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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150976/salt-bridge-interactions-within-the-%C3%AE-2-integrin-%C3%AE-7-helix-mediate-force-induced-binding-and-shear-resistance-ability
#1
Xiao Zhang, Linda Li, Ning Li, Xinyu Shu, Lüwen Zhou, Shouqin Lü, Shenbao Chen, Debin Mao, Mian Long
The functional performance of αI domain α7 helix in β2 integrin activation depends on the allostery of the α7 helix, which axially slides down; therefore, it is critical to elucidate what factors regulate the allostery. In this study, we determined that there were two conservative salt bridge interaction pairs that constrain both the upper and bottom ends of the α7 helix. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for three β2 integrin members of LFA-1 (αL β2 ), Mac-1 (αM β2 ) and αx β2 indicated that the magnitude of the salt bridge interaction is related to the stability of the αI domain and the strength of the corresponding force-induced allostery...
November 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150662/turbulent-mass-transfer-caused-by-vortex-induced-reconnection-in-collisionless-magnetospheric-plasmas
#2
T K M Nakamura, H Hasegawa, W Daughton, S Eriksson, W Y Li, R Nakamura
Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the main driver to transport solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere when the magnetopause features a large magnetic shear. However, even when the magnetic shear is too small for spontaneous reconnection, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability driven by a super-Alfvénic velocity shear is expected to facilitate the transport. Although previous kinetic simulations have demonstrated that the non-linear vortex flows from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability gives rise to vortex-induced reconnection and resulting plasma transport, the system sizes of these simulations were too small to allow the reconnection to evolve much beyond the electron scale as recently observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150383/the-diagnostic-clinical-value-of-thumb-metacarpal-grind-pressure-shear-flexion-and-extension-tests-for-carpometacarpal-osteoarthritis
#3
Yaron Sela, Jodi Seftchick, William L Wang, Mark E Baratz
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical measurement. INTRODUCTION: Common provocative maneuvers to differentiate thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis from other sources of pain are the grind, metacarpal (MC) flexion, and MC extension tests. A maneuver known as the pressure-shear test is described here. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To compare the diagnostic value of the grind, metacarpal flexion, metacarpal extension, and pressure-shear tests for CMC osteoarthritis of the thumb...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150346/aerodynamic-study-of-time-trial-helmets-in-cycling-racing-using-cfd-analysis
#4
F Beaumont, R Taiar, G Polidori, H Trenchard, F Grappe
The aerodynamic drag of three different time-trial cycling helmets was analyzed numerically for two different cyclist head positions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were used to investigate the detailed airflow patterns around the cyclist for a constant velocity of 15 m/s without wind. The CFD simulations have focused on the aerodynamic drag effects in terms of wall shear stress maps and pressure coefficient distributions on the cyclist/helmet system. For a given head position, the helmet shape, by itself, obtained a weak effect on a cyclist's aerodynamic performance (<1...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150327/diagnostic-accuracy-of-point-shear-wave-elastography-in-the-detection-of-portal-hypertension-in-pediatric-patients
#5
M Burak Özkan, M C Bilgici, E Eren, G Caltepe
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of point shear wave elastography (p-SWE) of the liver and spleen for the detection of portal hypertension in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of 38 healthy children and 56 pediatric patients with biopsy-proven liver disease who underwent splenic and liver p-SWE. The diagnostic performance of p-SWE in detecting clinically significant portal hypertension was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves...
November 14, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150280/nk-cell-recruitment-and-exercise-potential-immunotherapeutic-role-of-shear-stress-and-endothelial-health
#6
William Evans
Positive cancer patient outcomes, including increased time to recurrent events, have been associated with increased counts and function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell counts and function are elevated following acute exercise, and the generally accepted mechanism of increased recruitment suggests that binding of epinephrine releases NK cells from endothelial tissue via decreases in adhesion molecules following. I propose that blood flow-induced shear stress may also play a role in NK cell recruitment from the endothelium...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149679/innovative-urban-forestry-governance-in-melbourne-investigating-green-placemaking-as-a-nature-based-solution
#7
Natalie Marie Gulsrud, Kelly Hertzog, Ian Shears
A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148433/a-flow-bioreactor-system-compatible-with-real-time-two-photon-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy
#8
Nian Shen, Julia A Riedl, Daniel A Carvajal-Berrio, Zackary Davis, Michael G Monaghan, Shannon Lee Layland, Svenja Hinderer, Katja Schenke-Layland
Bioreactors are essential cell and tissue culture tools that allow the introduction of biophysical signals into in vitro cultures. One major limitation is the need to interrupt experiments and sacrifice samples at certain time points for analyses. To address this issue, we designed a bioreactor that combines high-resolution contact-free imaging and continuous flow in a closed system that is compatible with various types of microscopes. The high-throughput fluid flow bioreactor was combined with two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) and validated...
November 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147849/heterogeneity-of-passive-elastic-properties-within-the-quadriceps-femoris-muscle-tendon-unit
#9
Brooke K Coombes, Brandon Ziegenfuss, Michael David, Rohitha Badya, Wolbert van den Hoorn, François Hug, Kylie Tucker
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare regional elastic properties between anterior and posterior regions of the patellar tendon, and individual quadriceps muscles, over a range of knee flexion angles. METHODS: An isokinetic dynamometer passively positioned the non-dominant knee of 19 young, healthy participants, at 25°, 40°, 55°, 70° and 85° flexion. Shear wave velocity (SWV, an index of tissue elasticity) was measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography in a relaxed (passive) state, confirmed by electromyography...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147741/achilles-tendon-elastic-properties-remain-decreased-in-long-term-after-rupture
#10
B Frankewycz, A Penz, J Weber, N P da Silva, F Freimoser, R Bell, M Nerlich, E M Jung, D Docheva, C G Pfeifer
PURPOSE: Rupture of the Achilles tendon results in inferior scar tissue formation. Elastography allows a feasible in vivo investigation of biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical properties of healed Achilles tendons in the long term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who suffered from Achilles tendon rupture were recruited for an elastographic evaluation. Unilateral Achilles tendon ruptures were included and scanned in the mid-substance and calcaneal insertion at least 2 years after rupture using shear wave elastography...
November 16, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147689/a-theoretical-prediction-on-the-shear-induced-phase-transformation-of-tkx-50
#11
Zhipeng Lu, Xianggui Xue, Chaoyang Zhang
Dihydroxylammonium 5,5'-bistetrazole-1,1'-diolate (TKX-50) is a new and attractive energetic material that outperforms numerous common explosives because of its excellent properties and performance, and is thus a promising candidate to replace some of them. Nevertheless, knowledge of its physico-chemical properties, in particular, the underlying mechanism for it undergoing external stimuli for complete decay still remains poor. In the present study, we ascertain a preferred slip system of (010)/[101] and a shear-induced phase transition of TKX-50 with the aid of theoretical calculations...
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147556/mechanism-of-biosurfactant-adsorption-to-oil-water-interfaces-from-millisecond-scale-tensiometry-measurements
#12
Lingling Kong, Kadi Liis Saar, Raphael Jacquat, Liu Hong, Aviad Levin, Hongze Gang, Ruqiang Ye, Bozhong Mu, Tuomas P J Knowles
Many biological molecules are by their nature amphiphilic and have the ability to act as surfactants, stabilizing interfaces between aqueous and immiscible oil phases. In this paper, we explore the adsorption kinetics of surfactin, a naturally occurring cyclic lipopeptide, at hexadecane/water interfaces and compare and contrast its adsorption behaviour with that of synthetic alkyl benzene sulfonate isomers, through direct measurements of changes in interfacial tension upon surfactant adsorption. We access millisecond time resolution in kinetic measurements by making use of droplet microfluidics to probe the interfacial tension of hexadecane droplets dispersed in a continuous water phase through monitoring their deformation when the droplets are exposed to shear flows in a microfluidic channel with regular corrugations...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147096/meat-quality-and-storage-characteristics-of-pork-loin-marinated-in-grape-pomace
#13
Hyun-Joo Lee, Jae-Joon Lee, Myung-Ok Jung, Jung-Seok Choi, Ji-Taek Jung, Yang-Il Choi, Jin-Kyu Lee
This study investigated the meat quality and storage characteristics of pork loin marinated in grape pomace powder during different storage periods. The experimental design included six treatments : pork loin containing only 100% water (Control, C); pork loin containing a combination of 20% grape pomace and 80% water (T1); pork loin containing a combination of 40% grape pomace and 60% water (T2); pork loin containing a combination of 0.5% grape pomace powder and 95.5% water (T3); pork loin containing a combination of 1...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147095/histochemical-characteristics-in-relation-to-meat-quality-traits-of-eight-major-muscles-from-hanwoo-steers
#14
Sung-Hyun Joo, Kyu-Won Lee, Young-Hwa Hwang, Seon-Tea Joo
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between composition of muscle fiber types and meat quality traits of eight major muscles from Hanwoo steers. Longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus abdominis (RA) and superficialis flexor (SF) muscles were obtained from 9 Hanwoo steers and subjected to histochemical analysis. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of fiber types among these 8 major muscles...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146825/toroidal-plasmoid-generation-via-extreme-hydrodynamic-shear
#15
Morteza Gharib, Sean Mendoza, Moshe Rosenfeld, Masoud Beizai, Francisco J Alves Pereira
Saint Elmo's fire and lightning are two known forms of naturally occurring atmospheric pressure plasmas. As a technology, nonthermal plasmas are induced from artificially created electromagnetic or electrostatic fields. Here we report the observation of arguably a unique case of a naturally formed such plasma, created in air at room temperature without external electromagnetic action, by impinging a high-speed microjet of deionized water on a dielectric solid surface. We demonstrate that tribo-electrification from extreme and focused hydrodynamic shear is the driving mechanism for the generation of energetic free electrons...
November 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146768/adhesive-performance-of-tropical-arboreal-ants-varies-with-substrate-temperature
#16
Alyssa Y Stark, Katherine Arstingstall, Stephen P Yanoviak
The surface temperature of tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy can reach up to 55°C. Ants and other small cursorial organisms must maintain adequate attachment in this extreme microenvironment to forage effectively and prevent falling. Ant adhesion depends on liquid secretions that should become less viscous at high temperatures, causing ants to slip. However, tropical arboreal ants have high thermal tolerance and actively forage on hot canopy surfaces, suggesting that these ants can maintain adhesion on hot substrates...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146509/isolated-coronal-shear-fracture-of-the-nonossified-humeral-trochlea-in-a-7-year-old-patient
#17
Michiyo Tomaru, Denju Osada, Kazuya Tamai, Hiroshi Taneichi
Coronal shear fractures of the nonossified humeral trochlea are extremely rare in skeletally immature children. This fracture is difficult to diagnose accurately on routine radiographs. In addition, the mechanism of injury and appropriate treatment methods are unknown. We present the case of a 7-year-old boy who sustained an isolated coronal shear fracture of the nonossified humeral trochlea. Internal fixation of the fracture was performed with 2 K-wires. Two and a half years after surgery, the patient had pain-free active range of motion of the elbow from 0° to 130° with full forearm rotation and magnetic resonance imaging showed healing of the chondral fragment of the trochlea...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146046/influence-of-different-smear-layers-on-bond-durability-of-self-etch-adhesives
#18
Toshiki Takamizawa, Wayne W Barkmeier, Keiichi Sai, Akimasa Tsujimoto, Arisa Imai, Robert L Erickson, Mark A Latta, Masashi Miyazaki
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different smear layers on enamel and dentin bond durability of various types of self-etch adhesives. METHODS: Two universal adhesives, Scotchbond Universal (SU) and Prime & Bond elect (PE); a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive, G-ænial Bond (GB); and two two-step self-etch adhesives, Optibond XTR (OX) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were used in this study. Shear bond strengths (SBS) and shear fatigue strengths (SFS) to human enamel and dentin were determined with different smear layer conditions...
November 13, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145961/vertical-femoral-neck-fractures-in-young-adults-a-closed-fixation-strategy-using-a-transverse-cancellous-lag-screw
#19
João Antonio Matheus Guimarães, Leonardo Rosa Rocha, Tito Henrique Noronha Rocha, Danielle Cabral Bonfim, Rafaela Sartore da Costa, Amanda Dos Santos Cavalcanti, Carlos Rodrigo Roesler, Jamila Alessandra Perini Machado, Diego Pinheiro Aguiar, Maria Eugenia Leite Duarte
Vertical femoral neck fractures (Pauwels type III classification) in young adults generally occur as a consequence of high-energy trauma and are frequently seen in association with multiple injuries. Considering the controversies regarding the optimal fixation for this fracture, our aim was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a closed fixation strategy for vertical femoral neck fractures in young adults using two parallel and one transverse cancellous lag screws. This was a single-surgeon, prospective study including 20 young adults with average age of 38...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145514/why-patients-with-thbd-c-1611c-a-p-cys537x-nonsense-mutation-have-high-levels-of-soluble-thrombomodulin
#20
Yohann Jourdy, Nathalie Enjolras, Sandra Le Quellec, Jean Claude Bordet, Claude Négrier, Christine Vinciguerra, Yesim Dargaud
BACKGROUND: Recently our group has described a new autosomal dominant bleeding disorder characterized by very high plasma levels of soluble thrombomodulin (TM). The THBD c.1611C>A (p.Cys537X) mutation in heterozygous state was found in the propositus. This mutation leads to the synthesis of a truncated TM which has lost the last three amino-acids of the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the mechanism responsible for TM shedding in endothelial cells with THBD c...
2017: PloS One
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