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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445754/probing-the-dynamics-of-clot-bound-thrombin-at-venous-shear-rates
#1
Laura M Haynes, Thomas Orfeo, Kenneth G Mann, Stephen J Everse, Kathleen E Brummel-Ziedins
In closed system models of fibrin formation, exosite-mediated thrombin binding to fibrin contributes to clot stability and is resistant to inhibition by antithrombin/heparin while still susceptible to small, active-site inhibitors. Each molecule of fibrin can bind ∼1.6 thrombin molecules at low-affinity binding sites (Kd = 2.8 μM) and ∼0.3 molecules of thrombin at high-affinity binding sites (Kd = 0.15 μM). The goal of this study is to assess the stability of fibrin-bound thrombin under venous flow conditions and to determine both its accessibility and susceptibility to inhibition...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445646/spinning-hierarchical-gold-nanowire-microfibers-by-shear-alignment-and-intermolecular-self-assembly
#2
Beate Reiser, Dominik Gerstner, Lola Gonzalez-Garcia, Johannes H M Maurer, Ioannis Kanelidis, Tobias Kraus
Hierarchical structures lend strength to natural fibers made of soft nanoscale building blocks. Intermolecular interactions connect the components at different levels of hierarchy, distribute stresses, and guarantee structural integrity under load. Here, we show that synthetic ultrathin gold nanowires with interacting ligand shells can be spun into biomimetic, free-standing microfibers. A solution spinning process first aligns the wires, then lets their ligand shells interact, and finally converts them into a hierarchical superstructure...
April 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445003/a-multiscale-approach-for-determining-the-morphology-of-endothelial-cells-at-a-coronary-artery
#3
Hossein Ali Pakravan, Mohammad Said Saidi, Bahar Firoozabadi
The morphology of endothelial cells (ECs) may be an indication for determining the atheroprone sites. Until now, there is not any clinical imaging technique to visualize the morphology of ECs at the arteries. The present study, introduces a computational technique for determining the morphology of ECs. This technique is a multiscale simulation, consisting the artery-scale and the cell-scale. The artery-scale is a FSI simulation. The input for the artery-scale is the geometry of the coronary artery (CA), dynamic curvature of the artery due to the cardiac motion, blood flow, blood pressure, heart rate, and the mechanical properties of the blood and the arterial wall, which these quantities can be obtained for a specific patient...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444930/does-postexercise-modelled-capillary-blood-flow-accurately-reflect-cardiovascular-effects-by-different-exercise-intensities
#4
F Stöcker, C Von Oldershausen, F K Paternoster, T Schulz, R Oberhoffer
Blood flow (BF) in exercising muscles is an important factor for exercise capacity. Recently, a non-invasive method to estimate capillary BF (Qcap ) was introduced. Using this method, the Fick principle is re-arranged by using relative differences in deoxygenated haemoglobin (ΔHHb) as a surrogate for arteriovenous O2 difference and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 ) instead of muscular oxygen uptake. The aim of this study was to examine (I) the relationship between Qcap and exercise intensity during and following exercise, and (II) to critically reflect the Qcap approach...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444501/validation-of-numerical-simulation-methods-in-aortic-arch-using-4d-flow-mri
#5
Shohei Miyazaki, Keiichi Itatani, Toyoki Furusawa, Teruyasu Nishino, Masataka Sugiyama, Yasuo Takehara, Satoshi Yasukochi
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are the gold standard in studying blood flow dynamics. However, CFD results are dependent on the boundary conditions and the computation model. The purpose of this study was to validate CFD methods using comparison with actual measurements of the blood flow vector obtained with four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 4D Flow MRI was performed on a healthy adult and a child with double-aortic arch. The aortic lumen was segmented to visualize the blood flow...
April 25, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444251/effect-of-eu-electrical-stunning-conditions-on-breast-meat-quality-of-broiler-chickens
#6
F Sirri, M Petracci, M Zampiga, A Meluzzi
Electrical stunning is still the main stunning method used worldwide in commercial poultry plants. The stunning procedures in water bath stunners affect both bird welfare and meat quality attributes. The European Union (EU) Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of the animal at the time of killing established the minimum current flow through an individual bird at a specified frequency to assure an effective stun that must last until the bird's death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of different stunning current flows on the prevalence of hemorrhages (classified as 1 = no lesion, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe lesion) and some quality traits (pHu, color, drip and cooking losses, and shear force) of chicken breast meat...
April 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444018/effect-of-nanotechnology-in-self-etch-bonding-systems-on-the-shear-bond-strength-of-stainless-steel-orthodontic-brackets
#7
Shaza M Hammad, Noha El-Wassefy, Ahmed Maher, Shafik M Fawakerji
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of silica dioxide (SiO2) nanofillers in different bonding systems on shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of orthodontic brackets at two experimental times. METHODS: Ninety-six intact premolars were divided into four groups: A) Conventional acid-etch and primer Transbond XT; B) Transbond Plus self-etch primer; and two self-etch bonding systems reinforced with silica dioxide nanofiller at different concentrations: C) Futurabond DC at 1%; D) Optibond All-in-One at 7%...
February 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443922/friction-lubrication-and-in-situ-mechanics-of-poroelastic-cellulose-hydrogels
#8
G K Dolan, G E Yakubov, M R Bonilla, P Lopez-Sanchez, J R Stokes
The tribology between biphasic materials is challenging to predict and interpret due to the interrelationship between mechanical properties, microstructure and movement of the fluid phase contained within. A new approach is presented to deconvolute these effects for cellulose hydrogels, which have a fibrous network that is akin to the microstructure of articular cartilage and plant cell walls. This is achieved by developing a tribo-rheological technique that uniquely incorporates in situ mechanical characterisation (compression-relaxation and small amplitude oscillatory shear) immediately prior to measuring the tribological response between pairs of hydrogels...
April 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443878/influence-of-high-energy-electron-irradiation-on-the-network-structure-of-gelatin-hydrogels-as-investigated-by-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-saxs
#9
Emilia I Wisotzki, Paolo Tempesti, Emiliano Fratini, Stefan G Mayr
The impact of high energy crosslinking on the network structure of gelatin hydrogels was investigated in comparison to physically entangled gels by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Physically entangled gelatin of increasing concentration exhibited a nearly constant correlation length of several nanometers. These gels had scattering behavior close to that of polymer coils swollen in a good solvent, as evidenced by the Porod exponent of 1.8. The mass fractal dimension decreased towards 1, indicating increased formation of semiflexible gelatin triple helices and rod-like structures as a function of the gelatin concentration...
April 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443326/ionic-liquid-silica-precursors-via-solvent-free-sol-gel-process-and-their-application-in-epoxy-amine-network-a-theoretical-experimental-study
#10
Magdalena Perchacz, Ricardo Keitel Donato, Leandro Seixas, Alexander Zhigunov, Rafal Konefal, Magdalena Serkis-Rodzeń, Hynek Benes
This work describes the solvent-free sol-gel synthesis of epoxy-functionalized silica-based precursors, in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) containing different anions - chloride (Cl(-)) and methanesulfonate (MeSO3(-)). The IL-driven sol-gel mechanisms were investigated in details using experimental characterizations ((29)Si NMR and ATR FTIR spectroscopy) and a theoretical computational method based on density functional theory (DFT). We observed a complex IL's influence on both hydrolysis and condensation steps, involving especially H-bonding and Coulomb coupling stabilization of the process intermediates...
April 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443169/radiographic-analysis-of-the-lumbosacral-juncture-is-there-a-critical-sacral-angle-for-total-disc-replacement
#11
Rattalerk Arunakul, Melodie Metzger, Linda Kanim, Hyun Bae, Michael Kropf, Rick Delamarter
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of a patient cohort through a prospective study. PURPOSE: To determine whether there are correlations between radiographic measurements, including sacral slope (SS) and pelvic incidence (PI), and self-reported clinical outcomes among single-level L5/S1 ProDisc-L patients. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: The lumbosacral juncture presents unique biomechanical challenges with respect to artificial disc replacement (ADR) because of its orientation and consequential shear loading...
April 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442943/flow-shear-stress-enhances-the-proliferative-potential-of-cultured-radial-glial-cells-possibly-via-an-activation-of-mechanosensitive-calcium-channel
#12
Min Gu Park, Heeyeong Jang, Sang-Hoon Lee, C Justin Lee
Radial glial cells (RGCs) which function as neural stem cells are known to be non-excitable and their proliferation depends on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) level. It has been well established that Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry through various Ca(2+) channels are involved in the proliferation of RGCs. Furthermore, RGCs line the ventricular wall and are exposed to a shear stress due to a physical contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, little is known about how the Ca(2+) entry through mechanosensitive ion channels affects the proliferation of RGCs...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442789/elastic-turbulence-in-entangled-semi-dilute-dna-solutions-measured-with-optical-coherence-tomography-velocimetry
#13
A V Malm, T A Waigh
The flow instabilities of solutions of high molecular weight DNA in the entangled semi-dilute concentration regime were investigated using optical coherence tomography velocimetry, a technique that provides high spatial (probe volumes of 3.4 pL) and temporal resolution (sub μs) information on the flow behaviour of complex fluids in a rheometer. The velocity profiles of the opaque DNA solutions (high and low salt) were measured as a function of the distance across the gap of a parallel plate rheometer, and their evolution over time was measured...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442747/soret-and-dufour-effects-on-unsteady-mixed-convection-slip-flow-of-casson-fluid-over-a-nonlinearly-stretching-sheet-with-convective-boundary-condition
#14
Imran Ullah, Ilyas Khan, Sharidan Shafie
Unsteady mixed convection flow of Casson fluid towards a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the slip and convective boundary conditions is analyzed in this work. The effects of Soret Dufour, viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption are also investigated. After using some suitable transformations, the unsteady nonlinear problem is solved by using Keller-box method. Numerical solutions for wall shear stress and high temperature transfer rate are calculated and compared with previously published work, an excellent arrangement is followed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442371/dynamites-a-dynamic-cell-culture-platform-for-in-vitro-drug-testing-part-1-engineering-of-microfluidic-system-and-technical-simulations
#15
Kai Mattern, Nicole Beißner, Stephan Reichl, Andreas Dietzel
Conventional safety and efficacy test models, such as animal experiments or static in vitro cell culture models, can often not reliably predict the most promising drug candidates. Therefore, a novel microfluidic cell culture platform, called Dynamic Micro Tissue Engineering System (DynaMiTES), was designed to allow online analysis of drugs permeating through barrier forming tissues under dynamic conditions combined with monitoring of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) by electrodes optimized for homogeneous current distribution...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442120/american-gastroenterological-association-institute-technical-review-on-the-role-of-elastography-in-chronic-liver-diseases
#16
Siddharth Singh, Andrew J Muir, Douglas T Dieterich, Yngve T Falck-Ytter
Chronic liver diseases (CLDs), due to chronic hepatitis C; hepatitis B; nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD); and alcoholic liver disease, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Early identification of patients with cirrhosis at high risk of progression to liver-related complications may facilitate timely care and improve outcomes. With risks and misclassification associated with invasive tests, such as liver biopsy, noninvasive imaging modalities for liver fibrosis assessment have gained popularity...
May 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441918/molecular-dynamics-simulations-indicate-that-deoxyhemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin-carboxyhemoglobin-and-glycated-hemoglobin-under-compression-and-shear-exhibit-an-anisotropic-mechanical-behavior
#17
Sumith Yesudasan, Xianqiao Wang, Rodney D Averett
We developed a new mechanical model for determining the compression and shear mechanical behavior of four different hemoglobin structures. Previous studies on hemoglobin structures have focused primarily on overall mechanical behavior; however, this study investigates the mechanical behavior of hemoglobin, a major constituent of red blood cells (RBCs), using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to obtain anisotropic mechanical behavior under compression and shear loading conditions. Four different configurations of hemoglobin molecules were considered: deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441034/thrombus-formation-at-high-shear-rate
#18
Lauren D C Casa, David N Ku
The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440627/composite-micro-posts-with-high-dry-adhesion-strength
#19
Helen K Minsky, Kevin T Turner
Interfaces with enhanced and tunable adhesion have applications in a broad range of fields, including microtransfer printing of semiconductors, grippers on robots, and component handling in manufacturing. Here, a composite post structure with a stiff core and compliant shell is used to achieve enhanced adhesion under normal loading. Loading the composite structure in shear significantly reduces the effective adhesion strength, thus providing tunability. The composite posts can be used as stamps in microtransfer printing processes or as building blocks of large area tunable surfaces composed of arrays of posts...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440378/dynamics-of-a-multicomponent-vesicle-in-shear-flow
#20
Kai Liu, Gary R Marple, Jun Allard, Shuwang Li, Shravan Veerapaneni, John Lowengrub
We study the fully nonlinear, nonlocal dynamics of two-dimensional multicomponent vesicles in a shear flow with matched viscosity of the inner and outer fluids. Using a nonstiff, pseudo-spectral boundary integral method, we investigate dynamical patterns induced by inhomogeneous bending for a two phase system. Numerical results reveal that there exist novel phase-treading and tumbling mechanisms that cannot be observed for a homogeneous vesicle. In particular, unlike the well-known steady tank-treading dynamics characterized by a fixed inclination angle, here the phase-treading mechanism leads to unsteady periodic dynamics with an oscillatory inclination angle...
April 25, 2017: Soft Matter
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