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methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145465/hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-risk-factors-in-south-african-tertiary-public-hospitals
#1
Liliwe L Shuping, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Samantha Iyaloo, Olga Perovic
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa. METHODS: We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for analysis. A case of HA-MRSA was defined as isolation of MRSA from a blood culture 48 hours after admission and/or if the patient was hospitalised in the six months prior to the current culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145017/membrane-interactions-of-microgels-as-carriers-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#2
Randi Nordström, Lina Nyström, Oliver C J Andrén, Michael Malkoch, Anita Umerska, Mina Davoudi, Artur Schmidtchen, Martin Malmsten
Microgels are interesting as potential delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides. In order to elucidate membrane interactions of such systems, we here investigate effects of microgel charge density on antimicrobial peptide loading and release, as well as consequences of this for membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects, using ellipsometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering and z-potential measurements. Anionic poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) microgels were found to incorporate considerable amounts of the cationic antimicrobial peptides LL-37 (LLGDFFRKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPRTES) and DPK-060 (GKHKNKGKKNGKHNGWKWWW) and to protect incorporated peptides from degradation by infection-related proteases at high microgel charge density...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144223/no-touch-disinfection-methods-to-decrease-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142545/rapid-screening-of-pyogenic-staphylococcus-aureus-for-confirmation-of-genus-and-species-methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-factors-by-using-two-novel-multiplex-pcr
#4
Abdul Haque, Asma Haque, Muhammad Saeed, Aysha Azhar, Samreen Rasool, Sidra Shan, Beenish Ehsan, Zohaib Nisar
Objectives: Emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major medical problem of current era. These bacteria are resistant to most drugs and rapid diagnosis can provide a clear guideline to clinicians. They possess specific virulence factors and relevant information can be very useful. We designed this study to develop multiplex PCRs to provide rapid information. Methods: We studied 60 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and detected methicillin resistance by cefoxitin sensitivity and targeting of mecA gene...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140837/disruption-of-biofilms-and-neutralization-of-bacteria-using-hypochlorous-acid-solution-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#5
Anna Day, Abdulnaser Alkhalil, Bonnie C Carney, Hilary N Hoffman, Lauren T Moffatt, Jeffrey W Shupp
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of a hypochlorous acid-based wound cleanser (Vashe Wound Solution [VWS], SteadMed Medical, Fort Worth, Texas) in disrupting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms relative to other cleansers using an in vitro collagen biofilm model and to evaluate cleansers' cytotoxicity. The bioburden reduction of venous stasis wounds by VWS and another cleanser was evaluated. METHODS: Plates coated with collagen films incubated with active bacteria cultures to yield biofilm mimics were treated with VWS, 1% and 10% povidone-iodine (PI), 0...
December 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138481/quadoctomycin-a-48-membered-macrolide-antibiotic-from-streptomyces-sp-mm168-141f8
#6
Ryuichi Sawa, Yumiko Kubota, Maya Umekita, Masaki Hatano, Chigusa Hayashi, Masayuki Igarashi
Drug-resistant bacteria are still emerging, and screening of new skeletal antibiotics is important. During our continuous screening for antimicrobial agents, we discovered a new antimicrobial, named quadoctomycin, from solid culture of Streptomyces sp. MM168-141F8. The substance was purified by solvent extraction, silica gel chromatography and HPLC. Structural elucidation of quadoctomycin was performed by MS and NMR analyses and chemical degradation. Quadoctomycin possesses a 48-membered polyol macrolide skeleton in which an α-D-mannoside is connected to C-22 by an O-glycosidic linkage...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137796/construction-of-proton-exchange-membranes-under-ultrasonic-irradiation-based-on-novel-fluorine-functionalizing-sulfonated-polybenzimidazole-cellulose-silica-bionanocomposite
#7
Sheida Esmaielzadeh, Hashem Ahmadizadegan
Novel sulfonated polybenzimidazole (s-PBI)/cellulose/silica bionanocomposite membranes were prepared from fluorine-containing s-PBI copolymer with a cellulose/silica precursor and a bonding agent. The introduction of the bonding agent results in the reinforcing interfacial interaction between s-PBI chains and the cellulose/silica nanoparticles. Commercially available silica nanoparticles were modified with biodegradable nanocellolose through ultrasonic irradiation technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that the cellulose/silica composites were well dispersed in the s-PBI matrix on a nanometer scale...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137718/telavancin-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bone-and-joint-infections
#8
Julie Harting, Francisco Fernandez, Rob Kelley, Tim Wiemken, Paula Peyrani, Julio Ramirez
This retrospective, case series describes our experience with the use of telavancin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection. The primary objectives were clinical outcomes and adverse events (AEs), and a secondary outcome described microbiological susceptibility. Fourteen patients were enrolled. Median duration of therapy was 58 days, and four patients had concurrent bacteremia. End-of-treatment outcomes were available in 78% of patients, with a clinical success rate of 91%...
December 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137692/attitudes-social-norms-perceived-behavioral-control-and-intention-toward-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-screening-among-health-care-workers
#9
Zeinab M Hassan
BACKGROUND: Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a worldwide public health priority. Screening patients to detect colonization is considered an essential pillar of any MRSA control program. PURPOSE: To (a) assess health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioral control toward MRSA screening, and intention to perform the screening; (b) examine the predictors of HCWs intentions to perform screening; (c) identify HCWs' perception of barriers to and benefits of screening; and (d) identify HCWs' information sources about screening...
November 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136469/novel-linear-lipopeptide-paenipeptins-with-potential-for-eradicating-biofilms-and-sensitizing-gram-negative-bacteria-to-rifampicin-and-clarithromycin
#10
Sun Hee Moon, Xuan Zhang, Guangrong Zheng, Daniel G Meeker, Mark S Smeltzer, En Huang
We report the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses of 17 linear lipopeptide paenipeptin analogues. Analogues 7, 12 and 17 were more potent than the lead compound. Analogue 17 was active against carbapenem-resistant and polymyxin-resistant pathogens. This compound at 40 μg/mL resulted in 3 log and 2.6 log reductions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, in catheter-associated biofilms in vitro. Analogue 17 showed little hemolysis at 32 µg/ml and lysed 11% of red blood cells at 64 µg/ml...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136420/assessment-of-environmental-contamination-with-pathogenic-bacteria-at-a-hospital-laundry-facility
#11
Karen E Michael, David No, William E Daniell, Noah S Seixas, Marilyn C Roberts
Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135850/incorporating-nurse-input-and-evidence-into-a-newly-designed-unit-to-improve-patient-and-nursing-outcomes
#12
Jennifer Tafelmeyer, Robin Wicks, Jeannine Brant, Laurie Smith
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify processes, outcomes, and lessons learned from designing a new evidence-based unit. A research study was conducted simultaneously to rigorously measure changes in patient and staff outcomes. BACKGROUND: Nursing leadership and frontline nursing engagement are critical in evidence-based design to promote positive outcomes and workflow. METHODS: Quality indicators were tracked premove and postmove...
December 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134582/long-term-efficacy-of-comprehensive-multidisciplinary-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-centered-on-weekly-prospective-audit-and-feedback
#13
Takeshi Kimura, Atsushi Uda, Tomoyuki Sakaue, Kazuhiko Yamashita, Tatsuya Nishioka, Sho Nishimura, Kei Ebisawa, Manabu Nagata, Goh Ohji, Tatsuya Nakamura, Chihiro Koike, Mari Kusuki, Takeshi Ioroi, Akira Mukai, Yasuhisa Abe, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Midori Hirai, Soichi Arakawa, Ikuko Yano, Kentaro Iwata, Issei Tokimatsu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of comprehensive antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) on antibiotic use, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Before-after study. SETTING: National university hospital with 934 beds. INTERVENTION: Implementation in March 2010 of a comprehensive ASPs including, among other strategies, weekly prospective audit and feedback with multidisciplinary collaboration...
November 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134292/simultaneous-determination-of-brazilin-and-protosappanin-b-in-caesalpinia-sappan-by-ionic-liquid-dispersive-liquid-phase-microextraction-method-combined-with-hplc
#14
Zhaoyang Xia, Dongdong Li, Qing Li, Yan Zhang, Wenyi Kang
The conditions of heating, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography were optimized to simultaneously isolate and determinate brazilin and protosappanin B in Caesalpinia sappan. Ionic liquids, including [BMIM]Br, [BMIM]BF4, [BMIM]PF6 and [HMIM]PF6, were selected as extraction solvents while methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol and water were selected as dispersants. The chromatographic column was Purospher star RP-C18 (250 mm × 4...
November 13, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134109/erratum-author-correction-norgestimate-inhibits-staphylococcal-biofilm-formation-and-resensitizes-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#15
Yutaka Yoshii, Ken-Ichi Okuda, Satomi Yamada, Mari Nagakura, Shinya Sugimoto, Tetsuo Nagano, Takayoshi Okabe, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takeo Iwamoto, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41522-017-0026-1.].
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133561/outcomes-of-vancomycin-plus-a-%C3%AE-lactam-versus-vancomycin-only-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#16
James Truong, John J Veillette, Steve C Forland
The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the rates of treatment failure, which was a composite of clinical and microbiologic failure, of patients receiving vancomycin and a β-lactam to those receiving vancomycin only for MRSA bacteremia. Patients 16 to 89 years of age with MRSA bacteremia admitted to a university-affiliated hospital from January 1(st), 2014 to December 31(st), 2016 were screened for study inclusion. Patients were eligible if they received >48 hours of vancomycin and a β-lactam (combination group) or vancomycin only (standard group) within 48 hours following bacteremia onset...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133557/a-novel-mechanism-of-inactivating-antibacterial-nitro-compounds-in-the-human-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-by-overexpression-of-a-nadh-dependent-flavin-nitroreductase
#17
Ebaa M El-Hossary, Konrad U Förstner, Patrice François, Damien Baud, Karin Streker, Jacques Schrenzel, Knut Ohlsen, Ulrike Holzgrabe
Recently, the nitro substituted bisquaternary bisnaphthalimides were reported to have substantial anti-infective activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we selected resistant S. aureus clones by cultivation in increasing concentrations of the most active compound MT02. Interestingly, MT02 resistant variants induced a diffusible red color of the broth. Chromatographic and spectroscopic investigations revealed a stepwise reduction of the bisquaternary bisnaphthalimides̀ nitro groups to amino groups...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133214/antibacterial-activity-and-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-a-promising-antibacterial-agent-14-o-4-amino-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine-2-yl-thioacetyl-mutilin
#18
Ruofeng Shang, Yunpeng Yi, Chao Zhang, Yunxing Fu, Jianping Liang, Wanxia Pu
A new pleuromutilin derivative, 14-O-[(4-Amino-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine-2-yl)thioacetyl] mutilin (APTM), has been synthesized and proved most potent antibacterial agent in in vitro assays, suggesting that further development of this compound may lead to a promising antibacterial drug. In this study, we further evaluated the cytotoxicity, antibacterial efficacy and the pharmacokinetic profile of APTM. In BRL 3A cells, 50% of viability was obtained when 363μg/mL of APTM was used, while retapamulin and tiamulin fumarate needed 49 and 28μg/mL, respectively, to reach this viability...
November 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132547/distribution-of-genes-encoding-resistance-to-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzymes-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-strains
#19
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Atefeh Jenabi, Effat Abbasi Montazeri
Today Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have acquired multiple resistance to a wide range of antibiotics including aminoglycosides. So, this study was aimed to investigate the rate of aminoglycoside resistance and the frequency of aminoglycoside resistance mediated genes of aac(Ia)-2, aph(3)-IIIa and ant(4')-Ia among MRSA strains. A total of 467 staphylococci isolates were collected from various clinical samples. S. aureus strains were identified by standard culture and identification criteria and investigating of presence of 16S rRNA and nuc genes...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130946/considerations-about-the-use-of-a-loading-dose-of-daptomycin-in-a-neutropenic-murine-thigh-infection-model-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#20
Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Eriko Murakami, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Bunji Uno, Hiroshige Mikamo
Previous clinical studies have showed the clinical benefits of the initiation of treatment with a daptomycin (DAP) loading dose, but only a few studies have evaluated its antimicrobial benefits. We evaluated the efficacy of a DAP loading dose against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model. Three MRSA isolates (DAP MIC: 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) were tested. Four DAP regimens simulating human concentration-time profiles, i.e., (i) day 1: 8 mg/kg and day 2: 6 mg/kg, (ii) days 1 and 2: 6 mg/kg/day, (iii) day 1: 8 mg/kg and day 2: 4 mg/kg, and (iv) days 1 and 2: 4 mg/kg/day, were administered to the mice...
November 11, 2017: Chemotherapy
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