failure. However, in clinical settings, it has been difficult to assess acute intestinal damage following burn and its consequence to patient outcome. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a known biomarker for diagnosing intestinal ischemia/damage. This study aimed to assess the extent of intestinal damage using serial I-FABP measurements following severe burn and to clarify the association between intestinal damage and the development of organ dysfunctions...
December 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#20
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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