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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812982/quantitative-criteria-to-benchmark-new-and-existing-bio-inks-for-cell-compatibility
#1
Karen Dubbin, Anthony Tabet, Sarah Heilshorn
Recent advancements in 3D bioprinting have led to the fabrication of more complex, more precise, and larger printed tissue constructs. As the field continues to advance, it is critical to develop quantitative benchmarks to compare different bio-inks for key cell-biomaterial interactions, including (1) cell sedimentation within the ink cartridge, (2) cell viability during extrusion, and (3) cell viability after ink curing. Here we develop three simple protocols for quantitative analysis of bio-ink performance...
August 16, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812182/rheological-characterization-of-molten-polymer-drug-dispersions-as-a-predictive-tool-for-pharmaceutical-hot-melt-extrusion-processability
#2
Jeroen Van Renterghem, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the influence of drug solid-state (crystalline or dissolved in the polymer matrix) on the melt viscosity and (ii) the influence of the drug concentration, temperature and shear rate on polymer crystallization using rheological tests. METHODS: Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) (100.000 g/mol) and physical mixtures (PM) containing 10-20-30-40% (w/w) ketoprofen or 10% (w/w) theophylline in PEO were rheologically characterized...
August 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812169/bond-strength-of-etch-and-rinse-and-self-etch-adhesive-systems-to-enamel-and-dentin-irradiated-with-a-novel-co2-9-3%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-short-pulsed-laser-for-dental-restorative-procedures
#3
Peter Rechmann, N Bartolome, R Kinsel, R Vaderhobli, B M T Rechmann
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin. Two hundred enamel and 210 dentin samples were irradiated with a 9.3 µm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with energies which either enhanced caries resistance or were effective for ablation. OptiBond Solo Plus [OptiBondTE] (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) and Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakTE] (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT) were used...
August 15, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812141/next-generation-of-ventricular-catheters-for-hydrocephalus-based-on-parametric-designs
#4
M Galarza, A Giménez, J M Amigó, M Schuhmann, R Gazzeri, U Thomale, J P McAllister
BACKGROUND: The flow pattern of the cerebrospinal fluid is probably the most important factor related to obstruction of ventricular catheters during the normal treatment of hydrocephalus. To better comprehend the flow pattern, we have carried out a parametric study via numerical models of ventricular catheters. In previous studies, the flow was studied under steady and, recently, in pulsatile boundary conditions by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in three-dimensional catheter models...
August 15, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#5
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811527/atherosusceptible-shear-stress-activates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-promote-endothelial-inflammation
#6
Keith A Bailey, Fawaz G Haj, Scott I Simon, Anthony G Passerini
Atherosclerosis impacts arteries where disturbed blood flow renders the endothelium susceptible to inflammation. Cytokine activation of endothelial cells (EC) upregulates VCAM-1 receptors that target monocyte recruitment to atherosusceptible regions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits EC dysregulation in metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that ER plays a central role in mechanosensing of atherosusceptible shear stress (SS) by signaling enhanced inflammation. Aortic EC were stimulated with low-dose TNFα (0...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811364/mechanosensing-drives-acuity-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-recognition
#7
Yinnian Feng, Kristine N Brazin, Eiji Kobayashi, Robert J Mallis, Ellis L Reinherz, Matthew J Lang
T lymphocytes use surface [Formula: see text] T-cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHCs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). How the exquisite specificity of high-avidity T cells is achieved is unknown but essential, given the paucity of foreign pMHC ligands relative to the ubiquitous self-pMHC array on an APC. Using optical traps, we determine physicochemical triggering thresholds based on load and force direction. Strikingly, chemical thresholds in the absence of external load require orders of magnitude higher pMHC numbers than observed physiologically...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811304/selectin-catch-bonds-mechanotransduce-integrin-activation-and-neutrophil-arrest-on-inflamed-endothelium-under-shear-flow
#8
Vasilios A Morikis, Shannon Chase, Ted Wun, Elliot L Chaikof, John L Magnani, Scott I Simon
E-selectin extends from the plasma membrane of inflamed endothelium and serves to capture leukocytes from flowing blood via long-lived catch-bonds that support slow leukocyte rolling under shear stress. Its ligands are glycosylated with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x)), which contributes to bond affinity and specificity. E-selectin mediated rolling transmits signals into neutrophils that triggers activation of high-affinity β2-integrins necessary for transition to shear resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration...
August 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811065/corrigendum-to-could-linear-hysteresis-contribute-to-shear-wave-losses-in-tissues-ultrasound-med-biol-41-2015-1100-1104
#9
Kevin J Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811064/evaluation-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-elastography-in-rat-models
#10
Yanrong Guo, Changfeng Dong, Haoming Lin, Xinyu Zhang, Huiying Wen, Yuanyuan Shen, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Yingxia Liu, Xin Chen
The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for assessing hepatic fibrosis stage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity, as well as the relationship among hepatic histologic changes using shear wave velocity (SWV). Animal models with various degrees of NAFLD were established in 110 rats. The right liver lobe was processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin solution (porcine skin). Liver mechanics were measured using SWV induced by acoustic radiation force...
August 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811060/isolated-osteochondral-fracture-of-the-trochlea-in-the-coronal-plane-in-a-child-before-ossification-of-the-trochlea-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Koichi Yano, Yasunori Kaneshiro, Hideki Sakanaka
Isolated coronal shear fracture of the trochlea is a rare injury. Isolated fractures of the humeral trochlea have all been reported in adults. We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with pain and swelling of the elbow joint. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthrogram revealed an isolated osteochondral fracture of the trochlea in the coronal plane. Ossification of the trochlea had not yet occurred. An anterior approach was used for reduction and fixation of the fragment. A good clinical outcome was achieved with no signs of bony or chondral necrosis of the fragment 1 year after surgery...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810796/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-fluid-cyclopropane-with-mp2-cbs-fitted-intermolecular-interaction-potentials
#12
Yen-Ching Ho, Yi-Siang Wang, Sheng D Chao
Modeling fluid cycloalkanes with molecular dynamics simulations has proven to be a very challenging task partly because of lacking a reliable force field based on quantum chemistry calculations. In this paper, we construct an ab initio force field for fluid cyclopropane using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. We consider 15 conformers of the cyclopropane dimer for the orientation sampling. Single-point energies at important geometries are calibrated by the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation method...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810767/non-hydrodynamic-transverse-collective-excitations-in-hard-sphere-fluids
#13
Taras Bryk, Adrian Huerta, V Hordiichuk, A D Trokhymchuk
Collective excitations in hard-sphere fluids were studied in a wide range of wave numbers and packing fractions η by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We report the observation of non-hydrodynamic transverse excitations for packing fractions η≥0.395 in the shape of transverse current spectral functions. Dispersion of longitudinal excitations in the whole range of packing fractions shows a negative deviation from the linear hydrodynamic law with increasing wave numbers even for dense hard-sphere fluids where the transverse excitations were observed...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808823/vessel-wall-characterization-using-quantitative-mri-what-s-in-a-number
#14
REVIEW
Bram F Coolen, Claudia Calcagno, Pim van Ooij, Zahi A Fayad, Gustav J Strijkers, Aart J Nederveen
The past decade has witnessed the rapid development of new MRI technology for vessel wall imaging. Today, with advances in MRI hardware and pulse sequences, quantitative MRI of the vessel wall represents a real alternative to conventional qualitative imaging, which is hindered by significant intra- and inter-observer variability. Quantitative MRI can measure several important morphological and functional characteristics of the vessel wall. This review provides a detailed introduction to novel quantitative MRI methods for measuring vessel wall dimensions, plaque composition and permeability, endothelial shear stress and wall stiffness...
August 14, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808796/structural-alteration-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-contribution-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#15
Weiqi Li, Wen Wang
The endothelial glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-protein layer that lines the luminal surface of the endothelium. It anchors to the cell membrane via its core proteins that share extended link to the actin cytoskeleton. It is widely accepted that those protein domains and the attached carbohydrates are susceptible to pathological changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent the actin cytoskeleton contributes to the glycocalyx stability. In this study, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the maintenance of the glycocalyx under static and laminar flow conditions in vitro...
August 14, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808705/anisotropic-carrier-mobility-in-two-dimensional-materials-with-tilted-dirac-cones-theory-and-application
#16
Ting Cheng, Haifeng Lang, Zhenzhu Li, Zhongfan Liu, Zhirong Liu
We have theoretically investigated the intrinsic carrier mobility in semimetals with tilted Dirac cones under both longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonon scattering. An analytical formula for the carrier mobility was obtained. It shows that tilting significantly reduces the mobility. The theory was then applied to 8B-Pmmn borophene and borophane (fully hydrogenated borophene), both of which have tilted Dirac cones. The predicted carrier mobilities in 8B-Pmmn borophene at room temperature are 14.8 × 10(5) and 28...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808703/molecular-insights-into-the-effect-of-graphene-packing-on-mechanical-behaviors-of-graphene-reinforced-cis-1-4-polybutadiene-polymer-nanocomposites
#17
Yishuo Guo, Jun Liu, Youping Wu, Liqun Zhang, Zhao Wang, Ying Li
Through united-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we build a series of graphene (GP) reinforced cis-1,4-polybutadiene (cis-PB) models with two novel GP structures, intercalated and stacked GP structures, to investigate the effect of different GP packing patterns on the chain structure, chain dynamics, uniaxial tension and visco-elastic behaviors, and correlate the microscopic mechanism with macroscopic mechanical properties. Simulation results show that the interlayer polymer chains in the void of intercalated GPs are strongly confined, leading to higher bond orientation of polymer chains during the stretch process compared with monodisperse systems...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808637/effects-of-air-abrasion-pressure-on-the-resin-bond-strength-to-zirconia-a-combined-cyclic-loading-and-thermocycling-aging-study
#18
Eman Z Al-Shehri, Afnan O Al-Zain, Alaa H Sabrah, Sarah S Al-Angari, Laila Al Dehailan, George J Eckert, Mutlu Özcan, Jeffrey A Platt, Marco C Bottino
OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effect of fatigue cyclic loading and thermocycling (CLTC) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin cement to zirconia surfaces that were previously air-abraded with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles at different pressures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two cuboid zirconia specimens were prepared and randomly assigned to 3 groups according to the air-abrasion pressures (1, 2, and 2.8 bar), and each group was further divided into 2 groups depending on aging parameters (n = 12)...
August 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808635/effect-of-dentin-biomodifiers-on-the-immediate-and-long-term-bond-strengths-of-a-simplified-etch-and-rinse-adhesive-to-dentin
#19
Payal Singh, Rajni Nagpal, Udai Pratap Singh
OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study evaluated the effect of dentin biomodifiers on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of a simplified etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flat coronal dentin surfaces were prepared in 120 extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 24) according to 5 different surface pre-treatments: No pre-treatment (control); 1M carbodiimide (EDC); 0.1% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); 2% minocycline (MI); 10% sodium ascorbate (SA)...
August 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808455/effect-of-nickel-chromium-and-non-precious-gold-color-alloy-cast-posts-on-fracture-resistance-of-endodontically-treated-teeth
#20
Fatemeh Gholami, Parisa Kohani, Shima Aalaei
INTRODUCTION: Root canal-treated teeth are weaker than vital teeth and are more susceptible to fractures. Therefore, special precautions should be adhered to, such as the use of various types of cast or prefabricated posts. Regarding the effect of post material on fracture resistance of teeth, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of non-precious gold color alloy (NPG) and nickel-chrome (Ni-Cr) cast posts on resistance of endodontically treated teeth. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, 30 freshly extracted single-rooted premolar teeth were randomly divided into two groups...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
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