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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538992/intercepting-a-moving-target-on-line-or-model-based-control
#1
Huaiyong Zhao, William H Warren
When walking to intercept a moving target, people take an interception path that appears to anticipate the target's trajectory. According to the constant bearing strategy, the observer holds the bearing direction of the target constant based on current visual information, consistent with on-line control. Alternatively, the interception path might be based on an internal model of the target's motion, known as model-based control. To investigate these two accounts, participants walked to intercept a moving target in a virtual environment...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538731/a-neural-circuit-architecture-for-angular-integration-in-drosophila
#2
Jonathan Green, Atsuko Adachi, Kunal K Shah, Jonathan D Hirokawa, Pablo S Magani, Gaby Maimon
Many animals keep track of their angular heading over time while navigating through their environment. However, a neural-circuit architecture for computing heading has not been experimentally defined in any species. Here we describe a set of clockwise- and anticlockwise-shifting neurons in the Drosophila central complex whose wiring and physiology provide a means to rotate an angular heading estimate based on the fly's angular velocity. We show that each class of shifting neurons exists in two subtypes, with spatiotemporal activity profiles that suggest different roles for each subtype at the start and end of tethered-walking turns...
May 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538708/accuracy-in-wrist-worn-sensor-based-measurements-of-heart-rate-and-energy-expenditure-in-a-diverse-cohort
#3
Anna Shcherbina, C Mikael Mattsson, Daryl Waggott, Heidi Salisbury, Jeffrey W Christle, Trevor Hastie, Matthew T Wheeler, Euan A Ashley
The ability to measure physical activity through wrist-worn devices provides an opportunity for cardiovascular medicine. However, the accuracy of commercial devices is largely unknown. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of seven commercially available wrist-worn devices in estimating heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) and to propose a wearable sensor evaluation framework. We evaluated the Apple Watch, Basis Peak, Fitbit Surge, Microsoft Band, Mio Alpha 2, PulseOn, and Samsung Gear S2. Participants wore devices while being simultaneously assessed with continuous telemetry and indirect calorimetry while sitting, walking, running, and cycling...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538340/physical-therapy-for-a-child-with-infantile-idiopathic-scoliosis-and-motor-delay
#4
Rhea K Hall, Mary Jane Rapport
PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report is to describe physical therapy (PT) for a child with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and motor delay. KEY POINTS: A 10-month-old boy with a 28° left thoracolumbar scoliosis was referred for PT and was seen weekly in his home over a 6-month period following a diagnosis of scoliosis and delayed gross motor milestones. Before the initiation of PT, the child was scheduled to undergo serial casting for correction of the spinal curve and was not yet rolling or transitioning in or out of sitting...
May 19, 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535398/nurses-occupational-physical-activity-levels-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Stephanie E Chappel, Simone J J M Verswijveren, Brad Aisbett, Julie Considine, Nicola D Ridgers
BACKGROUND: Nurses' physical performance at work has implications both for nurses' occupational health and patient care. Although nurses are the largest healthcare workforce, are present 24-hours a day, and engage in many physically demanding tasks, nurses' occupational physical activity levels are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to examine nurses' occupational physical activity levels, and explore how nurses accumulate their physical activity during a shift...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535358/effectiveness-of-peers-in-delivering-programs-or-motivating-older-people-to-increase-their-participation-in-physical-activity-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Keith D Hill, Jim Codde, Phil Airey, Anne-Marie Hill
The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of peers to deliver programs or encourage older people to be physically active and improve physical outcomes. Peer reviewed articles published in English between January 1976 and June 2016, retrieved from six databases according to the predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible results were pooled and meta-analyses conducted. Eighteen articles were included in the review, a total of 3,492 intervention participants, average age 66...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535351/inherent-simple-cubic-lattice-being-responsible-for-ultrafast-solid-phase-change-of-ge2sb2te5
#7
Wen-Xiong Song, Zhi-Pan Liu, Limin Liu
Crystallization of solid is generally slow in kinetics for atom trapped in solid. Phase-change materials (PCMs) challenge current theory on its ultrafast reversible amorphous-to-crystal transition. Here by using stochastic surface walking global optimization method, we establish the first global potential energy surface (PES) for Ge2Sb2Te5. By analyzing all structures on global PES, we show that an inherent structural pattern of simple cubic lattice is present universally in low energy structures, either globally in a newly found metastable simple cubic crystal phase or locally in the amorphous structures...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534848/development-and-design-of-next-generation-head-mounted-ambulatory-microdose-positron-emission-tomography-am-pet-system
#8
Samantha Melroy, Christopher Bauer, Matthew McHugh, Garret Carden, Alexander Stolin, Stan Majewski, Julie Brefczynski-Lewis, Thorsten Wuest
Several applications exist for a whole brain positron-emission tomography (PET) brain imager designed as a portable unit that can be worn on a patient's head. Enabled by improvements in detector technology, a lightweight, high performance device would allow PET brain imaging in different environments and during behavioral tasks. Such a wearable system that allows the subjects to move their heads and walk-the Ambulatory Microdose PET (AM-PET)-is currently under development. This imager will be helpful for testing subjects performing selected activities such as gestures, virtual reality activities and walking...
May 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534747/julie-moore-nhs-leader-who-walks-the-wards
#9
Geoff Watts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534647/considering-built-environment-and-spatial-correlation-in-modelling-pedestrian-injury-severity
#10
Carlo G Prato, Sigal Kaplan, Alexandre Patrier, Thomas K Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. METHOD: Reports for 6539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about built environment and exposure at the crash locations...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534497/a-comparative-study-of-two-protocols-for-treadmill-walking-exercise-testing-in-ambulating-subjects-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#11
E Lundgaard, M F Wouda, V Strøm
STUDY DESIGN: This is a comparative study of two exercise testing protocols. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and achieved criteria for maximal exercise testing between the Sunnaas Protocol-a newly designed treadmill exercise test protocol-and the Modified Bruce Protocol in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: This study was conducted in Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Norway...
May 23, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534316/relationship-between-air-quality-and-outdoor-exercise-behavior-in-china-a-novel-mobile-based-study
#12
Liang Hu, Li Zhu, Yaping Xu, Jiaying Lyu, Kellie Imm, Lin Yang
PURPOSE: Based on data collected from an exercise app, the study aims to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between air quality and patterns of outdoor exercise in China. METHODS: Objective outdoor exercise data spanning 160 days were collected from 153 users of an exercise app, Tulipsport in China. Each exercise mode (running, biking, and walking, respectively) was organized into five air quality categories based on Air Quality Index (AQI): excellent, good, mild pollution, moderate pollution, and serious pollution...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534175/-aseptic-loosening-of-total-ankle-replacement-two-stage-revision-with-bone-augmentation-of-osseous-defects-and-secondary-prosthesis-implantation
#13
A Barg, M Wiewiorski, V Valderrabano
OBJECTIVE: To remove loosened ankle prosthesis components, perform osseous defect augmentation, and reimplant definitive prosthesis components to preserve ankle range of motion. INDICATIONS: Aseptic loosening of the tibial and/or talar ankle prosthesis components with substantial bone defect. CONTRAINDICATIONS: General surgical/anesthesiological risks, infections, critical soft tissue conditions, nonmanageable hindfoot instability, neurovascular impairment of the lower extremity, neuroarthropathy, substantial nonreconstructable osseous defects with or without cysts on the tibial and/or talar side, noncompliance, primary total ankle replacement (TAR) using intramedullary fixation (stem fixation), severely reduced bone quality, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, smoking, unrealistic patients' expectations, high activity in sports...
May 22, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534004/integrating-health-and-transportation-in-nashville-tennessee-usa-from-policy-to-projects
#14
Leslie A Meehan, Geoffrey P Whitfield
The Nashville Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) is among the first MPOs in the United States to recognize the interplay of transportation and public health, particularly regarding physical activity, air pollution, and traffic crashes. The Nashville MPO has taken a multifaceted approach to simultaneously improve the transportation system, quality of life, and health status of the region's population. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiple programs and projects that the MPO has undertaken to this end, so that other cities might learn from Nashville's example...
March 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533981/effects-of-knee-sleeves-on-coordination-of-lower-limb-segments-in-healthy-adults-during-level-walking-and-one-leg-hopping
#15
Chang-Yong Ko, Yunhee Chang, Bora Jeong, Sungjae Kang, Jeicheong Ryu, Gyoosuk Kim
The evaluation of multisegment coordination is important in gaining a better understanding of the gait and physical activities in humans. Therefore, this study aims to verify whether the use of knee sleeves affects the coordination of lower-limb segments during level walking and one-leg hopping. Eleven healthy male adults participated in this study. They were asked to walk 10 m on a level ground and perform one-leg hops with and without a knee sleeve. The segment angles and the response velocities of the thigh, shank, and foot were measured and calculated by using a motion analysis system...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533974/foraging-behaviour-of-an-egg-parasitoid-exploiting-plant-volatiles-induced-by-pentatomids-the-role-of-adaxial-and-abaxial-leaf-surfaces
#16
Francesca Frati, Antonino Cusumano, Eric Conti, Stefano Colazza, Ezio Peri, Salvatore Guarino, Letizia Martorana, Roberto Romani, Gianandrea Salerno
Several phases of herbivorous insect attack including feeding and oviposition are known to induce plant defenses. Plants emit volatiles induced by herbivores to recruit insect parasitoids as an indirect defense strategy. So far, volatiles induced by herbivore walking and their putative role in the foraging behavior of egg parasitoids have not been investigated. In this paper we studied the response of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis toward volatiles emitted by Vicia faba plants as consequence of the walking activity of the host Nezara viridula...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533617/estimated-lower-speed-boundary-at-which-the-walk-ratio-constancy-is-broken-in-healthy-adults
#17
Rumi Murakami, Yohei Otaka
[Purpose] The ratio of step length to cadence (walk ratio) is invariant over a wide range of speeds. However, no studies have investigated details of the change in the walk ratio at slow speeds. It is necessary to explore how walking behavior changes at a low speed to understand the slow walking observed in various conditions such as aging and pathological conditions. In this study, changes in the walk ratio at slow speeds were investigated, and a lower boundary was estimated at which the walk ratio constancy is broken...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533614/the-effect-of-bridge-exercise-method-on-the-strength-of-rectus-abdominis-muscle-and-the-muscle-activity-of-paraspinal-muscles-while-doing-treadmill-walking-with-high-heels
#18
Taewook Kang, Jaeseok Lee, Junghoon Seo, Dongwook Han
[Purpose] The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of the method of bridge exercise on the change of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this research are healthy female students consisting of 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a supine group, 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a prone group, and 10 persons in a control group while in S university in Busan. Bridge exercise in supine position is performed in hook lying position...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533611/the-effect-of-horse-riding-simulator-exercise-on-the-gait-muscle-strength-and-muscle-activation-in-elderly-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#19
Seung-Kyu Kim, Seong-Gil Kim, Gak HwangBo
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horse-riding simulator exercise on gait ability and muscle strength, muscle activation in elderly with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis were recruited, a horse-riding simulator group consisted of fifteen subjects and they performed exercise three times a week for eight weeks. And each exercise was performed, horse riding simulator exercise for 15 minutes and knee strengthening exercise for 15 minutes...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533608/changes-of-gait-parameters-following-constrained-weight-shift-training-in-patients-with-stroke
#20
Seok Hyun Nam, Sung Min Son, Kyoung Kim
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of training involving compelled weight shift on the paretic lower limb on gait parameters and plantar pressure distribution in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five stroke patients participated in the study and were randomly divided into: group with a 5-mm lift on the non-paretic side for constrained weight shift training (5: constrained weight shift training) (n=15); group with a 10-mm lift on the non-paretic side for constrained weight shift training (10: constrained weight shift training) (n=15); or the control group (n=15)...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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