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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534745/arab-youth-respond-to-the-lancet-commission-on-adolescent-health-and-wellbeing
#1
Hala Alaouie, Ahmed Ali, Rima Afifi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534279/overcoming-resistance-against-managed-care-insights-from-a-bargaining-model
#2
Andree Ehlert, Thomas Wein, Peter Zweifel
Recent healthcare reforms have sought to increase efficiency by introducing managed care (MC) while respecting consumer preferences by admitting choice between MC and conventional care. This article proposes an institutional change designed to let German consumers choose between the two settings through directing payments from the Federal Health Fund to social health insurers (SHIs) or to specialized MC organizations (MCOs). To gauge the chance of success of this reform, a game involving a SHI, a MCO, and a representative insured (RI) is analyzed...
December 2017: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523966/relationship-centered-dementia-care-insights-from-a-community-based-culture-change-coalition
#3
Lorna de Witt, Darla Fortune
This article reports on the work of a community-based culture change coalition affiliated with the Partnerships in Dementia Care Alliance, a research network committed to strengthening dementia care through supporting relationship-centered care approaches. Research to date emphasizes negative aspects of dementia care relationships. Drawing on data the culture change coalition collected as part of their culture change work using participatory action research guided by appreciative inquiry, this article examines what relationship qualities contributed to positive dementia care experiences and how positive relationships were created...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523941/lifestyle-as-medicine-the-case-for-a-true-health-initiative
#4
David L Katz, Elizabeth P Frates, Jonathan P Bonnet, Sanjay K Gupta, Erkki Vartiainen, Richard H Carmona
The power of lifestyle as medicine was perceived thousands of years ago. There is now consistent and compelling science to support the important influence of lifestyle on health. Approximately 80% of chronic disease and premature death could be prevented by not smoking, being physically active, and adhering to a healthful dietary pattern. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, dementia, and cancer are all influenced by lifestyle choices. Despite the ample evidence about what behaviors promote health, confusion still prevails among the general population...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522993/coalition-of-biology-and-chemistry-for-ameliorating-antimicrobial-drug-discovery
#5
Dipesh Dhakal, Jae Kyung Sohng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517986/from-rosalind-franklin-to-barack-obama-data-sharing-challenges-and-solutions-in-genomics-and-personalised-medicine
#6
Mark Lawler, Tim Maughan
The collection, storage and use of genomic and clinical data from patients and healthy individuals is a key component of personalised medicine enterprises such as the Precision Medicine Initiative, the Cancer Moonshot and the 100,000 Genomes Project. In order to maximise the value of this data, it is important to embed a culture within the scientific, medical and patient communities that supports the appropriate sharing of genomic and clinical information. However, this aspiration raises a number of ethical, legal and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515775/retrospective-mortality-among-refugees-from-the-central-african-republic-arriving-in-chad-2014
#7
Matthew E Coldiron, Thomas Roederer, Augusto E Llosa, Malika Bouhenia, Sassou Madi, Laurent Sury, Michaël Neuman, Klaudia Porten
BACKGROUND: The Central African Republic has known long periods of instability. In 2014, following the fall of an interim government installed by the Séléka coalition, a series of violent reprisals occurred. These events were largely directed at the country's Muslim minority and led to a massive displacement of the population. In 2014, we sought to document the retrospective mortality among refugees arriving from the CAR into Chad by conducting a series of surveys. METHODS: The Sido camp was surveyed exhaustively in March-April 2014 and a systematic sampling strategy was used in the Goré camp in October 2014...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510572/1-2-million-kids-and-counting-mobile-science-laboratories-drive-student-interest-in-stem
#8
Amanda L Jones, Mary K Stapleton
In today's increasingly technological society, a workforce proficient in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) skills is essential. Research has shown that active engagement by K-12 students in hands-on science activities that use authentic science tools promotes student learning and retention. Mobile laboratory programs provide this type of learning in schools and communities across the United States and internationally. Many programs are members of the Mobile Lab Coalition (MLC), a nonprofit organization of mobile and other laboratory-based education programs built on scientist and educator collaborations...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506158/incidence-of-carpal-coalition-in-an-asian-population-preliminary-findings-of-a-study-on-patients-from-a-distal-radius-fracture-database
#9
Sean Ong, Sreedharan Sechachalam
BACKGROUND: Congenital carpal coalition is usually seen as an incidental finding. The incidence of carpal coalition has been reported from 0.1 to 9.5 %; highest incidence has been reported in people of African descent. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the incidence and subtypes of carpal coalition in an Asian population. METHODS: Review of the radiographs of the patients in our distal radius fracture database from 2009 to 2014 was conducted to determine the incidence and type of carpal coalition...
June 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498759/social-determinants-of-health-building-wide-coalitions-around-well-honed-messages
#10
Jonathan E Fielding, Steven Teutsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495494/unlimited-niche-packing-in-a-lotka-volterra-competition-game
#11
Ross Cressman, Abdel Halloway, Gordon G McNickle, Joe Apaloo, Joel S Brown, Thomas L Vincent
A central question in the study of ecology and evolution is: "Why are there so many species?" It has been shown that certain forms of the Lotka-Volterra (L-V) competition equations lead to an unlimited number of species. Furthermore, these authors note how any change in the nature of competition (the competition kernel) leads to a finite or small number of coexisting species. Here we build upon these works by further investigating the L-V model of unlimited niche packing as a reference model and evolutionary game for understanding the environmental factors restricting biodiversity...
May 8, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494334/coincidence-of-role-expectations-between-staff-and-volunteer-members-of-drug-free-community-coalitions
#12
Marc B Goldstein, Heather Sapere, John Daviau
Community coalitions have proliferated as a means of addressing a range of complex community problems. Such coalitions often consist of a small paid staff and volunteer members. The present study examines one likely contributor to coalition effectiveness: the degree of agreement on role expectations between paid staff and volunteer members. Role confusion occurs when paid staff and volunteers differ in their expectations of who is responsible for accomplishing specific tasks. Staff and volunteer members from 69 randomly selected Drug Free Coalitions in the United States as well as 21 Drug Free Coalitions in Connecticut were asked to respond to an online survey asking about 37 specific coalition tasks critical for effective coalition functioning and the degree to which paid staff and/or voluntary members should be responsible for accomplishing each...
April 2, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484620/group-size-and-visitor-numbers-predict-faecal-glucocorticoid-concentrations-in-zoo-meerkats
#13
Katy Scott, Michael Heistermann, Michael A Cant, Emma I K Vitikainen
Measures of physiological stress in zoo animals can give important insights into how they are affected by aspects of their captive environment. We analysed the factors influencing variation in glucocorticoid metabolites in faeces (fGCs) from zoo meerkats as a proxy for blood cortisol concentration, high levels of which are associated with a stress response. Levels of fGCs in captive meerkats declined with increasing group size. In the wild, very small groups of meerkats are at a higher risk of predation, while in larger groups, there is increased competition for resources...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480493/effects-of-sectoral-diversity-on-community-coalition-processes-and-outcomes
#14
Louis D Brown, Rebecca Wells, Eric C Jones, Sarah Meyer Chilenski
Collaboration with diverse partners is challenging but essential for the implementation of prevention programs and policies. Increased communication with partners from diverse sectors may help community coalitions overcome the challenges that diversity presents. We examined these issues empirically in a study of 17 substance use prevention coalitions in Mexico. Building on coalition and workgroup literatures, we hypothesized that sectoral diversity would improve outcomes but undermine coalition processes. Conversely, we expected uniformly positive effects from higher levels of intersectoral communication...
May 8, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467009/a-school-based-public-health-model-to-reduce-oral-health-disparities
#15
Rebecca N Dudovitz, Jonathan E Valiente, Gloria Espinosa, Claudia Yepes, Cesar Padilla, Maryjane Puffer, Harold C Slavkin, Paul J Chung
OBJECTIVES: Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. METHODS: The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464245/social-networks-dynamics-revealed-by-temporal-analysis-an-example-in-a-non-human-primate-macaca-sylvanus-in-la-for%C3%A3%C2%AAt-des-singes
#16
Sebastian Sosa, Peng Zhang, Guénaël Cabanes
This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes)...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460274/understanding-policy-persistence-the-case-of-police-drug-detection-dog-policy-in-nsw-australia
#17
Caitlin E Hughes, Alison Ritter, Kari Lancaster, Robert Hoppe
BACKGROUND: Significant research attention has been given to understanding the processes of drug policy reform. However, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the persistence of policy in the face of opposition and evidence of ineffectiveness. In this article we analysed just such a case - police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia. We sought to identify factors which may account for the continuation of this policy, in spite of counter-evidence and concerted advocacy...
April 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459261/decoding-us-and-them-neural-representations-of-generalized-group-concepts
#18
Mina Cikara, Jay J Van Bavel, Zachary A Ingbretsen, Tatiana Lau
Humans form social coalitions in every society on earth, yet we know very little about how the general concepts us and them are represented in the brain. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that the human capacity for group affiliation is a byproduct of adaptations that evolved for tracking coalitions in general. These theories suggest that humans possess a common neural code for the concepts in-group and out-group, regardless of the category by which group boundaries are instantiated. The authors used multivoxel pattern analysis to identify the neural substrates of generalized group concept representations...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458405/improving-community-readiness-for-change-through-coalition-capacity-building-evidence-from-a-multi-site-intervention
#19
Kaston D Anderson-Carpenter, Jomella Watson-Thompson, Marvia D Jones, Lisa Chaney
Often, community coalitions are facilitators of community-level changes when addressing underage drinking. Although studies have shown that enhancing coalition capacity is related to improved internal functioning, the relationship between enhanced capacity and community readiness for change is not well established. The present study used a pretest-posttest design to examine whether enhancing coalition capacity through training and technical assistance was associated with improved community readiness and coalition-facilitated community-level changes...
May 2017: Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453991/advocacy-coalitions-and-protected-areas-creation-process-case-study-in-the-amazon
#20
Sandra Nicolle, Maya Leroy
Protected areas are the cornerstones of conservation policies worldwide. However, only few researches are led to analyse the way they emerge, except for criticising top-down governmental choices. Yet, the historical approach and strategic analysis of public policy building over the long term allows a better understanding of the stakes of action capacity of these policies. We therefore mobilize the advocacy coalition framework to show that protected areas creation is always due to coalitions of actors who belong to different professional fields and act at different scales but nevertheless share common stakes...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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