Read by QxMD icon Read

Adhd driving

Elena Sokolova, Perry Groot, Tom Claassen, Kimm J van Hulzen, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke, Tom Heskes, Jan Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. METHOD: We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype...
2016: PloS One
Rachel Shoham, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Hamutal Aloni, Ilan Yaniv, Yehuda Pollak
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often assumed to be associated with increased engagement in risk-taking behaviors. The current study sought to understand the mental processes underlying this association using a theory-driven behavioral economics perspective. Psychological risk-return models suggest that risk and benefit are inherently subjective, and risk taking is best understood as the interplay between cognitions and motivations regarding the benefits and risks of alternatives. A sample of 244 adults was assessed for ADHD symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Saeid Safiri, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Fatemeh Hashemi, Shahrokh Amiri, Owais Raza, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani
BACKGROUND: Use of helmets plays a major role in preventing injuries or decreasing injury severity among motorcycle riders. Use of helmets may depend on personal factors such as psychological factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to independently assess the association between helmet use among motorcycle riders and ADHD scores, with controlling the accident history and was taken more sensitive measures if helmet use was different between motorcycle riders, according to their ADHD scores...
May 2016: Trauma Monthly
Gregory A Fabiano, Nicole K Schatz, Karen L Morris, Michael T Willoughby, Rebecca K Vujnovic, Kevin F Hulme, Jessica Riordan, Marlana Howard, Dwight Hennessy, Kemper Lewis, Larry Hawk, Amanda Wylie, William E Pelham
Objective: Teenage drivers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at significant risk for negative driving outcomes related to morbidity and mortality. However, there are few viable psychosocial treatments for teens with ADHD and none focus on the key functional area of driving. The Supporting the Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program was evaluated in a clinical trial to investigate whether it improved family functioning as a proximal outcome and driving behavior as a distal outcome...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Dhanush Haspula, Michelle A Clark
Brainstem and cerebellar astrocytes have critical roles to play in hypertension and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Angiotensin (Ang) II, via the astroglial Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R), has been demonstrated to elevate pro-inflammatory mediators in the brainstem and the cerebellum. The activation of astroglial cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), a master regulator of homeostasis, has been shown to neutralize inflammatory states. Factors that drive disease progression are known to alter the expression of CB1Rs...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Nastassia J S Randell, Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey
OBJECTIVE: This research investigated the on-road driving performance of individuals with ADHD across a range of road and traffic conditions to determine whether errors were linked to situational complexity and attentional demands. METHOD: The everyday driving performance of medicated drivers with ADHD, unmedicated drivers with ADHD, and controls was tested in urban, residential, rural, and highway environments using driver license testing procedures. RESULTS: Unmedicated drivers with ADHD displayed fewer safe driving skills and committed more inattentive and impatient driving errors, particularly in low demand highway and rural driving conditions...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
V A Pironti, M-C Lai, S Morein-Zamir, U Müller, E T Bullmore, B J Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Little is known about time perception, its putative role as cognitive endophenotype, and its neuroanatomical underpinnings in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Twenty adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives and 20 typically developing controls matched for age and gender undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry with DARTEL was performed to obtain regional grey-matter volumes...
September 2016: Psychological Medicine
Yael Winter, Hilla Ben-Pazi, Yehuda Pollak
OBJECTIVE: Effort allocation is a multi-faceted process driving both the decision to choose a high effort-high reward alternative over a low effort-low reward alternative, and the execution of this decision by recruiting sufficient effort. The objectives of our study were to examine whether children with ADHD would (a) show different reward-effort cost trade-off, and (b) have difficulty executing their decision. METHOD: 50 children, aged 9 to 15, with and without ADHD, had to choose between high effort-high reward and low effort-low reward alternatives using a handheld dynamometer and to execute their choice...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Samuele Cortese, Stephen V Faraone, Silvia Bernardi, Shuai Wang, Carlos Blanco
BACKGROUND: Gaining insight into possible gender differences in the clinical presentation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of relevance in order to conduct appropriate screening and treatment interventions in both genders. METHOD: The analyses compared (1) prevalence and sociodemographic correlates, (2) frequency of ADHD core symptoms, (3) rates of subtypes, (4) prevalence of comorbid mental health conditions, and (5) rates of risky/impulsive behaviors, as well as health and social correlates, in men and women with ADHD in a nationally representative, US population-based sample...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Ofir Turel, Antoine Bechara
BACKGROUND: Adults who present ADHD symptoms have an increased risk for vehicle accidents. One conceivable overlooked account for this association is the possibility that people with ADHD symptoms use rewarding technologies such as social networking sites (SNS) while driving, more than others. The objective of this study was to understand if and how ADHD symptoms can promote SNS use while driving and specifically to conceptualize and examine mechanisms which may underlie this association...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Stéphanie Bioulac, Patricia Sagaspe, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Ellemarije Altena, Jacques Taillard, Carmen Schröder, Manuel-Pierre Bouvard, Colette Fabrigoule, Pierre Philip
OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether daytime impairments in ADHD patients are better explained by an altered level of alertness and/or by cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of these factors on driving performance in ADHD adults. METHOD: ADHD adults (n= 39) and healthy controls (n= 18) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) followed by a Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), a simulated driving task, and a neuropsychological evaluation...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Hanna Kovshoff, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Marina Danckaerts, Ralf W Dittmann, Bruno Falissard, Dina Gojkovic Grimshaw, Chris Hollis, Sarah Inglis, Kerstin Konrad, Elizabeth Liddle, Suzanne McCarthy, Peter Nagy, Margaret Thompson, Ian C K Wong, Alessandro Zuddas, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: There is no questionnaire to specifically monitor perceived adverse events of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognition, motivation, and mood. The current study therefore had two goals. First, to harvest accounts of such putative events from transcripts of interviews in samples enriched for such potential experiences. Second, to use the derived data to generate items for a new questionnaire that can be used for monitoring such events in medication trials or routine clinical care. METHODS: Following a literature search aimed at identifying associations between MPH and cognition and/or motivation, a qualitative semistructured interview was designed to focus specifically on the domains of cognition (i...
August 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Tycho J Dekkers, Arne Popma, Joost A Agelink van Rentergem, Anika Bexkens, Hilde M Huizenga
ADHD has been associated with various forms of risky real life decision making, for example risky driving, unsafe sex and substance abuse. However, results from laboratory studies on decision making deficits in ADHD have been inconsistent, probably because of between study differences. We therefore performed a meta-regression analysis in which 37 studies (n ADHD=1175; n Control=1222) were included, containing 52 effect sizes. The overall analysis yielded a small to medium effect size (standardized mean difference=...
April 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Amie J Moyes, S Clare Stanford, Patrick S Hosford, Adrian J Hobbs, Andrew G Ramage
What is the central question of this study? Does genetic ablation of neurokinin-1 receptors alter arterial blood pressure? What is the main finding and its importance? NK1R(-/-) mice have increased mean arterial blood pressure, but without a concomitant change in vascular reactivity. This finding suggests that neurokinin-1 receptors play a role in the neural regulation of blood pressure. Mice with functional ablation of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene, Tacr1, (NK1R(-/-) ) express behavioural abnormalities equivalent to those seen in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
May 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
M Linden, J Weddigen
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of great importance not only in children but also in adults; however, despite extensive research there are still many unsolved questions with respect to the diagnosis. Patients not only suffer from attention deficits and hyperactivity but also a variety of other problems, such as dyspraxia, problems with stimulus discrimination, dysgrammatism, legasthenia, or motor coordination problems. Furthermore, there are also psychopathological disorders, such as problems with memory, formal thinking, emotional modulation, drive and vegetative stability, in the sense of a psycho-organic syndrome...
January 28, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Karen A Patte, Caroline A Davis, Robert D Levitan, Allan S Kaplan, Jacqueline Carter-Major, James L Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: The ADHD-obesity link has been suggested to result from a shared underlying basis of suboptimal dopamine (DA); however, this theory conflicts evidence that an amplified DA signal increases the risk for overeating and weight gain. A model was tested in which ADHD symptoms, predicted by hypodopaminergic functioning in the prefrontal cortex, in combination with an enhanced appetitive drive, predict hedonic eating and, in turn, higher body mass index (BMI). METHOD: DRD2 and DRD4 markers were genotyped...
January 21, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Yihong Zhao, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric science remains descriptive, with a categorical nosology intended to enhance interobserver reliability. Increased awareness of the mismatch between categorical classifications and the complexity of biological systems drives the search for novel frameworks including discovery science in Big Data. In this review, we provide an overview of incipient approaches, primarily focused on classically categorical diagnoses such as schizophrenia (SZ), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but also reference convincing, if focal, advances in cancer biology, to describe the challenges of Big Data and discovery science, and outline approaches being formulated to overcome existing obstacles...
March 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Gregory A Fabiano, Nicole K Schatz, Kevin F Hulme, Karen L Morris, Rebecca K Vujnovic, Michael T Willoughby, Dwight Hennessy, Kemper E Lewis, Julie Owens, William E Pelham
OBJECTIVE: Youth with ADHD exhibit positive bias, an overestimation of ability, relative to external indicators. The positive bias construct is understudied in adolescents, particularly in the domain of driving. Study is needed as youth with ADHD experience greater negative outcomes in driving relative to typically developing teens. METHOD: Positive bias on a driving simulator task was investigated with 172 teenagers with ADHD, combined type. Youth participated in a driving simulation task and rated driving performance afterward...
December 4, 2015: Journal of Attention Disorders
Gregor Wilbertz, Mauricio R Delgado, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon Maier, Alexandra Philipsen, Jens Blechert
OBJECTIVES: Risky behavior seriously impacts the life of adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such behaviors have often been attributed to their exaggerated reward seeking, but dysfunctional anticipation of negative outcomes might also play a role. METHODS: The present study compared adult patients with ADHD (n=28) with matched healthy controls (n= 28) during anticipation of monetary losses versus gains while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and skin conductance recording...
October 28, 2015: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Mary K Colvin, Theodore A Stern
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental illness that can have devastating long-term consequences if untreated. Studies have shown that untreated individuals have worse outcomes than treated patients in academic, occupational, and social functioning; antisocial behavior; driving; substance use; and use of services. Family functioning is also highly affected by the child's ADHD and should be addressed by physicians. Recognition and management of ADHD in children is important so that their long-term outcomes can be improved...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"