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H Deng, Y Dai, H Lu, S-S Li, L Gao, D-L Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between bone metabolic indicators and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in healthy middle-aged men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The bone metabolic indicators of 232 healthy middle-age men with NAFLD (NAFLD group) and 308 healthy controls without fatty liver (Control group) were measured, including non-collagenous osteocalcin, the procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), beta-C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX)...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Juliana Paula Bruch Bertani, Bruna Cherubini Alves, Laura Alencastro de Azevedo, Mário Reis Álvares-da-Silva, Valesca Dall'Alba
INTRODUCTION: Occidental diet and metabolic profile seems to increase hepatic fibrosis (HF) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but there is scarce information about the diet components and their role in this setting. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the dietary intake, metabolic profile, presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic HCV infection according to the presence of fibrosis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study which 58 patients with HCV infection without active antiviral therapy and non-cirrhotic were assessed...
January 11, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Ney Christian Amaral Boa Sorte, Crésio De Aragão Dantas Alves, Patrícia S Almeida Mendes, Carlos Roberto Brites Alves, Luciana Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the intrahepatic deposition of fat. It is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, affecting obese children and adolescents. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood, although it is often related to insulin resistance. This in turn would be due to an inflammatory condition common to obesity. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the behavior of proinflammatory cytokines in obese children and adolescents, with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 16, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Sijie Tan, Ping Du, Wanting Zhao, Jiaqi Pang, Jianxiong Wang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz, Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira, Jennifer Beatriz Silva Morais, Juliana Soares Severo, Priscyla Maria Vieira Mendes, Stéfany Rodrigues de Sousa Melo, Gustavo Santos de Sousa, Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro
Studies have shown the participation of minerals in mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Zinc, in particular, seems to play an important role in the secretion and action of this hormone. Therefore, the aim of this review is to understand the role of zinc in increasing insulin sensitivity. We conducted a search of articles published in the PubMed and ScienceDirect database selected from March 2016 to February 2018, using the keywords "zinc," "insulin," "insulin resistance," "insulin sensitivity," and "supplementation...
March 21, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Ianiro, Maria Pina Dore, Claudia Simonelli, Estelle E Newton, Giovanni Cammarota
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the consequent burden of metabolic syndrome have increased in recent years. Although the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is not completely understood, it is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of the dysregulation of insulin-dependent pathways leading to insulin resistance and adipose tissue accumulation in the liver. Recently, the gut-liver axis has been proposed as a key player in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, as the passage of bacteria-derived products into the portal circulation could lead to a trigger of innate immunity, which in turn leads to liver inflammation...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
David Clemmons
The IGF binding protein family contains six members that share significant structural homology. Their principal function is to regulate the actions of IGF-I and IGF-II. These proteins are present in plasma and extracellular fluids and regulate access of both IGF-I and II to the type I IGF receptor. Additionally they have functions that are independent of their ability to bind IGFs. Each protein is regulated independently of IGF-I and IGF-II and this provides an important mechanism by which other hormones and physiologic variables can regulate IGF actions indirectly...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Jade Leahy, Schohraya Spahis, Eric Bonneil, Carole Garofalo, Guy Grimard, Sophia Morel, Caroline Laverdière, Maja Krajinovic, Simon Drouin, Edgard Delvin, Daniel Sinnett, Valérie Marcil, Emile Levy
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) is the most prevalent form of cancer in children. Due to advances in treatment and therapy, young cALL subjects now achieve a 90% survival rate. However, this tremendous advance does not come without consequence since ~2/3 of cALL survivors are affected by long-term and late, severe complications. Although the metabolic syndrome is a very serious sequel of cALL, the mechanisms remain undefined. It is also surprising to note that the mitochondrion, a central organelle in metabolic functions and the main cellular energy generator, have not yet been explored...
March 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Sang Bae Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Byoung Kwon Lee, Shinae Kang, Ji Sun Nam, Ji Hong You, Min Jin Kim, Min Kyung Kim, Jong Suk Park
BACKGROUND: The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been suggested as a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance. However, there are limited data regarding the association between the TyG index and arterial stiffness in adults. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the TyG index and arterial stiffness as measured based on brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in Korean adults. METHODS: A total of 3587 subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors were measured...
March 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Daniela Menichini, Monica Longo, Fabio Facchinetti
Maternal obesity is an adverse factor that affects the intrauterine environment during critical periods of fetal developmental causing adverse lifelong effects on offspring health. Several different interventions have been performed in animal models of obesity to ameliorate maternal conditions and consequently reduce the adverse effects on offspring. Our aim was to critically review studies involving murine models of obesity induced by high fat diet (HFD), assessing maternal outcomes during pregnancy and the related offspring conditions...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Xinyi Li, Yan Liu, Yingdong Zheng, Peiyu Wang, Yumei Zhang
Observational studies have indicated an inverse association between vitamin D levels and the risk of diabetes, yet evidence from population interventions remains inconsistent. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and were searched up to September 2017. Data from studies regarding serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were pooled. Twenty studies ( n = 2703) were included in the meta-analysis...
March 19, 2018: Nutrients
Laura A Forney, Natalie R Lenard, Laura K Stewart, Tara M Henagan
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue may contribute to depot-specific adipose tissue expansion, leading to obesity and insulin resistance. Dietary supplementation with quercetin or botanical extracts containing quercetin attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance and decreases inflammation. Here, we determined the effects of quercetin and red onion extract (ROE) containing quercetin on subcutaneous (inguinal, IWAT) vs. visceral (epididymal, EWAT) white adipose tissue morphology and inflammation in mice fed low fat, high fat, high fat plus 50 μg/day quercetin or high fat plus ROE containing 50 μg/day quercetin equivalents for 9 weeks...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaolei Zhang, Michelle B Trevino, Miao Wang, Stephen J Gardell, Julio E Ayala, Xianlin Han, Daniel P Kelly, Bret H Goodpaster, Rick B Vega, Paul M Coen
The progression of age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by impaired recovery of muscle mass following periods of disuse due to illness or immobilization. However, the mechanisms underlying poor recovery of aged muscle following disuse remain to be delineated. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial energetics play an important role in regulation of muscle mass. Here, we report that 22-24 month old mice with low muscle mass and low glucose clearance rate also display poor early recovery of muscle mass following 10 days of hind limb unloading...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Devram S Ghorpade, Lale Ozcan, Ze Zheng, Sarah M Nicoloro, Yuefei Shen, Emily Chen, Matthias Blüher, Michael P Czech, Ira Tabas
Obesity-induced metabolic disease involves functional integration among several organs via circulating factors, but little is known about crosstalk between liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In obesity, VAT becomes populated with inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). In obese humans, there is a close correlation between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, and in obese mice, blocking systemic or ATM inflammation improves insulin sensitivity. However, processes that promote pathological adipose tissue inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Misty R Riddle, Ariel C Aspiras, Karin Gaudenz, Robert Peuß, Jenny Y Sung, Brian Martineau, Megan Peavey, Andrew C Box, Julius A Tabin, Suzanne McGaugh, Richard Borowsky, Clifford J Tabin, Nicolas Rohner
Periodic food shortages are a major challenge faced by organisms in natural habitats. Cave-dwelling animals must withstand long periods of nutrient deprivation, as-in the absence of photosynthesis-caves depend on external energy sources such as seasonal floods. Here we show that cave-adapted populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, have dysregulated blood glucose homeostasis and are insulin-resistant compared to river-adapted populations. We found that multiple cave populations carry a mutation in the insulin receptor that leads to decreased insulin binding in vitro and contributes to hyperglycaemia...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Aisha Aguiar Morais, Urjel Aguiar Bouissou Morais, Maria Marta Sarquis Soares, Márcia Christina Caetano Romano, Joel Alves Lamounier
OBJECTIVE: To critically analyze articles on the relation between neck circumference (NC) in adolescents and: body mass index, fat distribution, metabolic syndrome and its individual components, and cardiovascular risk. METHOD: Systematic review undertaken by two independent researchers using the Pubmed/Medline, Lilacs/Medline, Scielo and Cochrane databases in English, Spanish and Portuguese in the period comprising the past 5 years. RESULTS: Eighteen (18) articles were selected...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Karen E Elkind-Hirsch, Martha S Paterson, Donna Shaler, Hanh C Gutowski
OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study examined the effectiveness of sitagliptin-metformin (SITA-MET), metformin (MET), and placebo (P) therapy on fasting and post-glucose challenge glucose levels in postpartum women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Prediabetic women (N = 36, age 18 to 42 years) with recent GDM were randomized to P (one pill twice a day), MET (1,000 mg twice a day), or SITA-MET (50 mg SITA, 1,000 mg MET twice a day) for 16 weeks in a single-blind fashion...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Kadri Atay, Billur Canbakan, Emine Koroglu, Ibrahim Hatemi, Mustafa Canbakan, Nuray Kepil, Murat Tuncer, Hakan Senturk
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance (IR). We evaluated whether IR contributes to hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in NAFLD. METHODS: Forty-four teetotaller patients with biopsy-proven diagnosis of NAFLD were enrolled. Twenty-eight NAFLD patients with IR were compared with 16 subjects without IR. For apoptotic activity caspase 3 and 8, transcription nuclear factor kB (NF-kB), and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein were determined through immunohistochemical methods...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Nicolás De Silva, Mirian Samblas, J Alfredo Martínez, Fermín I Milagro
Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which determines the appearance of comorbidities like atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue are partly responsible of this inflammatory condition. Numerous studies point to the existence of close intercommunication between macrophages and adipocytes and pay particular attention to the proinflammatory cytokines released by both cell types. However, it has been recently described that in both, circulation and tissue level, there are extracellular vesicles (including microvesicles and exosomes) containing miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that can influence the inflammatory response...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Roger Mullins, David Reiter, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Objective: Brain glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in this case-control study we used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to assess AD-related differences in the posterior cingulate/precuneal ratio of glucose, lactate, and other metabolites. Methods: J-modulated Point-Resolved Spectroscopy (J-PRESS) and Prior-Knowledge Fitting (ProFit) software was used to measure glucose and other metabolites in the posterior cingulate/precuneus of 25 AD, 27 older controls, and 27 younger control participants...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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