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Vascular function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432984/cigarette-smoke-extract-counteracts-atheroprotective-effects-of-high-laminar-flow-on-endothelial-function
#1
Sindy Giebe, Natalia Cockcroft, Katherine Hewitt, Melanie Brux, Anja Hofmann, Henning Morawietz, Coy Brunssen
Tobacco smoking and hemodynamic forces are key stimuli in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. High laminar flow has an atheroprotective effect on the endothelium and leads to a reduced response of endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors compared to regions with disturbed or low laminar flow. We hypothesize that the atheroprotective effect of high laminar flow could delay the development of endothelial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoking. Primary human endothelial cells were stimulated with increasing dosages of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSEaq)...
April 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432742/living-donor-uterus-transplantation-a-single-center-s-observations-and-lessons-learned-from-early-setbacks-to-technical-success
#2
G Testa, E C Koon, L Johannesson, G McKenna, T Anthony, G B Klintmalm, R T Gunby, A M Warren, J M Putman, G dePrisco, J M Mitchell, K Wallis, M Olausson
Uterus transplantation is a vascularized composite allograft transplantation. It allows women who do not have a uterus to become pregnant and deliver a baby. In this paper we analyze the first 5 cases of Living Donor Uterus Transplantation performed in the US. The first 3 recipients lost their uterus grafts at day 14, 12 and 6 after transplant. Vascular complications, related to both inflow and outflow problems, were identified as the primary reason for the graft losses. Two recipients, 6 and 3 months post-transplant have functioning grafts with regular menstrual cycles...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432663/the-vascular-wall-a-plastic-hub-of-activity-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Cassandra P Awgulewitsch, Linh T Trinh, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize recent findings regarding the plasticity and fate switching among somatic and progenitor cells residing in the vascular wall of blood vessels in health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Cell lineage tracing methods have identified multiple origins of stem cells, macrophages, and matrix-producing cells that become mobilized after acute or chronic injury of cardiovascular tissues. These studies also revealed that in the disease environment, resident somatic cells become plastic, thereby changing their stereotypical identities to adopt proinflammatory and profibrotic phenotypes...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432595/what-animal-models-have-taught-us-about-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-bisphosphonates-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Matthew R Allen, Mohammad W Aref
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have long been the gold-standard anti-remodeling treatment for numerous metabolic bone diseases. Since these drugs are excreted unmetabolized through the kidney, they are not recommended for individuals with compromised kidney function due to concerns of kidney and bone toxicity. The goal of this paper is to summarize the preclinical BP work in models of kidney disease with particular focus on the bone, kidney, and vasculature. RECENT FINDINGS: Summative data exists showing positive effects on bone and vascular calcifications with minimal evidence for bone or kidney toxicity in animal models...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432570/vascular-and-endothelial-function-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
Amy S Shah, Elaine M Urbina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and summarize the studies that have utilized noninvasive techniques to assess early vascular disease in youth with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive imaging modalities provide researchers with tools to investigate the vasculature in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. The data published to date consistently show adolescents with type 2 diabetes have greater vascular thickness and stiffness and worse endothelial function compared to their obese and lean peers...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432157/effect-of-interleukin-6-inhibition-on-coronary-microvascular-and-endothelial-function-in-myocardial-infarction
#6
Espen Holte, Ola Kleveland, Thor Ueland, Gabor Kunszt, Marte Bratlie, Kaspar Broch, Annika E Michelsen, Bjørn Bendz, Brage H Amundsen, Svend Aakhus, Jan Kristian Damås, Lars Gullestad, Pål Aukrust, Rune Wiseth
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a driver of inflammation and associated endothelial cell activation in acute coronary syndromes. We evaluated the effect of the IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab on coronary microvascular function and endothelial dysfunction measured by coronary flow reserve (CFR) and markers of endothelial cell activation in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). METHODS: This substudy was part of a two-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effect of a single dose of tocilizumab in NSTEMI...
April 21, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#7
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432111/regional-vascular-density-visual-field-sensitivity-relationship-in-glaucoma-according-to-disease-severity
#8
Joong Won Shin, Jiyun Lee, Junki Kwon, Jaewan Choi, Michael S Kook
AIMS: To study whether there are global and regional relationships between peripapillary vascular density (pVD) assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and visual field (VF) mean sensitivity at different glaucoma stages. METHODS: Microvascular images and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thicknesses were obtained using a Cirrus OCT-A device in 91 glaucoma subjects. The pVD was measured at various spatial locations according to the Garway-Heath map, using a MATLAB software (The MathWorks, Natick, Massachusetts)...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432077/aerobic-exercise-promotes-executive-functions-and-impacts-functional-neural-activity-among-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#9
Chun Liang Hsu, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Shirley Wang, Lara A Boyd, Gy Robin Hsiung, Michelle W Voss, Janice Jennifer Eng, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) results from cerebrovascular disease, and worldwide, it is the second most common type of cognitive dysfunction. While targeted aerobic training is a promising approach to delay the progression of VCI by reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, few randomised controlled trials to date have specifically assessed the efficacy of aerobic training on cognitive and brain outcomes in this group at risk for functional decline. AIM: To examine the effect of moderate-intensity aerobic training on executive functions and functional neural activity among older adults with mild subcortical ischaemic VCI (SIVCI)...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432035/expression-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-activation-of-the-non-canonical-inflammasome-pathway-in-brain-pericytes
#10
Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Mihály Kozma, Péter Nagyőszi, Krisztina Nagy, Csilla Fazakas, János Haskó, Kinga Molnár, Attila E Farkas, Attila G Végh, György Váró, Péter Galajda, Imola Wilhelm, István A Krizbai
Cerebral pericytes are mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries. Increasing evidence suggests that they play important role in controlling neurovascular functions, i.e. cerebral blood flow, angiogenesis and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These cells can also influence neuroinflammation which is highly regulated by the innate immune system. Therefore, we systematically tested the pattern recognition receptor expression of brain pericytes. We detected expression of NOD1, NOD2, NLRC5, NLRP1-3, NLRP5, NLRP9, NLRP10 and NLRX mRNA in non-treated cells...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431610/duration-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-in-cryptogenic-stroke-is-not-associated-with-stroke-severity-and-early-outcomes
#11
Chrissoula Liantinioti, Konstantinos Tympas, Aristeidis H Katsanos, John Parissis, Maria Chondrogianni, Christina Zompola, Georgios Papadimitropoulos, Michael Ioakeimidis, Sokratis Triantafyllou, Andromaxi Roussopoulou, Konstantinos Voumvourakis, John Lekakis, Gerasimos Filippatos, Leonidas Stefanis, Georgios Tsivgoulis
The current definition of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) requires an arbitrary cut-off of >30s, but in clinical practice cryptogenic stroke (CS) patients with PAF duration of ≤30s are not usually excluded from anticoagulation therapy. We sought to evaluate the clinical relevance of short-duration (≤30s) PAF in CS. Consecutive CS patients with no prior AF history and sinus-rhythm on baseline electrocardiography (ECG) were prospectively evaluated over a three-year period. Baseline stroke severity was assessed by NIHSS-scores...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431607/sigma-1-receptor-in-brain-ischemia-reperfusion-possible-role-in-the-nr2a-induced-pathway-to-regulate-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#12
Qian Xu, Xue-Fei Ji, Tian-Yan Chi, Peng Liu, Ge Jin, Ling Chen, Li-Bo Zou
Sigma-1 receptor (σ1r) activation could attenuate the learning and memory deficits in the AD model, ischemia model and others. In our previous study, the activation of σ1r increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), possibly through the NR2A-induced pathway, and σ1r agonists might function as neuroprotectant agents in vascular dementia. Here, we used σ1r knockout mice to confirm the role of σ1r. Furthermore, an antagonist of NR2A was first used to investigate whether the NR2A-induced pathway is the necessary link between σ1r and BDNF...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431056/long-term-outcome-of-transvenous-pacemaker-implantation-in-infants-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Laura M Vos, Janneke A E Kammeraad, Matthias W Freund, Andreas C Blank, Johannes M P J Breur
Aim: Evaluation of long-term outcome of transvenous pacemaker (PM) implantation in infants. Methods and Results: A retrospective analysis of all transvenous PM implantations in infants <10 kg between September 1997 and October 2001 was made. Indications for PM implantation, age at implantation, and determinants of long-term outcome including cardiac function, PM function, and PM (system) complications were noted. Seven patients underwent transvenous VVI(R) PM implantation...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431032/neuropsychology-and-rehabilitation-services-in-the-united-states-brief-report-from-a-survey-of-clinical-neuropsychologists
#14
Cady Block, Octavio A Santos, Yvonne Flores-Medina, Diego Fernando Rivera Camacho, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Objective: To provide a brief presentation of preliminary data on rehabilitation services provided by clinical neuropsychologists within the United States. Method: This survey utilized data extracted from a larger international research study conducted in 39 countries including N = 173 professionals who reported to engage in neuropsychological rehabilitative services within the past year (63.6% female, 44.36 ± 11.83 years of age) took part in the study. Results: Neuropsychologists providing rehabilitation services in the United States in the past year were more likely to provide individual versus group therapy, likely to employ technology (e...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430983/absence-of-endothelial-er%C3%AE-results-in-arterial-remodeling-and-decreased-stiffness-in-western-diet-fed-male-mice
#15
Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Jaume Padilla, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Annayya R Aroor, Brady J Barron, Dongqing Chen, Dominic Haertling, Cory Declue, James R Sowers, Luis A Martinez-Lemus
The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the vasculature of females has been described under different experimental conditions and our group recently reported that lack of endothelial ERα in female mice fed a Western diet (WD) results in amelioration of vascular stiffness. Conversely, the role of ERα in the male vasculature in this setting has not been explored. In conditions of over-nutrition and insulin resistance, augmented arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430966/decreased-thromboembolic-stroke-but-not-atherosclerosis-or-vascular-remodeling-in-mice-with-rock2-deficient-platelets
#16
Nikola Sladojevic, Goo Taeg Oh, Hyung-Hwan Kim, Lea M Beaulieu, Hervé Falet, Karol Kaminski, Jane E Freedman, James K Liao
Aims: Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK)-2 is an important mediator of the actin cytoskeleton. Because changes in the actin cytoskeleton are critical for platelet function, we hypothesized that ROCK2 in platelets will play important role in thrombosis and can be potentially a target for therapeutic intervention in thromboembolic stroke. Methods and Results: We generated platelet-specific ROCK2-deficient mice (ROCK2 Plt-/- ) from conditional ROCK2 fl°x/fl°x and platelet factor (PF)-4-Cre transgenic mice...
April 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430904/catheter-based-tricuspid-valve-replacement-first-experimental-data-of-a-newly-designed-bileaflet-stent-graft-prosthesis%C3%A2
#17
Henning F Lausberg, Rafal Gryszkiewicz, Maximilian Kuetting, Moritz Baumgaertner, Marcos Centola, Hans-Peter Wendel, Martina Nowak-Machen, David Schibilsky, Tobias Kruger, Christian Schlensak
OBJECTIVES: Moderate or severe degree tricuspid valve regurgitation (TVR) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Surgical correction as the only therapeutic option offers unsatisfactory results. Recently, several interventional procedures have been introduced clinically in a limited cohort. We present our initial experiments with an innovative interventional valved stent graft for treatment of TVR. METHODS: A newly designed porcine pericardium-covered nitinol stent graft with a lateral bicuspid valve was adapted to size in a cadaver study...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430866/maternal-high-sucrose-diets-altered-vascular-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channels-via-reactive-oxygen-species-in-offspring-rats%C3%A2
#18
Xueqin Feng, Xiuwen Zhou, Wenna Zhang, Xiang Li, Axin He, Bailin Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Lei Wu, Jue Wu, Di Zhu, Na Li, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
Overnutrition during pregnancy could increase risks of cardiovascular diseases in late life. This study investigated whether and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) may influence functions of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) in the offspring exposed to prenatal high-sucrose (HS). We found that prenatal high-sucrose diets significantly increased phenylephrine (PE)-induced vessel contractions in mesenteric arteries of the adult offspring. Pretreatment with iberiotoxin (BKCa blocker, IBTX) significantly increased PE-mediated vascular contractions in the control, not in the HS group...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430709/vitamin-d3-repressed-astrocyte-activation-following-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation-in-vitro-and-in-neonatal-rats
#19
Ke-Ping Jiao, Shao-Min Li, Wen-Yan Lv, Ming-Liang Jv, Hai-Yan He
Vitamin D3 has been reported to be an immunity modulator and high levels of vitamin D3 are correlated with a decreased risk for developing diseases in the central nervous system. Astrocytes are important immune cells and contribute toward inflammation during neurological diseases. The vitamin D receptor has been reported to be expressed in astrocytes; however, the effect of vitamin D3 on astrocyte activation has not been studied. Here, we found that lipopolysaccharide stimulation in astrocytes could enhance the expression of vitamin D receptor and Cyp27B1, which encodes the enzyme for converting vitamin D3 into its active form...
April 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430615/a-novel-mechanism-of-angiotensin-ii-regulated-placental-vascular-tone-in-the-development-of-hypertension-in-preeclampsia
#20
Qinqin Gao, Jiaqi Tang, Na Li, Xiuwen Zhou, Yongmei Li, Yanping Liu, Jue Wu, Yuxian Yang, Ruixiu Shi, Axin He, Xiang Li, Yingying Zhang, Jie Chen, Lubo Zhang, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
The present study tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II plays a role in the regulation of placental vascular tone, which contributes to hypertension in preeclampsia. Functional and molecular assays were performed in large and micro placental and non-placental vessels from humans and animals. In human placental vessels, angiotensin II induced vasoconstrictions in 78.7% vessels in 155 tests, as referenced to KCl-induced contractions. In contrast, phenylephrine only produced contractions in 3.0% of 133 tests...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
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