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Adil E Bharucha, Tae Hee Lee
Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 3 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first 2 conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men...
October 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Julián Panés, Damián García-Olmo, Gert Van Assche, Jean Frederic Colombel, Walter Reinisch, Daniel C Baumgart, Axel Dignass, Maria Nachury, Marc Ferrante, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Jean C Grimaud, Fernando de la Portilla, Eran Goldin, Marie Paule Richard, Anne Leselbaum, Silvio Danese
BACKGROUND: Complex perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease are challenging to treat. Allogeneic, expanded, adipose-derived stem cells (Cx601) are a promising new therapeutic approach. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of Cx601 for treatment-refractory complex perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: We did this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study at 49 hospitals in seven European countries and Israel from July 6, 2012, to July 27, 2015...
September 24, 2016: Lancet
Adel Elmoghrabi, Mohamed Mohamed, Kristoffer Wong, Michael McCann
We report a case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with progressively increasing intensity of lower abdominal, pelvic and rectal pain of 3-day duration. She had similar symptoms intermittently over the preceding 2 years. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed the presence of a 3.8×0.4 cm linear foreign body in the colorectal region. History obtained from relatives recalled inadvertent ingestion of a chicken bone 2 years prior to presentation. Trials of foreign body retrieval, both manually and via rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy, however, were unsuccessful due to the presence of obstruction by a circumferential rectal stricture...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Satish Sc Rao, Adil E Bharucha, Giuseppe Chiarioni, Richelle Felt-Bersma, Charles Knowles, Allison Malcolm, Arnold Wald
This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases...
March 25, 2016: Gastroenterology
S Montrone, A Gonnelli, M Cantarella, A Sainato
AIM: Generally speaking, the negative side of radiation treatment of the pelvic district is the toxicity that may compromise the patient's quality of life and lead to temporary suspension of treatment with possible negative effects on its effectiveness. In neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), the toxicity that is most frequently observed is proctitis, usually treated with topical corticosteroids or mesalazine. Hyaluronic acid's function is to restore the regular trophism and elasticity of the connective tissues leading to faster repair of the damage, and this could represent a viable option for the control of actinic proctitis...
December 2015: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Siddharth Singh, Andrea M Stroud, Stefan D Holubar, William J Sandborn, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND: Pouchitis occurs in approximately 50% of patients following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for chronic ulcerative colitis. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of medical therapies (including antibiotics, probiotics, and other agents) for prevention or treatment of acute or chronic pouchitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from inception to October 2014...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
A Ahmad, D Henderson, H Sharma
We report a case of intractable proctalgia on a background of lower back and bilateral leg pain secondary to spinal canal stenosis and spondylolisthesis. A complete resolution was observed following spinal surgery. This case highlights consideration of a spinal aetiology when intractable proctalgia is associated with back and leg pain.
August 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Kyle Staller
Physiologic assessment of the anorectum and pelvic floor by anorectal manometry and balloon expulsion testing provides important insights into the pathologic processes underlying defecatory disorders and guides treatment, specifically the use of biofeedback for the treatment of dyssynergic defecation and the identification of possible structural abnormalities of the pelvic floor. While symptoms and digital rectal examination may suggest pelvic floor dysfunction to the clinician, only pelvic floor testing provides definitive diagnoses of these often treatable abnormalities...
December 2015: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Dennis Raahave
The present studies explored whether faecal retention in the colon is a causative factor in functional bowel disease, appendicitis, and haemorrhoids. Faecal retention was characterized by colon transit time (CTT) after radio-opaque marker ingestion and estimation of faecal loading on abdominal radiographs at 48 h and 96 h. Specific hypotheses were tested in patients (n = 251 plus 281) and in healthy random controls (n = 44). A questionnaire was completed for each patient, covering abdominal and anorectal symptoms and without a priori grouping...
March 2015: Danish Medical Journal
José Aurelio Navas-Cuéllar, Rosa María Jiménez-Rodríguez, Daniel Aparicio-Sánchez, José Manuel Díaz-Pavón, Javier Padillo-Ruiz, Fernando de-la-Portilla-de-Juan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Mehdi Moghaddasi, Mahboubeh Aghaii, Mansoureh Mamarabadi
Rectal and perianal pain is a common problem. Most people have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. It usually manifests as mild discomfort, but sometimes the pain can be so severe that it is incapacitating. A 59-year-old woman admitted with a 2-year history of paroxysmal perianal pain underwent a full work-up including proctoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, full colonoscopy, and barium enema that were unremarkable. Lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging with and without gadolinium showed an intradural-extramedullary lesion at the level of L5...
December 2014: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Michael H Smolensky, Francesco Portaluppi, Roberto Manfredini, Ramon C Hermida, Ruana Tiseo, Linda L Sackett-Lundeen, Erhard L Haus
The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24 h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus...
June 2015: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Murat Sarkaya, Levent Filik, Zeynal Dogǧan, Bilal Ergül
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2014: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
Arnold Wald, Adil E Bharucha, Bard C Cosman, William E Whitehead
These guidelines summarize the definitions, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, and treatments of a group of benign disorders of anorectal function and/or structure. Disorders of function include defecation disorders, fecal incontinence, and proctalgia syndromes, whereas disorders of structure include anal fissure and hemorrhoids. Each section reviews the definitions, epidemiology and/or pathophysiology, diagnostic assessment, and treatment recommendations of each entity. These recommendations reflect a comprehensive search of all relevant topics of pertinent English language articles in PubMed, Ovid Medline, and the National Library of Medicine from 1966 to 2013 using appropriate terms for each subject...
August 2014: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Amy E Foxx-Orenstein, Sarah B Umar, Michael D Crowell
Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management...
May 2014: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lorenzo C Pescatori, Vincenzo Villanacci, Mario Pescatori
A rare case of a severely constipated patient with rectal aganglionosis is herein reported. The patient, who had no megacolon/megarectum, underwent a STARR, i.e., stapled transanal rectal resection, for obstructed defecation, but her symptoms were not relieved. She started suffering from severe chronic proctalgia possibly due to peri-retained staples fibrosis. Intestinal transit times were normal and no megarectum/megacolon was found at barium enema. A diverting sigmoidostomy was then carried out, which was complicated by an early parastomal hernia, which affected stoma emptying...
April 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Laura Armañanzas, Antonio Arroyo, Jaime Ruiz-Tovar, Alberto López, Jair Santos, Pedro Moya, María Amparo Gómez, Fernando Candela, Rafael Calpena
INTRODUCTION: Chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Its study and management still lack a standardized protocol. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results obtained with the diagnostic-therapeutic protocol established in our service. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CIAP at the Colorectal Unit of the General University Hospital of Elche, between 2005 and 2011. RESULTS: We evaluated 57 patients with a diagnosis of chronic anal pain for functional anorectal disease (FAD)...
January 2015: Cirugía Española
Olivier Pittet, Nicolas Demartines, Dieter Hahnloser
Acute anal pain is a common proctological problem. A detailed history together with the clinical examination are crucial for the diagnosis. An acute perianal vein thrombosis can be successfully excised within the first 72 hours. Acute anal fissures are best treated conservatively using stool regulation and topical medications reducing the sphincter spasm. A chronic anal fissure needs surgery. Perianal abscesses can very often be incised and drained in local anesthesia. Proctalgia fugax and the levator ani syndrome are exclusion diagnoses and are treated symptomatically...
July 2013: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Roberto Augusto Barros, María José Monteverde, Santiago de dElizalde, Augusto Sebastián Barros, Roberto Federico Barros
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. It is an endemic disease in the American continent. It is spread hematogenously and any organ can be affected. It is more frequent in immunodeficient patients and the most common opportunist mycosis associated with HIV Exclusive gastrointestinal involvement is rare and invariably mortal without treatment. It is considered to be impossible to diagnose the disease based on the macroscopic aspect of lesions. We report a 43-year-old male in apparent good health status who was admitted with intermittent proctorrhagia of one year of evolution associated to burning proctalgia, without any further symptoms...
March 2013: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
F La Torre, F de la Portilla
AIM: Randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of injectable bulking agents for the treatment of faecal incontinence (FI), although the long-term outcome has not been assessed. NASHA/Dx gel, a biocompatible, nonallergenic bulking agent consisting of nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid and dextranomer microspheres, has demonstrated efficacy and safety for up to 12 months after treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of NASHA/Dx, assessed 24 months after treatment...
May 2013: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
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