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methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737160/health-and-environmental-risk-assessment-project-for-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-from-the-southeastern-usa-ii-environmental-aspects
#1
REVIEW
John S Reif, Adam M Schaefer, Gregory D Bossart, Patricia A Fair
Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus are the most common apex predators found in coastal and estuarine ecosystems along the southeastern coast of the USA, where these animals are exposed to multiple chemical pollutants and microbial agents. In this review, we summarize the results of investigations of environmental exposures evaluated in 360 free-ranging dolphins between 2003 and 2015. Bottlenose dolphins inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (IRL, n = 246), and coastal waters of Charleston, South Carolina (CHS, n = 114), were captured, given comprehensive health examinations, and released as part of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study of individual and population health...
July 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736974/topical-sevoflurane-for-chronic-venous-ulcers-infected-by-multi-drug-resistant-organisms
#2
Adrián Imbernón-Moya, Francisco Javier Ortiz-de Frutos, Mónica Sanjuan-Alvarez, Isabel Portero-Sanchez, Raúl Merinero-Palomares, Victoria Alcazar
Several anaesthetic drugs have demonstrated antibacterial properties in vitro. Anaesthetics can primarily affect the cell wall of both susceptible and multi-resistant bacteria. They may also have a synergistic effect with conventional antibiotics through an unknown mechanism. We present three cases of a chronic venous ulcer infected by multi-resistant bacteria refractory to conventional systemic antibiotics, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Treatment with topical sevoflurane was performed for 1 month without systemic antibiotics...
July 23, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736966/molecular-characterization-of-nasal-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-workers-of-an-automaker-company-in-southeast-iran
#3
Mohammad Hossein Sobhanipoor, Roya Ahmadrajabi, Afsaneh Karmostaji, Fereshteh Saffari
Colonization of methicillin resistant Staphylococccus aureus (MRSA) can occur more commonly in healthy people who live in close together or are in close physical contact with each other. Having knowledge about the molecular characteristics of these strains provides considerable discernment into the epidemiology of this important microorganism. A total of 806 nasal swabs were collected from healthy workers of an automaker company in the southeast of Iran and were analyzed to detect MRSA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) were performed...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736358/-emergence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sccmec-type-iv-v-epidemic-clones-in-a-large-teaching-hospital-in-china
#4
Yi-Ming Zhong, Rui Yuan, Jian-Sheng Ding, Fang Yang, Wen-En Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) genotype and molecular epidemiological characteristics of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) in a large teaching hospital in China. METHDOS: From January 2012 to December 2012, a total of 71 nonduplicate HA-MRSA were collected in a teaching hospital in Changsha, China. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected by PCR...
July 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735329/antistaphylococcal-activity-of-selected-thiourea-derivatives
#5
Joanna Stefańska, Karolina Stępień, Anna Bielenica, Małgorzata Wrzosek, Marta Struga
Five of thiourea derivatives were prepared using as a starting compound 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, 4-chloro-3-nitroaniline, 1,3-thiazol-2-amine, 2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-amine and commercial isothiocyanates. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity. Derivatives 2 and 3 showed the highest inhibition against Gram-positive cocci (standard and hospital strains). The observed MIC values were in the range of 0.5-8 μg/ml. The products effectively inhibited the formation of biofilms of methicillin-resistant and standard strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735318/trends-of-bloodstream-infections-in-a-university-greek-hospital-during-a-three-year-period-incidence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-seasonality-in-gram-negative-predominance
#6
Fevronia Kolonitsiou, Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Anastasia Spiliopoulou, Vasiliki Stamouli, Vasileios Papakostas, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Markos Marangos, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Myrto Christofidou, Iris Spiliopoulou
The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiology, the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and bloodstream infections' (BSIs) seasonality in a university hospital. This retrospective study was carried out in the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece, during 2011-13 y. Blood cultures from patients with clinical presentation suggestive of bloodstream infection were performed by the BacT/ALERT System. Isolates were identified by Vitek 2 Advanced Expert System. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method and E-test...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735083/incidence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-microbial-community-of-cancer-patients-and-evaluation-of-their-resistant-pattern
#7
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly, Abeer Ali Keera, Amal Mohamed Ali
Cancer patients are prone to MRSA infection due to a number of factors include prolongedhospitalization, intravascular catheterization, compromised host immunity, malignancy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy surgery, prior antibiotic therapy and prolonged operative time. Among 468 Staphylococcus isolates, 283 were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (MRSA), which indicated the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA isolates among cancer patients. The highest number of MRSA strains were isolated from male (124 isolates), female (90 isolates) followed by children (69 isolates) which represent 43...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735055/molecular-analysis-of-virulence-genes-and-the-accessory-gene-regulator-agr-types-among-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-strains
#8
Sara Cheraghi, Leyla Pourgholi, Maryam Shafaati, Shirinsadat Hashemi Fesharaki, Arash Jalali, Rahim Nosrati, MohammadAli Boroumand
OBJECTIVES: Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are a main cause of hospital-acquired infections and are considered as a serious public-health concern. MRSA isolates have plenty of virulence factors, which are the basis for its pathogenicity. The controlling and coordination of the expression of these genes perform by the accessory gene regulator (agr). The aim of this study was to determine the rate of some virulence genes encoding the enterotoxin, exfoliative toxin genes (eta), the adhesin genes and identification of agr specificity groups in MRSA isolates...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735054/linezolid-activity-against-clinical-gram-positive-cocci-with-advanced-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-in-iran
#9
Hamidreza Houri, Hossein Kazemian, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Asieh Taji, Zahra Tayebi, Hamid Heidari
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the linezolid activity against clinical Gram-positive cocci with advanced antimicrobial drug resistance. METHODS: A collection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE), penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP), and group B streptococci (GBS) were isolated from various clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using standard methods Subsequently, we investigated linezolid antibacterial activities, the first approved oxazolidinone against isolates by the standard broth microdilution method...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735053/activity-of-dalbavancin-tested-against-gram-positive-clinical-isolates-causing-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-in-paediatric-patients-from-us-hospitals-2014-2015
#10
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
OBJECTIVES: This study provides an in vitro analysis of dalbavancin activity against isolates causing skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) in children. METHODS: 770 Staphylococcus aureus, 167 β-hemolytic streptococci (BHS), 42 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 25 Enterococcus faecalis and 13 viridans group streptococci (VGS) were collected from children (<18 y/o) in the United States (2014-2015). RESULTS: Dalbavancin had MIC50/90 values of 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735051/telavancin-activity-in-vitro-tested-against-a-worldwide-collection-of-gram-positive-clinical-isolates-2014
#11
Leonard R Duncan, Helio S Sader, Jennifer I Smart, Robert K Flamm, Rodrigo E Mendes
OBJECTIVES: Telavancin activity was measured against Gram-positive pathogens collected worldwide during 2014 using the revised broth microdilution testing method. The results were compared with previous reports. METHODS: A total of 10 552 isolates from 86 sites located in 32 countries were included as part of the Telavancin International Surveillance Program for the Americas, Europe and Asia-Pacific. RESULTS: Telavancin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735049/in-vitro-activity-of-daptomycin-combinations-with-rifampicin-gentamicin-fosfomycin-and-fusidic-acid-against-mrsa-strains
#12
Gulseren Aktas, Sengul Derbentli
OBJECTIVES: Although new antimicrobial agents designed to treat infections with limited therapeutic options have been introduced in the past few years, resistant Gram positive cocci have continued to emerge and spread. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that has rapid bactericidal activity against broad spectrum of Gram positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antibiotics are sometimes used in combination in an attempt to prevent or delay the in vivo emergence of drug-resistant subpopulations of pathogenic organisms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734577/characterization-of-a-pvl-negative-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-of-sequence-type-88-in-china
#13
Lu Sun, Dandan Wu, Yan Chen, Qian Wang, Haiping Wang, Yunsong Yu
Sequence type 88 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain SR434, isolated from an outpatient with skin and soft tissue infection, was subjected to whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, mouse skin infection model and hemolysis analysis to identify its virulence and resistance determinants. MRSA strain SR434 is resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and fosfomycin. Four plasmids with resistance genes were identified in this strain, including a 20,658bp blaZ-carrying plasmid, a 2473bp ermC-carrying plasmid, a 2622bp fosB7-carrying plasmid (86% identity with plasmid in a ST2590 MRSA strain) and a 4817bp lnuA-carrying plasmid (99% identity with pLNU4 from bovine coagulase-nagetive Staphylococci)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734506/phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-fluoroquinolone-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Antonio Moreno-Flores, Carmen Potel-Alvarellos, Susana Otero-Varela, Maximiliano Álvarez-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Fluoroquinolone resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has increased in recent years. The objective of this study was to characterise two MRSA populations, one susceptible to fluoroquinolones and other resistant identifying the clonal types and the differential characteristics of both MRSA populations. METHODS: Molecular typing using PFGE, MLST, spa and SSCmec was performed on 192 MRSA strains isolated from 2009 to 2011, 49 only oxacillin-resistant (OX-R) and 143 oxacillin and levofloxacin-resistant (OX-R-LEV-R)...
July 19, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734246/topological-pattern-for-the-search-of-new-active-drugs-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Jose I Bueso-Bordils, Maria T Perez-Gracia, Beatriz Suay-Garcia, Maria J Duart, Rafael V Martin Algarra, Luis Lahuerta Zamora, Gerardo M Anton-Fos, Pedro A Aleman Lopez
Molecular topology was used to develop a mathematical model capable of classifying compounds according to antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Topological indices were used as structural descriptors and their relation to antimicrobial activity was determined by using linear discriminant analysis. This topological model establishes new structure activity relationships which show that the presence of cyclopropyl, chlorine and ramification pairs at a distance of two bonds favor this activity, while the presence of tertiary amines decreases it...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733718/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-next-30%C3%A2-years-humankind-bugs-and-drugs-a-visionary-approach
#16
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Garyphallia Poulakou, Etienne Ruppe, Emilio Bouza, Sebastian J Van Hal, Adrian Brink
PURPOSE: To describe the current standards of care and major recent advances with regard to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to give a prospective overview for the next 30 years in this field. METHODS: Review of medical literature and expert opinion were used in the development of this review. RESULTS: There is undoubtedly a large clinical and public health burden associated with AMR in ICU, but it is challenging to quantify the associated excess morbidity and mortality...
July 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733674/role-of-sccmec-type-in-resistance-to-the-synergistic-activity-of-oxacillin-and-cefoxitin-in-mrsa
#17
Nathalie T Reichmann, Mariana G Pinho
β-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) preventing peptidoglycan synthesis and this inhibition is circumvented in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains through the expression of an additional PBP, named PBP2A. This enzyme is encoded by the mecA gene located within the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec) mobile genetic element, of which there are 12 types described to date. Previous investigations aimed at analysing the synergistic activity of two β-lactams, oxacillin and cefoxitin, found that SCCmec type IV community-acquired MRSA strains exhibited increased susceptibility to oxacillin in the presence of cefoxitin, while hospital-acquired MRSA strains were unaffected...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733571/a-rare-case-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-cerebral-abscess-secondary-to-conjunctivitis
#18
Y K Gan, A Z Azmi, S A Ghani, A Samsudin
This case report discusses the rare association of cerebral abscess related to conjunctivitis in an otherwise healthy child. A 6 year old boy presented with conjunctivitis was treated with topical antibiotics and resolved after a week. Conjunctival swab cultures grew MRSA. A month later he developed status epileptics and CT scans revealed a large cerebral abscess. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics which covered for MRSA, along with an incision and drainage for the cerebral abscess. Pus cultures grew MRSA...
June 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733486/%C3%AE-toxin-regulates-local-granulocyte-expansion-from-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-wounds
#19
Patrick C Falahee, Leif S Anderson, Mack B Reynolds, Mauricio Pirir, Bridget E McLaughlin, Carly A Dillen, Ambrose L Cheung, Lloyd S Miller, Scott I Simon
The immune response to Staphylococcus aureus infection in skin involves the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from the bone marrow via the circulation and local granulopoiesis from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that also traffic to infected skin wounds. We focus on regulation of PMN number and function and the role of pore-forming α-toxin (AT), a virulence factor that causes host cell lysis and elicits inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in wounds. Infection with wild-type S...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731688/the-%C3%AF-configuration-of-the-www-motif-of-a-short-trp-rich-peptide-is-critical-for-targeting-bacterial-membranes-disrupting-preformed-biofilms-and-killing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
D Zarena, Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Fangyu Wang, Guangshun Wang
Tryptophan-rich peptides, being short and suitable for large-scale chemical synthesis, are attractive candidates for developing a new generation of antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria (superbugs). Although there are numerous pictures for membrane-bound structure of a single tryptophan (W), how multiple Trp amino acids assemble themselves and interact with bacterial membranes are poorly understood. This communication presents the three-dimensional structure for an eight-residue Trp-rich peptide (WWWLRKIW-NH2 with 50% W) determined by the improved 2D NMR method, which includes the measurements of 13C and 15N chemical shifts at natural abundance...
July 21, 2017: Biochemistry
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