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Vishwas V Vasisht, Sudeep K Dutta, Emanuela Del Gado, Daniel L Blair
We use a combination of confocal microscopy, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate jammed emulsions under shear, by analyzing the 3D droplets rearrangements in the shear frame. Our quantitative analysis of local dynamics reveals elementary nonaffine rearrangements that underlie the onset of the flow at small strains. We find that the mechanism of unjamming and the upturn in the material flow curve are associated to a qualitative change in spatiotemporal correlations of such rearrangements with the applied shear rate...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Rouhollah Dermanaki Farahani, Mathieu Janier, Martine Dubé
In the present work, a conductive film of silver nanoparticles (nAg) as a novel heating element type, called susceptor was developed and tested for induction welding of carbon fiber/polyphenylene sulfide (CF/PPS) thermoplastic composites, i.e., unidirectional pre-impregnated16 plies of CF/PPS compression-molded in a quasi-isotropic stacking sequence. The nAg were synthesized, dispersed in deionized (DI) water and casted onto a pure PPS film, resulting in a conductive film upon the evaporation of DI water and thermal post-annealing...
January 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Seray Hazer, Umut Perçem Orhan Söylemez
BACKGROUND: Traumatic pulmonary pseudocysts (TPP) are rare complications of blunt chest trauma. The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of this rare entity with imaging and clinical parameters for preventing complications and determining the correct treatment approach by observing 15 cases. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical data and thoracic computed tomography scans of 185 patients who underwent examinations in our department after chest trauma between July 2014 and December 2015...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Ghobad Azizi, James M Keller, Michelle L Mayo, Kelé Piper, David Puett, Karly M Earp, Carl D Malchoff
PURPOSE: To compare shear wave elastography (SWE) and Afirma™ gene expression classifier (GEC) for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules (TNs) with Bethesda Classification (BC) III or IV indeterminate cytology. METHODS: This preliminary single-center prospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. We evaluated 151 consented patients with 151 indeterminate TNs (123 BC III, 28 BC IV) on fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). B-mode ultrasound, vascularity, and SWE were performed prior to FNAB...
January 19, 2018: Endocrine
Chengze Liu, Geping Li, Fusen Yuan, Fuzhou Han, Yingdong Zhang, Hengfei Gu
Stacking faults (SFs) in secondary phase particles (SPPs), which generally crystallize in the Laves phase in Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) alloy, have been frequently observed by researchers. However, few investigations on the nano-scale structure of SFs have been carried out. In the present study, an SF containing C14 structured SPP, which located at grain boundaries (GBs) in the α-Zr matrix, was chosen to be investigated, for its particular substructure as well as location, aiming to reveal the nature of the SFs in the SPPs in Zr-4 alloy...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Da-Wei Bi, Gang Zu, Lei Han, Yi-Min Chen, Hai-Tao Ma, Gang-Feng Hu, Yuan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the suitable surgical approach and the internal fixation of unstable pelvic pelvic fractures. METHODS: From May 2010 to May 2015, 45 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were treated with different approaches and fixations, including 38 males and 7 females with an average age of 45 years ranging from 21 to 61 years. The course was within 2 weeks. According to Young-Burg classification, 23 patients were lateral compression injuries, 6 patients were vertical shearing injuries, 16 patients were anterior-posterior compression injuries...
March 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Sedat Giray Kandemirli, Zuhal Bayramoglu, Emine Caliskan, Zeynep Nur Akyol Sari, Ibrahim Adaletli
OBJECTIVE: Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common autoimmune thyroid disorder in the pediatric age range. Measurement of thyroid gland size is an essential component in evaluation and follow-up of thyroid pathologies. Along with size, tissue elasticity is becoming a more commonly used parameter in evaluation of parenchyma in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess thyroid parenchyma elasticity by shear-wave elastography in pediatric patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; and compare the elasticity values to a normal control group...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
K S Jayaprakash, A K Sen
We report the continuous splitting of aqueous droplets at the interface between two co-flowing immiscible oil streams in a microchannel. The aqueous droplets initially present in a primary continuous stream (CP1) migrate into a secondary continuous stream (CP2) when the ratio of the non-inertial lift force to the interfacial tension force exceeds a critical value (K. S. Jayaprakash, U. Banerjee and A. K. Sen, Langmuir, 2016, 32, 2136-2143). Here, experiments were performed to understand the droplet splitting phenomenon and demonstrate the splitting of droplets encapsulating microbeads and cells...
January 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Prakash Doddapattar, Nirav Dhanesha, Mehul R Chorawala, Chandler Tinsman, Manish Jain, Manasa K Nayak, Janice M Staber, Anil K Chauhan
OBJECTIVE: VWF (von Willebrand factor) is synthesized by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes and is known to contribute to atherosclerosis. In vitro studies suggest that platelet-derived VWF (Plt-VWF) is biochemically and functionally different from endothelial cell-derived VWF (EC-VWF). We determined the role of different pools of VWF in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using bone marrow transplantation, we generated chimeric Plt-VWF, EC-VWF, and Plt-VWF mice lacking a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13 in platelets and plasma on apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) background...
January 18, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Mario Gutierrez, Margaret B Fish, Alexander W Golinski, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
The symptoms of many blood diseases can often be attributed to irregularities in cellular dynamics produced by abnormalities in blood cells, particularly red blood cells (RBCs). Contingent on the disease and its severity, RBCs can be afflicted with increased membrane rigidity as seen in malaria and sickle cell disease. Despite this understanding, little experimental work has been conducted towards understanding the effect of RBC rigidity on cellular dynamics in physiologic blood flow. Though many have computationally modeled complex blood flow to postulate how RBC rigidity may disrupt normal hemodynamics, to date, there lacks a clear understanding of how rigid RBCs affect the blood cell segregation behavior in blood flow, known as margination, and the resulting change in the adhesion of white blood cells (WBCs)...
January 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
J S Langer
The thermodynamic theory of dislocation-enabled plasticity is based on two unconventional hypotheses. The first of these is that a system of dislocations, driven by external forces and irreversibly exchanging heat with its environment, must be characterized by a thermodynamically defined effective temperature that is not the same as the ordinary temperature. The second hypothesis is that the overwhelmingly dominant mechanism controlling plastic deformation is thermally activated depinning of entangled pairs of dislocations...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Levan Jibuti, Walter Zimmermann, Salima Rafaï, Philippe Peyla
Micro-organisms usually can swim in their liquid environment by flagellar or ciliary beating. In this numerical work, we analyze the influence of flagellar beating on the orbits of a swimming cell in a shear flow. We also calculate the effect of the flagellar beating on the rheology of a dilute suspension of microswimmers. A three-dimensional model is proposed for Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii swimming with a breaststroke-like beating of two anterior flagella modeled by two counter-rotating fore beads. The active swimmer model reveals unusual angular orbits in a linear shear flow...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Jonathan Barés, Dengming Wang, Dong Wang, Thibault Bertrand, Corey S O'Hern, Robert P Behringer
We present the experimental and numerical studies of a two-dimensional sheared amorphous material composed of bidisperse photoelastic disks. We analyze the statistics of avalanches during shear including the local and global fluctuations in energy and changes in particle positions and orientations. We find scale-free distributions for these global and local avalanches denoted by power laws whose cutoffs vary with interparticle friction and packing fraction. Different exponents are found for these power laws depending on the quantity from which variations are extracted...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Yan Feng, Wei Lin, M S Murillo
Transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled dusty plasmas have been investigated in detail, but never for viscosity with a strong perpendicular magnetic field; here, we examine this scenario using Langevin dynamics simulations of 2D liquids with a binary Yukawa interparticle interaction. The shear viscosity η of 2D liquid dusty plasma is estimated from the simulation data using the Green-Kubo relation, which is the integration of the shear stress autocorrelation function. It is found that, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, the shear viscosity of 2D liquid dusty plasma is modified substantially...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Nikolai V Priezjev, Maxim A Makeev
Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate mechanical properties and porous structure of binary glasses subjected to steady shear. The model vitreous systems were prepared via thermal quench at constant volume to a temperature well below the glass transition. The quiescent samples are characterized by a relatively narrow pore size distribution whose mean size is larger at lower glass densities. We find that in the linear regime of deformation, the shear modulus is a strong function of porosity, and the individual pores become slightly stretched while their structural topology remains unaffected...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
S Karthick, A K Sen
We provide improved understanding of acoustophoretic focusing of a dense suspension (volume fraction φ>10%) in a microchannel subjected to an acoustic standing wave using a proposed theoretical model and experiments. The model is based on the theory of interacting continua and utilizes a momentum transport equation for the mixture, continuity equation, and transport equation for the solid phase. The model demonstrates the interplay between acoustic radiation and shear-induced diffusion (SID) forces that is critical in the focusing of dense suspensions...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Anaël Lemaître
After constructing a formalism to analyze spatial stress correlations in two-dimensional equilibrated liquids, we show that the sole conjunction of mechanical balance and material isotropy demands all anisotropic components of the inherent state (IS) stress autocorrelation matrix to decay at long range as 1/r^{2} in the large system size limit. Furthermore, analyzing numerical simulation data for an equilibrated supercooled liquid, we bring evidence that, in finite-sized periodic systems, the autocorrelations of pressure and shear stresses present uniform backgrounds of amplitudes proportional to the inverse cell area...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Mathijs F J Vermeulen, Anwesha Bose, Cornelis Storm, Wouter G Ellenbroek
Disordered spring networks that are undercoordinated may abruptly rigidify when sufficient strain is applied. Since the deformation in response to applied strain does not change the generic quantifiers of network architecture, the number of nodes and the number of bonds between them, this rigidity transition must have a geometric origin. Naive, degree-of-freedom-based mechanical analyses such as the Maxwell-Calladine count or the pebble game algorithm overlook such geometric rigidity transitions and offer no means of predicting or characterizing them...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Thomas Varé, Chérif Nouar, Christel Métivier
Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a horizontal layer of a non-Newtonian fluid between slabs of arbitrary thickness and finite thermal conductivity is considered. The first part of the paper deals with the primary bifurcation and the relative stability of convective patterns at threshold. Weakly nonlinear analysis combined with Stuart-Landau equation is used. The competition between squares and rolls, as a function of the shear-thinning degree of the fluid, the slabs' thickness, and the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the slabs to that of the fluid is investigated...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Arman Pazouki, Michał Kwarta, Kyle Williams, William Likos, Radu Serban, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Dan Negrut
We summarize and numerically compare two approaches for modeling and simulating the dynamics of dry granular matter. The first one, the discrete-element method via penalty (DEM-P), is commonly used in the soft matter physics and geomechanics communities; it can be traced back to the work of Cundall and Strack [P. Cundall, Proc. Symp. ISRM, Nancy, France 1, 129 (1971); P. Cundall and O. Strack, Geotechnique 29, 47 (1979)GTNQA80016-850510.1680/geot.1979.29.1.47]. The second approach, the discrete-element method via complementarity (DEM-C), considers the grains perfectly rigid and enforces nonpenetration via complementarity conditions; it is commonly used in robotics and computer graphics applications and had two strong promoters in Moreau and Jean [J...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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