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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751051/neurocognitive-effects-of-methylphenidate-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Michelle A Pievsky, Robert E McGrath
PIEVSKY, M. A., and R. E. McGrath. Neurocognitive effects of methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 81(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- This meta-analysis summarized 21 double-blind randomized controlled trials with a mean study duration of 18 days comparing the neurocognitive functioning of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on methylphenidate vs placebo. Effect sizes were weighted using a random-effects model. Scores on neurocognitive measures and tests of driving ability were on average higher on methylphenidate than on placebo, g = ...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739866/region-specific-regulation-of-presynaptic-dopamine-homeostasis-by-d2-autoreceptors-shapes-the-in-vivo-impact-of-the-neuropsychiatric-disease-associated-dat-variant-val559
#2
Raajaram Gowrishankar, Paul J Gresch, Gwynne L Davis, Rania M Katamish, Justin R Riele, Adele M Stewart, Roxanne A Vaughan, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Disruptions of dopamine (DA) signaling contribute to a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Despite evidence that risk for these disorders derives from heritable variation in DA-linked genes, a better understanding is needed of the molecular and circuit context through which gene variation drives distinct disease traits. Previously, we identified the DA transporter (DAT) variant Val559 in subjects with ADHD and established that the mutation supports anomalous DAT-mediated DA efflux (ADE)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704141/2d-4d-ratio-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-twin-study
#3
Lynnea Myers, Annelies Van't Westeinde, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Kristiina Tammimies, Sven Bölte
The second to fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio is of interest in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies on the relationship of this ratio with other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are lacking. Investigating the association between the ratio and NDDs in twins can provide insight into genetic and/or environmental factors driving the ratio. Hand images were collected in N = 238 twins with NDDs or typical development from 70 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic pairs to examine ratios and their associations to DSM-5 defined categorical NDDs, autistic traits, zygosity, and sex...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701615/simulated-driving-performance-self-reported-driving-behaviors-and-mental-health-symptoms-in-adolescent-novice-drivers
#4
Catherine C McDonald, Marilyn S Sommers, Jamison D Fargo, Thomas Seacrist, Thomas Power
BACKGROUND: Risky driving behaviors contribute to adolescent injury, disability, and death, yet little is known about how mental health factors are associated with adolescent driving behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the research was to determine the association of risky driving behaviors and mental health symptoms in novice adolescent drivers. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample (n = 60) of adolescents to complete an assessment of driving performance errors in a high-fidelity simulator (Simulated Driving Assessment [SDA] Error Score) and a self-report measure of risky driving (Behavior of Young Novice Drivers Survey [BYNDS])...
May 2018: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569336/nonmedical-prescription-stimulant-users-experience-subjective-but-not-objective-impairments-in-attention-and-impulsivity
#5
Alison Looby, Sarah Sant'Ana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nonmedical prescription stimulant use is frequently reported by college students to improve academic performance, yet it is unknown whether users truly experience cognitive impairments that may drive use. This research compared students with at least one report of nonmedical prescription stimulant use and nonusers on both self-report and objective measures of inattention and impulsivity. METHODS: Two studies examined inattention (N = 155) and impulsivity (N = 115) among college students...
March 23, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554125/git1-regulates-synaptic-structural-plasticity-underlying-learning
#6
Amanda C Martyn, Krisztian Toth, Robert Schmalzigaug, Nathan G Hedrick, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Ryohei Yasuda, William C Wetsel, Richard T Premont
The signaling scaffold protein GIT1 is expressed widely throughout the brain, but its function in vivo remains elusive. Mice lacking GIT1 have been proposed as a model for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, due to alterations in basal locomotor activity as well as paradoxical locomotor suppression by the psychostimulant amphetamine. Since we had previously shown that GIT1-knockout mice have normal locomotor activity, here we examined GIT1-deficient mice for ADHD-like behavior in more detail, and find neither hyperactivity nor amphetamine-induced locomotor suppression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547761/adhd-depression-and-motor-vehicle-crashes-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-continuously-monitored-real-world-driving
#7
Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
June 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537898/a-situation-specific-approach-to-measure-attention-in-adults-with-adhd-the-everyday-life-attention-scale-elas
#8
Yvonne Groen, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Oliver Tucha
This study describes the development and utility of a new self-report measure of attentional capacities of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the Everyday Life Attention Scale (ELAS). Different from previous attention scales, attentional capacities are rated for nine everyday situations. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the ELAS in 1206 healthy participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a situation-specific approach which categorizes everyday attention into nine situation scales: Reading, Movie, Activity, Lecture, Conversation, Assignment, Cooking, Cleaning up, and Driving...
March 14, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535621/event-related-potentials-during-a-gambling-task-in-young-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316800/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220z-attenuates-hoarding-and-shopping-behavior-in-a-female-diagnosed-with-sud-and-adhd
#10
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Background Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution. Case presentation C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274569/risk-factors-for-adverse-driving-outcomes-in-dutch-adults-with-adhd-and-controls
#11
Tannetje I Bron, Denise Bijlenga, Minda Breuk, Marieke Michielsen, Aartjan T F Beekman, J J Sandra Kooij
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for adverse driving outcomes and unsafe driving among adults with and without ADHD in a Dutch sample. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, validated self-report questionnaires were used to compare driving history and current driving behavior between 330 adults diagnosed with ADHD and 330 controls. RESULTS: Adults with ADHD had significantly more adverse driving outcomes when compared to controls. Having an ADHD diagnosis significantly increased the odds for having had 3 or more vehicular crashes (OR = 2...
February 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052031/do-pharmaceuticals-improve-driving-in-individuals-with-adhd-a-review-of-the-literature-and-evidence-for-clinical-practice
#12
REVIEW
Craig B H Surman, Ronna Fried, Lauren Rhodewalt, Heidi Boland
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a disorder of impaired attention and/or behavioral control. Studies suggest that the condition can dispose individuals to a higher risk of automobile accidents. ADHD symptoms respond to pharmacotherapy in a majority of uncomplicated cases. Evidence on how pharmacotherapies for ADHD impact driving behavior or outcomes could allow clinicians to support on-road safety rationally. We therefore undertook a review to identify the evidence base to date indicating positive or negative effects of pharmacotherapies on driving behavior in individuals with ADHD...
October 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040873/hazard-perception-skills-of-young-drivers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-can-be-improved-with-computer-based-driver-training-an-exploratory-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
C R Bruce, C A Unsworth, M P Dillon, R Tay, T Falkmer, P Bird, L M Carey
BACKGROUND: Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers. OBJECTIVES: *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training...
October 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964912/functional-coding-variation-in-the-presynaptic-dopamine-transporter-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-drives-enhanced-motivation-and-context-dependent-impulsivity-in-mice
#14
Gwynne L Davis, Adele Stewart, Gregg D Stanwood, Raajaram Gowrishankar, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Recent genetic analyses have provided evidence that clinical commonalities associated with different psychiatric diagnoses often have shared mechanistic underpinnings. The development of animal models expressing functional genetic variation attributed to multiple disorders offers a salient opportunity to capture molecular, circuit and behavioral alterations underlying this hypothesis. In keeping with studies suggesting dopaminergic contributions to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subjects with these diagnoses have been found to express a rare, functional coding substitution in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), Ala559Val...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845720/creativity-in-adhd-goal-directed-motivation-and-domain-specificity
#15
Nathalie Boot, Barbara Nevicka, Matthijs Baas
OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to provide explanations for the inconsistent findings regarding creativity in ADHD. METHOD: In Study 1, we assessed real-world creative achievements and intrinsic motivation during idea generation in adults with ADHD and compared these with controls. In Study 2, we manipulated competition during idea generation to investigate effects on idea originality in adults with ADHD versus controls, and assessed creativity in specific domains...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771386/predictors-of-long-term-risky-driving-behavior-in-the-multimodal-treatment-study-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jessica A Johnson, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Margot O Reed, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: This study examines predictors of later risky driving behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to explore baseline predictors of risky driving behavior for adolescents who completed the 8-year follow-up assessment in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA). RESULTS: Stepwise logistic regression analysis explained 19% of the total variance in risky driving behavior...
October 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739027/undiagnosed-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-among-unionized-drivers-in-ghana-public-health-and-policy-implications
#17
Thaddeus P Ulzen, John C Higginbotham, Gordon Donnir, Laurence Jerome, Al Segal
Road traffic accidents (RTA) are among the leading causes of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Many males that drop out of school in Ghana, a population at risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), find employment by joining driver's unions. Moreover, the vehicles of Ghanaian unionized drivers are over-represented in fatal road accidents. Untreated ADHD has been linked with higher rates of RTAs. The objectives of this cross-sectional analysis is to determine the following among unionized drivers in Ghana: 1) the prevalence of ADHD, and 2) the association between self-reported ADHD risk and driving behavior...
May 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659040/defining-the-neural-substrate-of-the-adult-outcome-of-childhood-adhd-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study-of-response-inhibition
#18
Eszter Szekely, Gustavo P Sudre, Wendy Sharp, Ellen Leibenluft, Philip Shaw
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural processes tied to the adult outcome of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could guide novel interventions to improve its clinical course. It has been argued that normalization of prefrontal cortical activity drives remission from ADHD, while anomalies in subcortical processes are "fixed," present even in remission. Using multimodal neuroimaging of inhibitory processes, the authors tested these hypotheses in adults followed since childhood, contrasting remitted against persistent ADHD...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493861/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-neuropsychological-development-in-pre-school-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Maribel Casas, Joan Forns, David Martínez, Mònica Guxens, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Jesus Ibarluzea, Nerea Lertxundi, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Adonina Tardon, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BackgroundMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear whether intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association.MethodsWe assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test...
October 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422635/simulated-driving-skills-evaluation-of-teenagers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-before-driving-lessons
#20
Navah Zelda Ratzon, Efrat Kadury Lunievsky, Arie Ashkenasi, Joseph Laks, Herman Avner Cohen
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the driving skills of teenagers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during simulated driving before starting driving lessons and observed whether methylphenidate (MPH) affected their performance. METHOD: Sixty teenagers ages 15-18 yr were included; 29 teenagers with ADHD were tested with and without MPH, and 31 teenagers (control group) were tested once. All participants were tested on the STISIM Drive™ simulator. RESULTS: The number of center-line crossings was higher in the group without MPH treatment than in the control group and the MPH-treated group...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
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