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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914322/association-between-pigs-with-high-caecal-salmonella-loads-and-carcass-contamination
#1
M Pesciaroli, L Cucco, S De Luca, F R Massacci, C Maresca, L Medici, M Paniccià, E Scoccia, M Staffolani, G Pezzotti, C F Magistrali
Contaminated pork is a significant source of foodborne Salmonella infections. Pork is contaminated at the slaughterhouse; however, the mechanisms driving Salmonella contamination of carcasses are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the amount of Salmonella carried by slaughtered pigs in their guts has an influence on carcass contamination. On that account, we tested whether the number of carcasses contaminated during a slaughter day was associated with the prevalence of highly contaminated pigs (HCP: Salmonella caecal loads ≥3log/g), or with the prevalence of pigs that simply carry Salmonella spp...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913526/update-from-the-latest-who-classification-of-mpns-a-user-s-manual
#2
Francesco Passamonti, Margherita Maffioli
The 2016 multiparameter World Health Organization (WHO) classification for Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) integrates clinical features, morphology, and genetic data to diagnose polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The main novelties are: (1) the reduction of the hemoglobin (Hb) level threshold to diagnose PV, now established at 16.5 g/dL for men and 16 g/dL for women (based on the identification of MPN patients with PV-consistent bone marrow [BM] features and a Hb level lower than that established in the 2008 WHO classification for PV); (2) the recognition of prefibrotic/early PMF, distinguishable from ET on the basis of BM morphology, an entity having a higher tendency to develop overt myelofibrosis or acute leukemia, and characterized by inferior survival; (3) the central role of BM morphology in the diagnosis of ET, prefibrotic/early PMF, PMF, and PV with borderline Hb values; megakaryocyte number and morphology (typical in ET, atypical in both PMF forms) accompanied by a new distinction of reticulin fibrosis grade in PMF (grade 1 in prefibrotic/early PMF and grade 2-3 in PMF) constitute diagnostic criteria; and (4) the inclusion of all mutually exclusive MPN driver mutations (JAK2, CALR, and MPL) as major diagnostic criteria in ET and PMF; 10% to 15% of these patients are triple negative, and in these cases the search for an additional clonal marker (eg, mutations in ASXL1, EZH2, TET2, IDH1/IDH2, SRSF2, and SF3B1) is warranted...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910028/recurrent-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-and-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#3
John Swansbury
The commonest types of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) have remarkably similar recurrent chromosome abnormalities, but with varying incidence and prognostic implications. After a clear decade of treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the differing prognostic implications of abnormalities additional to the Ph chromosome are being revealed. This chapter provides a description of the main chromosome abnormalities in MPN and CML and their clinical implications in a time of rapid changes in both the application of new diagnostic techniques and the introduction of targeted therapies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899359/how-i-treat-atypical-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#4
Jason Gotlib
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, BCR-ABL1-negative (aCML) is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm for which no current standard of care exists. The challenges of atypical CML relate to its heterogeneous clinical and genetic features, high rate of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia, and historically poor survival. Therefore, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should always be an initial consideration for eligible patients with a suitable donor. Non-transplant approaches for treating aCML have otherwise largely relied on adopting treatment strategies used for MDS and MPN...
November 29, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899218/modeling-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-from-mutations-to-mouse-models-and-back-again
#5
REVIEW
Alessandro Morotti, Stefania Rocca, Giovanna Carrà, Giuseppe Saglio, Mara Brancaccio
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are defined according to the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the recent 2016 revision. Over the years, several genetic lesions have been associated with the development of MPNs, with important consequences for identifying unique biomarkers associated with specific neoplasms and for developing targeted therapies. Defining the genotype-phenotype relationship in MPNs is essential to identify driver somatic mutations that promote MPN development and maintenance in order to develop curative targeted therapies...
November 24, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895799/routine-blood-examinations-combined-with-morphological-analysis-for-the-diagnosis-of-myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#6
Huanling Wu, Hui Sun, Zhifen Zhang, Xiangli Li, Yuantang Li, Li Li, Rui Xu, Zie Wang, Wenjun Tian
In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a new hematological neoplasm category; myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), which included four main subcategories. This disease is often misdiagnosed, which delays effective therapy. The present study evaluated the role of routine blood examinations and morphological analysis of peripheral blood cells in the reliable diagnosis of MDS/MPN. In total, 236 adult MDS/MPN patients were analyzed. The analysis included 10 routine blood parameters measured using a Sysmex XE-2100™, 3 differential percentage parameters and 7 morphological features of peripheral blood cells which were analyzed by optical microscopy, and 3 differential absolute count numbers obtained based on the corresponding differential percentages and absolute count of blood cells...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892678/characterization-and-prognosis-significance-of-jak2-v617f-mpl-and-calr-mutations-in-philadelphia-negative-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#7
Roongrudee Singdong, Teerapong Siriboonpiputtana, Takol Chareonsirisuthigul, Adcharee Kongruang, Nittaya Limsuwanachot, Tanasan Sirirat, Suporn Chuncharunee, Budsaba Rerkamnuaychoke
Background: The discovery of somatic acquired mutations of JAK2 (V617F) in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has not only improved rational disease classification and prognostication but also brings new understanding insight into the pathogenesis of diseases. Dosage effects of the JAK2 (V617F) allelic burden in Ph-negative MPNs may partially influence clinical presentation, disease progression, and treatment outcome...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889820/ruxolitinib-in-clinical-practice-for-primary-and-secondary-myelofibrosis-an-analysis-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-gruppo-laziale-of-ph-negative-mpn
#8
Massimo Breccia, Alessandro Andriani, Marco Montanaro, Elisabetta Abruzzese, Francesco Buccisano, Michele Cedrone, Antonietta Centra, Nicoletta Villivà, Francesca Celesti, Malgorzata Monica Trawinska, Fulvio Massaro, Ambra Di Veroli, Barbara Anaclerico, Gioia Colafigli, Matteo Molica, Antonio Spadea, Luca Petriccione, Giuseppe Cimino, Roberto Latagliata
Ruxolitinib, a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, has been tested and approved for the treatment of primary and secondary myelofibrosis (MF). Aim of our study is to report safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib in 98 patients affected by MF treated outside clinical trials and collected and treated consecutively by the Lazio Cooperative Group for Ph negative myeloproliferative diseases.There were 45 males and 53 females; median age was 61.8 years (range 35.3-88). Forty-five patients were diagnosed as primary MF and 53 as secondary MF...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884974/from-leeches-to-personalized-medicine-evolving-concepts-in-the-management-of-polycythemia-vera
#9
Alessandro Maria Vannucchi
Polycythemia vera (PV), a clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that manifests with prevalent expansion of red cell mass, is the most frequent among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). It is characterized by a V617F point mutation in JAK2 exon 14 , or less common mutations in exon 12, in virtually all cases. The landmark discovery of autonomously activated JAK/STAT signaling pathway paved the way for the clinical development of the first target drug, the JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, that is now approved for patients with resistance or intolerance to hydroxyurea...
November 24, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880982/safety-and-efficacy-of-ruxolitinib-in-splanchnic-vein-thrombosis-associated-with-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#10
Lisa Pieri, Chiara Paoli, Umberto Arena, Fabio Marra, Fabio Mori, Mery Zucchini, Stefano Colagrande, Alessandro Castellani, Arianna Masciulli, Vittorio Rosti, Valerio De Stefano, Silvia Betti, Guido Finazzi, Maria Luisa Ferrari, Elisa Rumi, Marco Ruggeri, Ilaria Nichele, Paola Guglielmelli, Rajmonda Fjerza, Carmela Mannarelli, Tiziana Fanelli, Lucia Merli, Giuditta Corbizi Fattori, Margherita Massa, Giuseppe Cimino, Alessandro Rambaldi, Giovanni Barosi, Mario Cazzola, Tiziano Barbui, Alessandro M Vannucchi
Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is one of the vascular complications of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). We designed a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib in reducing splenomegaly and improving disease-related symptoms in patients with MPN-associated SVT. Patients, diagnosed with myelofibrosis in 12 cases, polycythemia vera in 5 and essential thrombocythemia in 4, received ruxolitinib for 24 weeks in the core study period. Spleen volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and splanchnic vein circulation by echo-Doppler analysis...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877167/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-induced-changes-in-bacterial-community-structure-under-anoxic-nitrate-reducing-conditions
#11
Sophie-Marie Martirani-Von Abercron, Daniel Pacheco, Patricia Benito-Santano, Patricia Marín, Silvia Marqués
Although bacterial anaerobic degradation of mono-aromatic compounds has been characterized in depth, the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene has only started to be understood in sulfate reducing bacteria, and little is known about the anaerobic degradation of PAHs in nitrate reducing bacteria. Starting from a series of environments which had suffered different degrees of hydrocarbon pollution, we used most probable number (MPN) enumeration to detect and quantify the presence of bacterial communities able to degrade several PAHs using nitrate as electron acceptor...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875375/management-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#12
Tiziano Barbui, Valerio De Stefano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Venous thromboembolism is frequent in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The current strategy for its management includes cytoreductive therapy and antithrombotic prophylaxis, but many issues remain uncertain. In this review, the risk factors and prevention of recurrences will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Around one-third of patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia experience a major thrombosis at diagnosis or during follow-up...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870933/bioremediation-of-hydrocarbon-degradation-in-a-petroleum-contaminated-soil-and-microbial-population-and-activity-determination
#13
Manli Wu, Wei Li, Warren A Dick, Xiqiong Ye, Kaili Chen, David Kost, Liming Chen
Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
November 18, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870387/primary-myelofibrosis-2017-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#14
Ayalew Tefferi
: Disease overview: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that is often but not always accompanied by JAK2, CALR or MPL mutation, abnormal cytokine expression, bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), constitutional symptoms, cachexia, leukemic progression and shortened survival. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on bone marrow morphology...
December 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865739/shaken-or-stirred-comparison-of-methods-for-dispersion-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-aggregates-for-persistence-in-vivo
#15
Arthur H Totten, Li Xiao, Donna M Crabb, Amy E Ratliff, Kevin Dybvig, Ken B Waites, T Prescott Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mpn), one of the smallest self-replicating prokaryotes, is known to readily adhere to host cells and to form aggregates in suspension. Having only one cell membrane and no cell wall, mycoplasmas present questions as to optimal aggregate disruption method while minimizing cell death in vitro. We compared conventional vortex mixing with other methods for disruption of bacterial aggregates and for its effect on cell viability. METHODS: Strain UAB PO1, a clinical Mpn isolate, was dispersed using a conventional vortex mixer with or without nonionic detergent (0...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865464/myeloproliferative-neoplasms-molecular-drivers-and-therapeutics
#16
G W Reuther
Activating mutations in genes that drive neoplastic cell growth are numerous and widespread in cancer, and specific genetic alterations are associated with certain types of cancer. For example, classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders that affect cells of the myeloid lineage, including erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. An activating mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase is prevalent in these diseases. In MPN patients that lack such a mutation, other genetic changes that lead to activation of the JAK2 signaling pathway are present, indicating deregulation of JAK2 signaling plays an etiological driving role in MPNs, a concept supported by significant evidence from in vivo experimental MPN systems...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865175/jak2-v617f-mutant-vascular-niche-contributes-to-jak2-v617f-clonal-expansion-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#17
Chi Hua Sarah Lin, Kenneth Kaushansky, Huichun Zhan
The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion and overproduction of blood cells. The acquired mutation JAK2(V617F) plays a central role in these disorders. Mechanisms responsible for MPN HSPC expansion is not fully understood, limiting the effectiveness of current treatments. Endothelial cells (ECs) carrying the JAK2(V617F) mutation can be detected in patients with MPNs, suggesting that ECs are involved in the pathogenesis of MPNs. Here we report that JAK2(V617F)-bearing primary murine ECs have increased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro compared to JAK2(WT) ECs...
November 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856278/most-probable-number-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-mpn-lamp-for-quantifying-waterborne-pathogens-in-25min
#18
Farhan Ahmad, Robert D Stedtfeld, Hassan Waseem, Maggie R Williams, Alison M Cupples, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
We are reporting a most probable number approach integrated to loop mediated isothermal technique (MPN-LAMP) focusing on Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis bacterial cells without nucleic acids extraction. LAMP assays for uidA from E. coli and gelE from E. faecalis were successfully performed directly on cells up to single digit concentration using a commercial real time PCR instrument. Threshold time values of LAMP assays of bacterial cells, heat treated bacterial cells (95°C for 5min), and their purified genomic DNA templates were similar, implying that amplification could be achieved directly from bacterial cells at 63°C...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853706/infrared-drying-as-a-potential-alternative-to-convective-drying-for-biltong-production
#19
Kipchumba Cherono, Gikuru Mwithiga, Stefan Schmidt
Two infrared systems set at an intensity of 4777 W/m(2) with peak emission wavelengths of 2.5 and 3.5 µm were used to produce biltong by drying differently pre-treated meat. In addition to meat texture and colour, the microbial quality of the biltong produced was assessed by quantifying viable heterotrophic microorganisms using a most probable number (MPN) method and by verifying the presence of presumptive Escherichia coli in samples produced using infrared and conventional convective drying. The two infrared drying systems reduced the heterotrophic microbial burden from 5...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833851/overexpression-of-cop9-signalosome-subunits-csn7a-and-csn7b-exerts-different-effects-on-adipogenic-differentiation
#20
Xiaohua Huang, Jürgen Ordemann, Johann Pratschke, Wolfgang Dubiel
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an essential regulator of cullin-RING-ubiquitin (Ub) ligases (CRLs), which ubiquitinate important cellular regulators and target them for degradation by the Ub proteasome system (UPS). The CSN exhibits deneddylating activity localized on subunit CSN5, which removes the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from the cullins of CRLs. CSN-mediated deneddylation is an important step in the process of CRL remodeling, in which new substrate recognition units are incorporated into Ub ligases to meet changed requirements for proteolysis in cells...
November 2016: FEBS Open Bio
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