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Chun-Ming Lai, Kun-Yang Lin, Shih-Han Kao, Yi-Ning Chen, Fu Huang, Hwei-Jan Hsu
Stem cells require different types of supporting cells, or niches, to control stem cell maintenance and differentiation. However, little is known about how those niches are formed. We report that in the development of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary, the Hedgehog (Hh) gradient sets differential cell affinity for somatic gonadal precursors to specify stromal intermingled cells, which contributes to both germline stem cell maintenance and differentiation niches in the adult. We also report that Traffic Jam (an orthologue of a large Maf transcription factor in mammals) is a novel transcriptional target of Hh signaling to control cell-cell adhesion by negative regulation of E-cadherin expression...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
The effect of diet on reproduction is well documented in a large number of organisms; however, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The Drosophila ovary has a well described, fast and largely reversible response to diet. Ovarian stem cells and their progeny proliferate and grow faster on a yeast-rich diet than on a yeast-free (poor) diet, and death of early germline cysts, degeneration of early vitellogenic follicles and partial block in ovulation further contribute to the ∼60-fold decrease in egg laying observed on a poor diet...
January 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Yen-Hsuan Ni, Mei-Hwei Chang, Chyi-Feng Jan, Hong-Yuan Hsu, Huey-Ling Chen, Jia-Feng Wu, Ding-Shinn Chen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Taiwan began a universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program for infants in July 1984. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decreased from 9.8% before the vaccination program to less than 1% by 25 years afterward. We continued to monitor HBV infections in this population. METHODS: We conducted a series of serologic and epidemiologic surveys in the Taipei metropolitan area every 5 years from 1984 through 2014. From January 1 through December 31 of 2014, we collected serum samples from 4605 apparently healthy individuals (ages: 287 were <3 y, 405 were 3-6 y, 675 were 7-12 y, 686 were 13-18 y, 468 were 18-22 y, and 2084 were 22-50 y)...
September 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Chen-Yuan Tseng, Shih-Han Kao, Hwei-Jan Hsu
Epithelial stem cells undergo constant self-renewal and differentiation to maintain the homeostasis of epithelial tissues that undergo rapid turnover. Recent studies have shown that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is primarily mediated by Snail via the suppression of E-cadherin, is able to generate cells with stem cell properties. However, the role of Snail in epithelial stem cells remains unclear. Here, we report that Snail directly controls proliferation of follicle stem cells (FSCs) in Drosophila females...
June 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Chen-Yuan Tseng, Shih-Han Kao, Chih-Ling Wan, Yueh Cho, Shu-Yun Tung, Hwei-Jan Hsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: PLoS Genetics
Kun-Yang Lin, Shih-Han Kao, Chun-Ming Lai, Ciao-Ting Chen, Chang-Yi Wu, Hwei-Jan Hsu, Wen-Der Wang
Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls various cell fates in metazoan development, and its dysregulation is often associated with cancer formation. However, regulations of this signaling pathway are not completely understood. Here, we report that Lzap, a tumor suppressor, controls nuclear translocation of β-catenin. In zebrafish embryos disruption of lzap increases the expression of chordin (chd), which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist that is localized in prospective dorsal cells and promotes dorsal fates...
December 11, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jih-Luh Tang, Hsiang-Chi Kung, Weng-Chi Lei, Ming Yao, Un-In Wu, Szu-Chun Hsu, Chien-Ting Lin, Chi-Cheng Li, Shang-Ju Wu, Hsin-An Hou, Wen-Chien Chou, Shang-Yi Huang, Woei Tsay, Yao-Chang Chen, Yee-Chun Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang, Bor-Sheng Ko, Hwei-Fang Tien
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis...
2015: PloS One
Jen-Chieh Lin, Shing Hu, Pei-Hung Ho, Hwei-Jan Hsu, John H Postlethwait, Bon-chu Chung
HSD3B catalyzes the synthesis of δ4 steroids such as progesterone in the adrenals and gonads. Individuals lacking HSD3B2 activity experience congenital adrenal hyperplasia with imbalanced steroid synthesis. To develop a zebrafish model of HSD3B deficiency, we characterized 2 zebrafish hsd3b genes. Our phylogenetic and conserved synteny analyses showed that the tandemly duplicated human HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 genes are coorthologs of zebrafish hsd3b1 on chromosome 9 (Dre9), whereas the gene called hsd3b2 resides on Dre20 in an ancestral chromosome segment, from which its ortholog was lost in the tetrapod lineage...
August 2015: Endocrinology
Huey-Ling Chen, Chien-Nan Lee, Chin-Hao Chang, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ming-Kwang Shyu, Shih-Ming Chen, Jen-Jan Hu, Hans Hsienhong Lin, Lu-Lu Zhao, Shu-Chi Mu, Ming-Wei Lai, Chyi-Long Lee, Hsien-Ming Lin, Ming-Song Tsai, Jenn-Jeih Hsu, Ding-Shinn Chen, K Arnold Chan, Mei-Hwei Chang
UNLABELLED: The efficacy and safety of maternal tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in reducing mother-to-infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmissions is not clearly understood. We conducted a prospective, multicenter trial and enrolled 118 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)- and hepatitis B e antigen-positive pregnant women with HBV DNA ≥7.5 log10 IU/mL. The mothers received no medication (control group, n = 56, HBV DNA 8.22 ± 0.39 log10 IU/mL) or TDF 300 mg daily (TDF group, n = 62, HBV DNA 8...
August 2015: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Chen-Yuan Tseng, Shih-Han Kao, Chih-Ling Wan, Yueh Cho, Shu-Yun Tung, Hwei-Jan Hsu
Stem cells have an innate ability to occupy their stem cell niche, which in turn, is optimized to house stem cells. Organ aging is associated with reduced stem cell occupancy in the niche, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Notch signaling is increased with age in Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs), and this results in their removal from the niche. Clonal analysis revealed that GSCs with low levels of Notch signaling exhibit increased adhesiveness to the niche, thereby out-competing their neighbors with higher levels of Notch; adhesiveness is altered through regulation of E-cadherin expression...
December 2014: PLoS Genetics
Wen-Der Wang, Guan-Ting Chen, Hwei-Jan Hsu, Chang-Yi Wu
Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide and plant growth retardant, has been widely used for over 30 years to regulate plant growth and promote early fruit setting. Long-term usage of PBZ in agriculture and natural environments has resulted in residual PBZ in the soil and water. Chronic exposure to waterborne PBZ can cause various physiological effects in fish, including hepatic steatosis, antioxidant activity, and disruption of spermatogenesis. We have previously shown that PBZ also affects the rates of zebrafish embryonic survival and hatching, and causes developmental failure of the head skeleton and eyes; here, we further show that PBZ has embryonic toxic effects on digestive organs of zebrafish, and describe the underlying mechanisms...
February 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Shih-Han Kao, Chen-Yuan Tseng, Chih-Ling Wan, Yu-Han Su, Chang-Che Hsieh, Haiwei Pi, Hwei-Jan Hsu
Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate...
February 2015: Aging Cell
Chih-Chieh Hsu, Chiao-En Wu, Jen-Shi Chen, Jeng-Hwei Tseng, Kun-Chun Chiang, Yu-Yin Liu, Chun-Yi Tsai, Chi-Tung Cheng, Tsung-Wen Chen, Yi-Yin Jan, Ta-Sen Yeh, Yen-Yang Chen, Chun-Nan Yeh
AIM: Imatinib mesylate (IM) is effective in metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients; however, disease progression eventually occurs due to IM resistance or intolerance. Treatment options include IM escalation or a direct shift to sunitinib, but comparison of these strategies is required. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 91 out of 214 metastatic GIST patients treated with IM, who experienced progression or intolerance between August 2001 and December 2012 at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital...
September 2014: Anticancer Research
Kun-Chun Chiang, Chun-Nan Yeh, Jun-Te Hsu, Yi-Yin Jan, Li-Wei Chen, Sheng-Fong Kuo, Masashi Takano, Atsushi Kittaka, Tai C Chen, Wen-Tsung Chen, Jong-Hwei S Pang, Ta-Sen Yeh, Horng-Heng Juang
Pancreatic cancer (PDA) is a devastating disease and there is no effective treatment available at present. To develop new regiments against PDA is urgently needed. Previously we have shown that vitamin D analog, MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), exerted potent antiproliferative effect on PDA in vitro and in vivo without causing hypercalcemia. Since metastasis is the major cause of PDA-related death, we therefore investigate the anti-metastasis effect of MART-10 on PDA. Our results showed that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 repressed migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PANC cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3...
November 28, 2014: Cancer Letters
Aulia Puspita Anugra Yekti, Hwei-Jan Hsu, Wen-Der Wang
Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide, is widely used on food crops. Frequent usage of PBZ may contaminate water, but its toxicity to aquatic organisms is understudied. Although the chronic effects of PBZ exposure on reproductive, antioxidant defense, and liver metabolism systems in rockfish have been reported, the toxic effects of PBZ on aquatic embryos are unknown. Here, we report that PBZ disrupts the development of heart and craniofacial cartilage in zebrafish embryos, and decreases their survival and hatching rates...
February 2014: Zebrafish
Sheng-An Yang, Wen-Der Wang, Ciao-Ting Chen, Chen-Yuan Tseng, Yi-Ning Chen, Hwei-Jan Hsu
The stem cell niche houses and regulates stem cells by providing both physical contact and local factors that regulate stem cell identity. The stem cell niche also plays a role in integrating niche-local and systemic signals, thereby ensuring that the balance of stem cells meets the needs of the organism. However, it is not clear how these signals are merged within the niche. Nutrient-sensing insulin/FOXO signaling has been previously shown to directly control Notch activation in the Drosophila female germline stem cell (GSC) niche, which maintains the niche and GSC identity...
October 1, 2013: Developmental Biology
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, or niches, that are essential for their function in vivo. Stem cells are physically attached to the niche, which provides secreted factors that promote their self-renewal and proliferation. Despite intense research on the role of the niche in regulating stem cell function, much less is known about how the niche itself is controlled. We previously showed that insulin signals directly stimulate germline stem cell (GSC) division and indirectly promote GSC maintenance via the niche in Drosophila...
February 15, 2011: Developmental Biology
Sok-Keng Tong, Hwei-Jan Hsu, Bon-chu Chung
The zebrafish is a popular model for genetic analysis and its sex differentiation has been the focus of attention for breeding purposes. Despite numerous efforts, very little is known about the mechanism of zebrafish sex determination. The lack of discernible sex chromosomes and the difficulty of distinguishing the sex of juvenile fish are two major obstacles that hamper the progress in such studies. To alleviate these problems, we have developed a scheme involving methyltestosterone treatment followed by natural mating to generate fish with predictable sex trait...
August 15, 2010: Developmental Biology
Leesa LaFever, Alexander Feoktistov, Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Stem cells depend on intrinsic and local factors to maintain their identity and activity, but they also sense and respond to changing external conditions. We previously showed that germline stem cells (GSCs) and follicle stem cells (FSCs) in the Drosophila ovary respond to diet via insulin signals. Insulin signals directly modulate the GSC cell cycle at the G2 phase, but additional unknown dietary mediators control both G1 and G2. Target of rapamycin, or TOR, is part of a highly conserved nutrient-sensing pathway affecting growth, proliferation, survival and fertility...
July 2010: Development
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Jen-Chieh Lin, Bon-chu Chung
Zebrafish has been used increasingly as a good animal model for a number of studies. To facilitate the use of this zebrafish model, the current report put emphasis on the study of two steroidogenic genes: cyp11a1 and hsd3b. These two genes encode enzymes that catalyze the first two steps of the steroidogenic pathway, and both enzymes are important for the synthesis of all steroids. Zebrafish cyp11a1 and hsd3b genes are expressed in the same cells in the gonads and interrenal gland. The interrenal gland is the counterpart of mammalian adrenal; it is located inside the head kidney and is developed parallel to the development of the pronephros...
November 27, 2009: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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