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"Reorienting negativity"

Irén Barkaszi, Endre Takács, István Czigler, László Balázs
This paper focuses on the impact of long-term Antarctic conditions on cognitive processes. Behavioral responses and event-related potentials were recorded during an auditory distraction task and an attention network paradigm. Participants were members of the over-wintering crew at Concordia Antarctic Research Station. Due to the reduced partial pressure of oxygen this environment caused moderate hypoxia. Beyond the hypoxia, the fluctuation of sunshine duration, isolation and confinement were the main stress factors of this environment...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kenia S Correa-Jaraba, Susana Cid-Fernández, Mónica Lindín, Fernando Díaz
The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21-29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51-64 years old; and (3) Old: 65-84 years old...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
L Oja, M Huotilainen, E Nikkanen, H Oksanen-Hennah, M Laasonen, A Voutilainen, L von Wendt, K Alho
Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker...
February 1, 2016: Brain Research
L B Shestopalova, E A Petropavlovskaia, S Ph Vaitulevich, N I Nikitin
The current study investigates auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) and mismatch negativity (MMN) during active and passive discrimination of stationary and moving sound stimuli presented according to the oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli represented stationary midline sounds. Deviant stimuli simulated sound source location shifts (to the left/right from head midline) produced by linear or stepwise changes of interaural time delay (ITD). The event-related responses were evaluated by peak amplitudes of N1 waves and mean amplitudes of MMN, P3a, P3b and reorienting negativity (RON) components...
September 2015: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
Yufeng Ke, Peiyuan Wang, Yuqian Chen, Bin Gu, Hongzhi Qi, Peng Zhou, Dong Ming
OBJECTIVE: As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI...
February 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Stephan Getzmann, Michael Falkenstein, Edmund Wascher
The ability to understand speech under adverse listening conditions deteriorates with age. In addition to genuine hearing deficits, age-related declines in attentional and inhibitory control are assumed to contribute to these difficulties. Here, the impact of task-irrelevant distractors on speech perception was studied in 28 younger and 24 older participants in a simulated "cocktail party" scenario. In a two-alternative forced-choice word discrimination task, the participants responded to a rapid succession of short speech stimuli ("on" and "off") that was presented at a frequent standard location or at a rare deviant location in silence or with a concurrent distractor speaker...
February 1, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Yuko Higuchi, Tomonori Seo, Tomohiro Miyanishi, Yasuhiro Kawasaki, Michio Suzuki, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
INTRODUCTION: We measured duration mismatch negativity (dMMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON) in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS), patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these event-related potentials provide a biomarker associated with progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects. METHODS: Nineteen ARMS subjects meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of ARMS, 38 patients with schizophrenia (19 first-episode and 19 chronic), and 19 healthy controls participated in the study...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Valentina Gumenyuk, Ryan Howard, Thomas Roth, Oleg Korzyukov, Christopher L Drake
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. METHODS: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO)...
March 2014: Sleep
János Horváth
Maintaining a selective attention set allows us to efficiently perform sensory tasks despite the multitude of concurrent sensory stimuli. Unpredictably occurring, rare events nonetheless capture our attention, that is, we get distracted. The present study investigated the efficiency of control over distraction as a function of preparation time available before a forthcoming distracter. A random sequence of short and long tones (100 or 200 ms with 50-50 % probability) was presented. Independently from tone duration, occasionally (13...
November 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
János Horváth
Event-related potentials (ERPs) offer unique insights into processes related to involuntary attention changes triggered by rare, unpredictably occurring sensory events, that is, distraction. Contrasting ERPs elicited by distracters and frequent standard stimuli in oddball paradigms allowed the formulation of a three-stage model describing distraction-related processing: first, the distracting event is highlighted by a sensory filter. Second, attention is oriented towards the event, and finally, the task-optimal attention set is restored, or task priorities are changed...
2014: Psychological Research
Stefan Berti
Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Giorgia Cona, Giorgio Arcara, Piero Amodio, Sami Schiff, Patrizia S Bisiacchi
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the role of executive control in accounting for the cognitive and electrophysiological alterations occurring in healthy aging. METHOD: Younger and older adults performed the inhibitory control task (ICT), a task composed of 3 types of trials that vary in the degree and kind of executive control subprocesses required. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by these ICT trials and focused on the ERP components related to executive control subprocesses: P3b (updating), no-go P3 (inhibition), and reorienting negativity (RON; shifting)...
May 2013: Neuropsychology
Stephan Getzmann, Patrick D Gajewski, Michael Falkenstein
Aging usually affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. However, aging is also associated with increased between-subject variability, and it is unclear in which features of processing older high-performing and low-performing human beings may differ in goal-directed behavior. To study involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and subsequent reorientation, we used an auditory distraction task and analyzed event-related potential measures (mismatch negativity), P3a and reorienting negativity) of 35 younger, 32 older high-performing, and 32 older low-performing participants...
August 2013: Neurobiology of Aging
V Putkinen, M Tervaniemi, M Huotilainen
The relation between informal musical activities at home and electrophysiological indices of neural auditory change detection was investigated in 2-3-year-old children. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in a multi-feature paradigm that included frequency, duration, intensity, direction, gap deviants and attention-catching novel sounds. Correlations were calculated between these responses and the amount of musical activity at home (i.e. musical play by the child and parental singing) reported by the parents...
February 2013: European Journal of Neuroscience
Stefan Berti, Martin Grunwald, Erich Schröger
Adults of three age groups (18-27, 39-45, and 59-66 years) performed an auditory duration discrimination task with short (200 ms) or long (400 ms) sinusoidal tones. Performance was highly accurate and reaction times were on the same level in all groups, indicating no differences in auditory duration processing. Task irrelevant rare changes of the frequency of the stimuli were introduced to check whether the subjects, firstly, were distracted by changes in the environment while focusing on the task relevant information (indicated by prolonged responses), and, secondly, could re-focus on the relevant task after distraction...
January 23, 2013: Brain Research
János Horváth, Alexandra Bendixen
Involuntary attention switches triggered by infrequent, unpredictably occurring sensory events (distraction) can be prevented when participants are made aware of the forthcoming distractor. Previous studies exploring this phenomenon presented visual cues before each stimulus in an auditory oddball sequence. In one condition, cues were completely reliable in predicting the forthcoming distractor or standard sound, in another, separate condition, they were completely unreliable. These studies found that in the condition with reliable cues, distraction was reduced compared to that with unreliable cues, as signaled by decreased reaction time delay as well as reduced P3a and reorienting negativity event-related potentials...
March 2012: International Journal of Psychophysiology
C Jahshan, K S Cadenhead, A J Rissling, K Kirihara, D L Braff, G A Light
BACKGROUND: Deficits in automatic sensory discrimination, as indexed by a reduction in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a event-related potential amplitudes, are well documented in chronic schizophrenia. However, MMN and P3a have not been sufficiently studied early in the course of psychotic illness. The present study aimed to investigate MMN, P3a and reorienting negativity (RON) across the course of schizophrenia. METHOD: MMN, P3a, and RON were assessed in 118 subjects across four groups: (1) individuals at risk for psychosis (n=26); (2) recent-onset patients (n=31); (3) chronic patients (n=33); and (4) normal controls (n=28) using a duration-deviant auditory oddball paradigm...
January 2012: Psychological Medicine
Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Josefina Ricardo-Garcell, Mario Rodríguez-Camacho, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Ulises Rodríguez, Mayela Rodríguez-Violante, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo
Dopaminergic nigro-striatal depletion interferes with the detection of novel stimuli. This suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) may generate from the initial stages a failure in involuntary attention (IA), which can be studied through the distraction potential, composed by the mismatch negativity (MMN), the P3a and the reorientation negativity (RON). This study analyzed IA using event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with early PD with and without dopaminergic replacement therapy. Twenty-five medicated, and 17 non-medicated patients with early PD were studied, as well as 20 healthy control subjects...
May 16, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
Michael Schwartze, Kathrin Rothermich, Maren Schmidt-Kassow, Sonja A Kotz
Temporal regularity allows predicting the temporal locus of future information thereby potentially facilitating cognitive processing. We applied event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate how temporal regularity impacts pre-attentive and attentive processing of deviance in the auditory modality. Participants listened to sequences of sinusoidal tones differing exclusively in pitch. The inter-stimulus interval (ISI) in these sequences was manipulated to convey either isochronous or random temporal structure...
April 2011: Biological Psychology
János Horváth, Elyse Sussman, István Winkler, Erich Schröger
Rare irregular sounds (deviants) embedded into a regular sound sequence have large potential to draw attention to themselves (distraction). It has been previously shown that distraction, as manifested by behavioral response delay, and the P3a and reorienting negativity (RON) event-related potentials, could be reduced when the forthcoming deviant was signaled by visual cues preceding the sounds. In the present study, we investigated the type of information used in the prevention of distraction by manipulating the information content of the visual cues preceding the sounds...
April 2011: Biological Psychology
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