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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921176/two-feet-on-the-membrane-uptake-of-clostridial-neurotoxins
#1
Andreas Rummel
The extraordinary potency of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is mediated by their high neurospecificity, targeting peripheral cholinergic motoneurons leading to flaccid and spastic paralysis, respectively, and successive respiratory failure. Complex polysialo gangliosides accumulate BoNT and TeNT on the plasma membrane. The ganglioside binding in BoNT/A, B, E, F, G, and TeNT occurs via a conserved ganglioside-binding pocket within the most carboxyl-terminal 25 kDa domain HCC, whereas BoNT/C, DC, and D display here two different ganglioside binding sites...
December 1, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920923/mer-tri-chlorido-tris-tetra-hydro-thio-phene-%C3%AE%C2%BAs-iridium-iii-preparation-and-comparison-with-other-mer-tri-chlorido-tris-tetra-hydro-thio-phene-%C3%AE%C2%BAs-metal-complexes
#2
Loren C Brown, Christine M DuChane, Joseph S Merola
The title complex, [IrCl3(C4H8S)3], was prepared according to a literature method. A suitable crystal was obtained by diffusion of pentane into a di-chloro-methane solution and analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 100 K. The title complex is isotypic with mer-tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)rhodium(III). However, the orientation of the tetra-hydro-thio-phene rings is different from an earlier report of mer-tri-chlorido-tris-(tetra-hydro-thio-phene-κS)iridium(III) deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database...
September 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920531/in-vitro-evaluation-of-folic-acid-conjugated-redox-responsive-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-the-delivery-of-cisplatin
#3
Merlis P Alvarez-Berríos, Juan L Vivero-Escoto
The use of cisplatin(IV) prodrugs for the delivery of cisplatin have gained significant attention, because of their low toxicity and reactivity. Recent studies have shown that targeted cisplatin(IV)-prodrug nanoparticle-based delivery systems can improve the internalization of the cisplatin(IV) prodrug. We hypothesized that folic acid-conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) containing cisplatin(IV) prodrug could target cancer cells that overexpress the folate receptor and deliver the active cisplatin drug upon intracellular reduction...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#4
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915456/use-of-iron-sucrose-and-red-blood-cell-transfusions-in-anaemic-cancer-patients-in-france-oncofer-study
#5
Elisabeth Luporsi, Alain Toledano, Dominique Spaeth, Florian Scotté, Marc Espié, Stéphanie Perot, Ladan Duvillié, Isabelle Pithois Merli, Roland Bugat
PURPOSE: This report describes the results of an observational, retrospective cohort study, evaluating the use of iron sucrose (IS) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in patients with cancer in routine clinical practice in France. A parallel investigated cohort treated with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been reported earlier. METHODS: Data of patients with a solid tumour or haematological malignancy who have received IS or an RBC transfusion during 2010 from 3 months prior (M-3) to 3 months post first treatment (M+3) were analysed...
December 3, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915244/antifungal-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-of-a-salmon-protamine-peptide-and-its-derived-cyclic-peptide-against-candida-albicans
#6
Jun-Ichi Nagao, Tamaki Cho, Makoto Mitarai, Keishi Iohara, Kazumi Hayama, Shigeru Abe, Yoshihiko Tanaka
Protamine peptides (PP) derived from salmon are 14-mer consisting of 10 arginine residues. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of PP against Candida albicans PP showed the concentration-dependent dual mode of action; fungicidal activity and inhibitory activity of hyphal development in vitro. At lethal concentration of PP, intracellular accumulation of PP was energy-dependent but independent of endocytosis that resulted in ATP efflux and the generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914145/differential-cell-count-and-crp-level-in-blood-as-predictors-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-in-acute-febrile-patients-during-nosocomial-outbreak
#7
Ga Eun Park, Cheol In Kang, Jae Hoon Ko, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Yae Jean Kim, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae Hoon Song, Doo Ryeon Chung
A case-control study was performed to identify clinical predictors for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection among patients with acute febrile illness during the nosocomial outbreak. Patients with MERS-CoV were more likely to have monocytosis with normal white blood cell (WBC) count and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Simple laboratory data such as complete blood counts (CBC) with differential count could be a useful marker for the prediction of MERS and triage at the initial presentation of acute febrile patients in outbreak setting...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911010/screening-of-mercury-resistant-and-indole-3-acetic-acid-producing-bacterial-consortium-for-growth-promotion-of-cicer-arietinum-l
#8
Aatif Amin, Zakia Latif
Mercury resistant (Hg(R) ) bacteria were screened from industrial effluents and effluents-polluted rhizosphere soils near to districts Kasur and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. Out of 60 isolates, three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. AZ-1, Bacillus cereus AZ-2, and Enterobacter cloacae AZ-3 showed Hg-resistance as 20 μg ml(-1) of HgCl2 and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production as 8-38 μg ml(-1) . Biochemical and molecular characterization of selected bacteria was confirmed by 16S ribotyping. Mercury resistant genes merA, merB, and merE of mer operon in Bacillus spp...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910831/high-z-structures-of-organic-molecules-their-diversity-and-organizing-principles
#9
Carolyn Pratt Brock
A list has been compiled of 284 well determined organic structures having more than four crystallographically independent molecules or formula units (i.e. Z' > 4). Another 22 structures were rejected because the space group or unit cell was probably misassigned; the rate for that type of error is then only 7%. The space-group frequencies are unusual; half the structures are in Sohncke groups, partly because the fraction of enantiopure structures of resolvable enantiomers is higher than for lower Z' structures...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908253/assessment-of-bone-quality-in-osteoporosis-treatment-with-bone-anabolic-agents-really-something-new
#10
Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Renata Caudarella, Marzia Camisasca, Daniela Maria Cabrini, Ilaria Merli, Carmelo Messina, Luca Petruccio Piodi
Osteoporosis is a chronic pathologic condition, particularly of the elderly, in which a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) weakens bone, leading to the so-called fragility fractures, most often of spine and femur. The gold standard exam for the quantitative measurement of BMD is the dual X-ray photon absorptiometry (DXA), a radiological method. However, a relevant number of fragility fractures occurs in the range of normal BMD values, meaning that also qualitative aspects of bone play a role, namely bone architecture and bone geometry...
December 1, 2016: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905870/transcriptomic-and-proteomic-approach-to-identify-differentially-expressed-genes-and-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-mutants-lacking-chloroplastic-1-and-cytosolic-fbpases-reveals-several-levels-of-metabolic-regulation
#11
Mauricio Soto-Suárez, Antonio J Serrato, José A Rojas-González, Rocío Bautista, Mariam Sahrawy
BACKGROUND: During the photosynthesis, two isoforms of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), the chloroplastidial (cFBP1) and the cytosolic (cyFBP), catalyse the first irreversible step during the conversion of triose phosphates (TP) to starch or sucrose, respectively. Deficiency in cyFBP and cFBP1 isoforms provokes an imbalance of the starch/sucrose ratio, causing a dramatic effect on plant development when the plastidial enzyme is lacking. RESULTS: We study the correlation between the transcriptome and proteome profile in rosettes and roots when cFBP1 or cyFBP genes are disrupted in Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutants...
December 1, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903899/human-mitochondrial-transcription-factors-tfam-and-tfb2m-work-synergistically-in-promoter-melting-during-transcription-initiation
#12
Aparna Ramachandran, Urmimala Basu, Shemaila Sultana, Divya Nandakumar, Smita S Patel
Human mitochondrial DNA is transcribed by POLRMT with the help of two initiation factors, TFAM and TFB2M. The current model postulates that the role of TFAM is to recruit POLRMT and TFB2M to melt the promoter. However, we show that TFAM has 'post-recruitment' roles in promoter melting and RNA synthesis, which were revealed by studying the pre-initiation steps of promoter binding, bending and melting, and abortive RNA synthesis. Our 2-aminopurine mapping studies show that the LSP (Light Strand Promoter) is melted from -4 to +1 in the open complex with all three proteins and from -4 to +3 with addition of ATP...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901465/livestock-susceptibility-to-infection-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#13
Júlia Vergara-Alert, Judith M A van den Brand, W Widagdo, Marta Muñoz, Stalin Raj, Debby Schipper, David Solanes, Ivan Cordón, Albert Bensaid, Bart L Haagmans, Joaquim Segalés
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900730/understanding-the-interactions-of-high-mobility-group-of-protein-domain-b1-with-dna-adducts-generated-by-platinum-anticancer-molecules-using-in-silico-approaches
#14
Gauri Misra, Shipra Gupta, Neetu Jabalia
Platinum coordination compounds having cis geometry are frequently prescribed for various types of cancers. Protein dysregulation is one of the major factors contributing towards cancer metastasis. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the cancers where platinum-based compounds are used either alone or in combination with radiation as therapy. The underlying interactions of these compounds with both DNA and proteins are crucial for the drug response. The compounds forms DNA adducts which are recognized by conserved, non-chromosomal high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) proteins...
November 30, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900364/analysis-of-intrapatient-heterogeneity-uncovers-the-microevolution-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#15
Donghyun Park, Hee Jae Huh, Yeon Jeong Kim, Dae-Soon Son, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Eu-Hyun Im, Jong-Won Kim, Nam Yong Lee, Eun-Suk Kang, Cheol In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Kyong Ran Peck, Sun Shim Choi, Yae-Jean Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Woong-Yang Park
Genome sequence analysis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) variants from patient specimens has revealed the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of the virus. However, most studies have analyzed the consensus sequences of MERS-CoVs, precluding an investigation of intrapatient heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed non-consensus sequences to characterize intrapatient heterogeneity in cases associated with the 2015 outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Deep-sequencing analysis of MERS-CoV genomes performed on specimens from eight patients revealed significant intrapatient variation; therefore, sequence heterogeneity was further analyzed using targeted deep sequencing...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900010/a-novel-mutation-of-the-fat2-gene-in-spinal-meningioma
#16
Genshu Tate, Koji Kishimoto, Toshiyuki Mitsuya
Meningiomas may be classified as neurofibromin 2 (NF2)-associated and non-NF2 meningiomas depending on the presence or absence of molecular alterations in the NF2 gene. One of the characteristic histological features of meningiomas is the whorl formation of neoplastic arachnoid cells. NF2 is a human homolog of the Drosophila gene, Merlin (Mer). In humans, NF2 is the gene responsible for the disease neurofibromatosis type II, which results in the development of brain tumors, including acoustic neurinoma and meningioma...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899678/virus-variation-resource-improved-response-to-emergent-viral-outbreaks
#17
Eneida L Hatcher, Sergey A Zhdanov, Yiming Bao, Olga Blinkova, Eric P Nawrocki, Yuri Ostapchuck, Alejandro A Schäffer, J Rodney Brister
The Virus Variation Resource is a value-added viral sequence data resource hosted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The resource is located at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/variation/ and includes modules for seven viral groups: influenza virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebolavirus, MERS coronavirus, Rotavirus A and Zika virus Each module is supported by pipelines that scan newly released GenBank records, annotate genes and proteins and parse sample descriptors and then map them to controlled vocabulary...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899627/improvements-to-patric-the-all-bacterial-bioinformatics-database-and-analysis-resource-center
#18
Alice R Wattam, James J Davis, Rida Assaf, Sébastien Boisvert, Thomas Brettin, Christopher Bun, Neal Conrad, Emily M Dietrich, Terry Disz, Joseph L Gabbard, Svetlana Gerdes, Christopher S Henry, Ronald W Kenyon, Dustin Machi, Chunhong Mao, Eric K Nordberg, Gary J Olsen, Daniel E Murphy-Olson, Robert Olson, Ross Overbeek, Bruce Parrello, Gordon D Pusch, Maulik Shukla, Veronika Vonstein, Andrew Warren, Fangfang Xia, Hyunseung Yoo, Rick L Stevens
The Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) is the bacterial Bioinformatics Resource Center (https://www.patricbrc.org). Recent changes to PATRIC include a redesign of the web interface and some new services that provide users with a platform that takes them from raw reads to an integrated analysis experience. The redesigned interface allows researchers direct access to tools and data, and the emphasis has changed to user-created genome-groups, with detailed summaries and views of the data that researchers have selected...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899620/mrprimerv-a-database-of-pcr-primers-for-rna-virus-detection
#19
Hyerin Kim, NaNa Kang, KyuHyeon An, Doyun Kim, JaeHyung Koo, Min-Soo Kim
Many infectious diseases are caused by viral infections, and in particular by RNA viruses such as MERS, Ebola and Zika. To understand viral disease, detection and identification of these viruses are essential. Although PCR is widely used for rapid virus identification due to its low cost and high sensitivity and specificity, very few online database resources have compiled PCR primers for RNA viruses. To effectively detect viruses, the MRPrimerV database (http://MRPrimerV.com) contains 152 380 247 PCR primer pairs for detection of 1818 viruses, covering 7144 coding sequences (CDSs), representing 100% of the RNA viruses in the most up-to-date NCBI RefSeq database...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899557/alignment-free-d_2-oligonucleotide-frequency-dissimilarity-measure-improves-prediction-of-hosts-from-metagenomically-derived-viral-sequences
#20
Nathan A Ahlgren, Jie Ren, Yang Young Lu, Jed A Fuhrman, Fengzhu Sun
Viruses and their host genomes often share similar oligonucleotide frequency (ONF) patterns, which can be used to predict the host of a given virus by finding the host with the greatest ONF similarity. We comprehensively compared 11 ONF metrics using several k-mer lengths for predicting host taxonomy from among ∼32 000 prokaryotic genomes for 1427 virus isolate genomes whose true hosts are known. The background-subtracting measure [Formula: see text] at k = 6 gave the highest host prediction accuracy (33%, genus level) with reasonable computational times...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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