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Medical Breakthroughs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532327/heroic-struggles-criminals-and-scientific-breakthroughs-adhd-and-the-medicalization-of-child-behaviour-in-australian-newsprint-media-1999-2009
#1
Valerie Harwood, Sandra Jones, Andrew Bonney, Samantha McMahon
There is a dearth of scholarly analysis and critique of the Australian newsprint media's role in the medicalization of child behaviour. To begin to redress this lack this paper analyses newsprint media's use of metaphors that re/describe and construct realities of ADHD with a medicalizing effect. The interdisciplinary team used the Factiva(TM) database to locate and review 453 articles published in Australian national and metropolitan newspapers during the decade 1999-2009. Data analysis involved generating statistical descriptions of the dataset according to attributes such as: date, state, newspaper titles and author names...
June 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522213/harnessing-self-assembled-peptide-nanoparticles-in-epitope-vaccine-design
#2
REVIEW
Manica Negahdaripour, Nasim Golkar, Nasim Hajighahramani, Sedigheh Kianpour, Navid Nezafat, Younes Ghasemi
Vaccination has been one of the most successful breakthroughs in medical history. In recent years, epitope-based subunit vaccines have been introduced as a safer alternative to traditional vaccines. However, they suffer from limited immunogenicity. Nanotechnology has shown value in solving this issue. Different kinds of nanovaccines have been employed, among which virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) and self-assembled peptide nanoparticles (SAPNs) seem very promising. Recently, SAPNs have attracted special interest due to their unique properties, including molecular specificity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520273/efficacy-of-a-targeted-drug-delivery-on-demand-bolus-option-for-chronic-pain
#3
Robert B Bolash, Tariq Niazi, Meera Kumari, Gerges Azer, Nagy Mekhail
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intrathecal targeted drug delivery systems historically required a physician's office visits for dose adjustment to manage fluctuating pain. A wireless device now enables patients to supplement their basal intrathecal infusion with a programmed on-demand bolus dose. We sought to quantify the change in oral breakthrough opioid need associated with the use of an intrathecal bolus in comparison to those treated with the basal infusion alone. METHODS: Demographic, dosage, bolus usage and longevity data were extracted from the historical medical record of 69 patients (18/51 bolus/non-bolus) followed continuously at our center...
May 18, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518059/recent-omics-technologies-and-their-emerging-applications-for-personalised-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Dong-Hyuk Kim, Young-Sook Kim, Nam-Il Son, Chan-Koo Kang, Ah-Ram Kim
A major objective of 'omics' technologies is to understand genetic causality of complex traits of human diseases. High-throughput omics technologies and their application to medicine open up remarkable opportunities for realising optimised medical treatment for individuals. Because many major breakthrough and discoveries in this field have been driven by the development of new omics technologies, in this review, the authors aim to provide an in-depth description of their underlying principles as a foundation of developing another new omics technology, and to introduce their emerging applications for personalised medicine...
June 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516232/-cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-german-version-insights-gained-from-1-h-and-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#5
REVIEW
S V Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a considerable problem for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. Whilst most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
May 17, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511597/understanding-sleep-wake-mechanisms-and-drug-discovery
#6
Ana Clementina Equihua-Benítez, Khalil Guzmán-Vásquez, René Drucker-Colín
Although not discernible at first glance, sleep is a highly active and regulated brain state. Although we spend practically one third of our lifetimes in this stage, its importance is often taken for granted. Sleep loss can lead to disease, error and economic loss. Our understanding of how sleep is achieved has greatly advanced in recent years, and with that, the management of sleep disorders has improved. Nevertheless, there is still room for improvement and recently many new compounds have reached clinical trials with a few being approved for commercial use...
May 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505689/-pain-management-in-palliative-care
#7
Martin B Steins, Corinna Eschbach, Matthias Villalobos, Michael Thomas
A consistent pain management together with treatment of dyspnoea belongs to the main issues in symptom control in particular in palliative thoracic oncology. Together with the medicamentous therapy the psychologic and social circumstances of the affected patients have to be considered as factors influencing the experience of pain. The therapeutic fundament according to the WHO guideline for cancer pain is the opiate based medicamentous adjustment combined with non-opioids. In principle, this should be performed preferably orally, as simply as possible, according to a fix drug schedule and individually adjusted to the needed dosage...
May 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504988/the-labor-analgesia-requirements-in-nulliparous-women-randomized-to-epidural-catheter-placement-in-a-high-or-low-intervertebral-space
#8
Albert Moore, Valerie Villeneuve, Bruno Bravim, Aly El-Bahrawy, Eva El-Mouallem, Ian Kaufman, Roupen Hatzakorzian, William Li Pi Shan
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that an epidural catheter placed in a lower vertebral interspace will require less medication for labor analgesia. METHODS: Nulliparous women requesting neuraxial labor analgesia were randomized to epidural catheter placement at the ultrasound-confirmed L1-2 or L4-5 interspace. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia and breakthrough manual epidural boluses of 10 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine with 50 µg of fentanyl or 8 mL of 2% lidocaine were utilized...
May 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503363/focused-ultrasound-for-essential-tremor-review-of-the-evidence-and-discussion-of-current-hurdles
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Rohani, Alfonso Fasano
BACKGROUND: While there is no breakthrough progress in the medical treatment of essential tremor (ET), in the past decades several remarkable achievements happened in the surgical field, such as radiofrequency thalamotomy, thalamic deep brain stimulation, and gamma knife thalamotomy. The most recent advance in this area is magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). METHODS: The purpose of this review is to discuss the new developments and trials of MRgFUS in the treatment of ET and other tremor disorders...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487653/chinese-herbal-medicines-attenuate-acute-pancreatitis-pharmacological-activities-and-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Hong Xiang, Qingkai Zhang, Bing Qi, Xufeng Tao, Shilin Xia, Huiyi Song, Jialin Qu, Dong Shang
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a commonly occurring gastrointestinal disorder. An increase in the annual incidence of AP has been observed, and it causes acute hospitalization and high mortality. The diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AP recommend conservative medical treatments focused on reducing pancreatic secretion and secondary injury, as a primary therapeutic approach. Unfortunately, the existing treatment options have limited impact on the incidence and severity of AP due to the complex and multifaceted pathological process of this disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487434/fifteen-minute-consultation-practical-pain-management-in-paediatric-palliative-care
#11
Emily Jane Harrop, Karen Brombley, Katherine Boyce
Pain and distress in the paediatric palliative care population can be very difficult to manage. Clinical scenarios range from the acute management of cancer-related pain at the end of life to the ongoing long-term support of children with complex multimodal pain related to progressive neurological conditions. Understanding the child's underlying condition, possible causes of pain and their preferred mode of communication are important to the delivery of holistic care. Modification of environmental factors, basic care consideration and non-pharmacological measures have a large role to play, alongside conventional analgesics...
May 9, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482505/sirna-nanoparticle-conjugate-in-gene-silencing-a-future-cure-to-deadly-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Rituparna Acharya, Suman Saha, Sayantan Ray, Sugata Hazra, Manoj K Mitra, Jui Chakraborty
Alzheimers, cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are considered to be some of the most deadly diseases of the 21st century on account of their severity and rapid increase in the number of affected population and with scarce cases of recovery, they still remain a troubling paradox. Specifically, with millions of cancer patients worldwide and lack of proper cure for the same, understanding the deadly disease at the molecular level and planning a therapeutic strategy in the same line is the need of the hour...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482292/new-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
REVIEW
Manaf AlMatar, Husam AlMandeal, Işıl Var, Begüm Kayar, Fatih Köksal
Tuberculosis presents a grave challenge to health, globally instigating 1.5 million mortalities each year. Following the breakthrough of first-line anti-TB medication, the number of mortalities reduced greatly; nonetheless, the swift appearance of tuberculosis which was drug-resistant, as well as the capability of the bacterium to survive and stay dormant are a considerable problem for public health. In order to address this issue, several novel possible candidates for tuberculosis therapy have been subjected to clinical trials of late...
May 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475698/the-growing-need-for-validated-biomarkers-and-endpoints-for-dry-eye-clinical-research
#14
Neeta S Roy, Yi Wei, Eric Kuklinski, Penny A Asbell
Purpose: Biomarkers with minimally invasive and reproducible objective metrics provide the key to future paradigm shifts in understanding of the underlying causes of dry eye disease (DED) and approaches to treatment of DED. We review biomarkers and their validity in providing objective metrics for DED clinical research and patient care. Methods: The English-language literature in PubMed primarily over the last decade was surveyed for studies related to identification of biomarkers of DED: (1) inflammation, (2) point-of-care, (3) ocular imaging, and (4) genetics...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474173/-genetics-of-bipolar-disorder
#15
REVIEW
M Budde, A J Forstner, K Adorjan, S K Schaupp, M M Nöthen, T G Schulze
Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology. Its development is influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which genetic risk allelic variants for the disorder could be replicated for the first time, marked the breakthrough in the identification of the responsible risk genes. In addition to these common genetic variants with moderate effects identified by GWAS, rare variants with a higher penetrance are expected to play a role in disease development...
May 4, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467389/on-the-many-actions-of-ouabain-pro-cystogenic-effects-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Jessica Venugopal, Gustavo Blanco
Ouabain and other cardenolides are steroidal compounds originally discovered in plants. Cardenolides were first used as poisons, but after finding their beneficial cardiotonic effects, they were rapidly included in the medical pharmacopeia. The use of cardenolides to treat congestive heart failure remained empirical for centuries and only relatively recently, their mechanisms of action became better understood. A breakthrough came with the discovery that ouabain and other cardenolides exist as endogenous compounds that circulate in the bloodstream of mammals...
May 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460549/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-brodalumab-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#17
M Galluzzo, M Talamonti, S D'adamio, L Bianchi
Psoriasis is now understood to also be under the driving influence of the IL-17/IL-23 axis, and the medical breakthrough of novel IL-17 inhibitor medications signals a paradigm shift in the way psoriatic patients are managed medically. Brodalumab, a fully human Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) anti-IL-17RA monoclonal antibody, is currently the most-developed treatment that binds to the IL-17RA. The authors review and provide updates of efficacy and safety by several studies on brodalumab...
May 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455085/randomized-controlled-trial-of-intravenous-acetaminophen-for-postcesarean-delivery-pain-control
#18
Brie Altenau, Catrina C Crisp, C Ganga Devaiah, Donna S Lambers
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery is a common surgery in the United States, with 1.3 million performed during 2009.(1) Obstetricians must balance the growing concern with opioid abuse, dependence, and side effects with optimal postoperative pain control. Intravenous acetaminophen may represent an additional method to decrease the reliance on opioid medications and improve postoperative pain following cesarean delivery. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether the administration of intravenous acetaminophen following routine scheduled cesarean delivery would decrease the need for narcotic medications to control postoperative pain...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447413/laboratory-measurement-of-the-direct-oral-anticoagulants-indications-and-impact-on-management-in-clinical-practice
#19
REVIEW
C Wright, R Brown, A Cuker
Although the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) do not require routine laboratory monitoring, there may be special situations in which measurement of drug levels is desirable. There is a paucity of information on how measurement of DOAC levels is used in clinical practice. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban levels measured at our institution. Of 9793 patients with an active prescription for dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban in the electronic medical record during the 2...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440879/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-patients-vaccinated-against-this-disease
#20
S Lotrič-Furlan, P Bogovič, T Avšič-Županc, M Jelovšek, L Lusa, F Strle
BACKGROUND: Information on tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in patients already vaccinated against the disease is limited. OBJECTIVES: To compare the course and outcome in patients with vaccination breakthrough TBE with findings in patients who developed TBE without previous vaccination. METHODS: All adult patients diagnosed with TBE at a single medical centre during a 16-year period and who had received at least two doses of TBE vaccine before the onset of illness qualified for the study...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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