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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493861/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-neuropsychological-development-in-pre-school-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Maribel Casas, Joan Forns, David Martínez, Mònica Guxens, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Jesus Ibarluzea, Nerea Lertxundi, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Adonina Tardon, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BackgroundMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear whether intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association.MethodsWe assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test...
June 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422635/simulated-driving-skills-evaluation-of-teenagers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-before-driving-lessons
#2
Navah Zelda Ratzon, Efrat Kadury Lunievsky, Arie Ashkenasi, Joseph Laks, Herman Avner Cohen
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the driving skills of teenagers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during simulated driving before starting driving lessons and observed whether methylphenidate (MPH) affected their performance. METHOD: Sixty teenagers ages 15-18 yr were included; 29 teenagers with ADHD were tested with and without MPH, and 31 teenagers (control group) were tested once. All participants were tested on the STISIM Drive™ simulator. RESULTS: The number of center-line crossings was higher in the group without MPH treatment than in the control group and the MPH-treated group...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414486/girls-with-childhood-adhd-as-adults-cross-domain-outcomes-by-diagnostic-persistence
#3
Elizabeth B Owens, Christine Zalecki, Peter Gillette, Stephen P Hinshaw
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain adult outcomes in 10 domains reflecting symptomatology (internalizing, externalizing, self-injury, substance use), attainment (education, employment), and impairment (health, social, driving, overall) as a function of both childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and persistence of ADHD symptoms across time. METHOD: We prospectively followed 140 grade-school-aged girls with rigorously diagnosed childhood ADHD and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls for 16 years...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411408/psychopathology-and-traffic-violations-in-subjects-who-have-lost-their-driving-license
#4
S Valero, R Bosch, M Corominas, A Giannoni, V Barrau, J A Ramos-Quiroga, M Casas
BACKGROUND: The persistence of risky behaviors while driving and traffic accidents despite campaigns to increase awareness suggest that there may be underlying causes that maintain proneness to traffic violations. The aim of the current study was to assess: a) the prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of people who have lost their driving license due to former traffic violations and b) the discriminatory capacity of each psychopathological disorder to differentiate among people with high and low proneness to perform risky behaviors while driving...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353182/an-international-qualitative-study-of-ability-and-disability-in-adhd-using-the-who-icf-framework
#5
Soheil Mahdi, Marisa Viljoen, Rafael Massuti, Melissa Selb, Omar Almodayfer, Sunil Karande, Petrus J de Vries, Luis Rohde, Sven Bölte
This is the third in a series of four cross-cultural empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF(-CY) Core Sets for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To explore the perspectives of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, self-advocates, immediate family members and professional caregivers on relevant areas of impairment and functional abilities typical for ADHD across the lifespan as operationalized by the ICF(-CY)...
March 28, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299159/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-community-based-sample-with-neurodevelopmental-problems-in-lagos-nigeria
#6
Yewande O Oshodi, Andrew T Olagunju, Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu, Elizabeth A Campbell, Charles S Umeh, Olatunji F Aina, Wellington Oyibo, Folusho E A Lesi, Joseph D Adeyemi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a globally prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder for which early diagnosis and intervention is the mainstay of management. In the African continent, limited data is available regarding the non-clinic based samples. Lack of information available to caregivers and inadequate skilled manpower often limit early detection and access to the few available though under resourced services in the community. Community based screening can be an important drive to create awareness and improve information dissemination regarding services available for those living with this disorder...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203275/diagnostic-profiles-and-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-among-children-and-adolescents-attending-a-national-psychiatric-hospital-in-botswana
#7
Anthony A Olashore, Bechedza Frank-Hatitchki, Olorunfemi Ogunwobi
BACKGROUND: Attention is currently being drawn to child psychiatric care, most especially in the developed countries. This type of care is still rudimentary in the developing countries. Botswana is one of the African countries with good health care services but mental illness is given the low priority. Child and adolescent mental health care (CAMHC) is almost non-existent likely due to the dearth of research which would drive a policy change in this direction. Hence the need for this research as a step towards establishing a well-structured CAMHC...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106934/neuroimaging-the-neural-correlates-of-increased-risk-for-substance-use-disorders-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Vitria Adisetiyo, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are nearly three times more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUD) than their typically developing peers. Our objective was to review the existing neuroimaging research on high-risk ADHD (ie, ADHD with disruptive behavior disorders, familial SUD and/or early substance use), focusing on impulsivity as one possible mechanism underlying SUD risk. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted using combinations of the keywords "ADHD," "substance use," "substance use disorder," "SUD," "addiction," "dependence," "abuse," "risk," "brain" "MRI," "imaging" and "neuroimaging...
March 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#9
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance-enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action affects neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
May 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768717/statistical-evidence-suggests-that-inattention-drives-hyperactivity-impulsivity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Elena Sokolova, Perry Groot, Tom Claassen, Kimm J van Hulzen, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke, Tom Heskes, Jan Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. METHOD: We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725684/adhd-associated-risk-taking-is-linked-to-exaggerated-views-of-the-benefits-of-positive-outcomes
#11
Rachel Shoham, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Hamutal Aloni, Ilan Yaniv, Yehuda Pollak
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often assumed to be associated with increased engagement in risk-taking behaviors. The current study sought to understand the mental processes underlying this association using a theory-driven behavioral economics perspective. Psychological risk-return models suggest that risk and benefit are inherently subjective, and risk taking is best understood as the interplay between cognitions and motivations regarding the benefits and risks of alternatives. A sample of 244 adults was assessed for ADHD symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626002/association-between-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-helmet-use-among-motorcycle-riders
#12
Saeid Safiri, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Fatemeh Hashemi, Shahrokh Amiri, Owais Raza, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani
BACKGROUND: Use of helmets plays a major role in preventing injuries or decreasing injury severity among motorcycle riders. Use of helmets may depend on personal factors such as psychological factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to independently assess the association between helmet use among motorcycle riders and ADHD scores, with controlling the accident history and was taken more sensitive measures if helmet use was different between motorcycle riders, according to their ADHD scores...
May 2016: Trauma Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618640/efficacy-of-a-family-focused-intervention-for-young-drivers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Gregory A Fabiano, Nicole K Schatz, Karen L Morris, Michael T Willoughby, Rebecca K Vujnovic, Kevin F Hulme, Jessica Riordan, Marlana Howard, Dwight Hennessy, Kemper Lewis, Larry Hawk, Amanda Wylie, William E Pelham
OBJECTIVE: Teenage drivers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at significant risk for negative driving outcomes related to morbidity and mortality. However, there are few viable psychosocial treatments for teens with ADHD and none focus on the key functional area of driving. The Supporting the Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program was evaluated in a clinical trial to investigate whether it improved family functioning as a proximal outcome and driving behavior as a distal outcome...
December 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529509/heterologous-regulation-of-the-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-by-angiotensin-ii-in-astrocytes-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#14
Dhanush Haspula, Michelle A Clark
Brainstem and cerebellar astrocytes have critical roles to play in hypertension and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Angiotensin (Ang) II, via the astroglial Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R), has been demonstrated to elevate pro-inflammatory mediators in the brainstem and the cerebellum. The activation of astroglial cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), a master regulator of homeostasis, has been shown to neutralize inflammatory states. Factors that drive disease progression are known to alter the expression of CB1Rs...
November 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401237/driving-with-adhd-performance-effects-and-environment-demand-in-traffic
#15
Nastassia J S Randell, Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey
OBJECTIVE: This research investigated the on-road driving performance of individuals with ADHD across a range of road and traffic conditions to determine whether errors were linked to situational complexity and attentional demands. METHOD: The everyday driving performance of medicated drivers with ADHD, unmedicated drivers with ADHD, and controls was tested in urban, residential, rural, and highway environments using driver license testing procedures. RESULTS: Unmedicated drivers with ADHD displayed fewer safe driving skills and committed more inattentive and impatient driving errors, particularly in low demand highway and rural driving conditions...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345441/temporal-reproduction-and-its-neuroanatomical-correlates-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-their-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#16
V A Pironti, M-C Lai, S Morein-Zamir, U Müller, E T Bullmore, B J Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Little is known about time perception, its putative role as cognitive endophenotype, and its neuroanatomical underpinnings in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Twenty adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives and 20 typically developing controls matched for age and gender undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry with DARTEL was performed to obtain regional grey-matter volumes...
September 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329487/effort-allocation-in-children-with-adhd-abnormal-decision-making-or-poor-execution
#17
Yael Winter, Hilla Ben-Pazi, Yehuda Pollak
OBJECTIVE: Effort allocation is a multi-faceted process driving both the decision to choose a high effort-high reward alternative over a low effort-low reward alternative, and the execution of this decision by recruiting sufficient effort. The objectives of our study were to examine whether children with ADHD would (a) show different reward-effort cost trade-off, and (b) have difficulty executing their decision. METHOD: 50 children, aged 9 to 15, with and without ADHD, had to choose between high effort-high reward and low effort-low reward alternatives using a handheld dynamometer and to execute their choice...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137426/gender-differences-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-nesarc
#18
Samuele Cortese, Stephen V Faraone, Silvia Bernardi, Shuai Wang, Carlos Blanco
BACKGROUND: Gaining insight into possible gender differences in the clinical presentation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of relevance in order to conduct appropriate screening and treatment interventions in both genders. METHOD: The analyses compared (1) prevalence and sociodemographic correlates, (2) frequency of ADHD core symptoms, (3) rates of subtypes, (4) prevalence of comorbid mental health conditions, and (5) rates of risky/impulsive behaviors, as well as health and social correlates, in men and women with ADHD in a nationally representative, US population-based sample...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065923/social-networking-site-use-while-driving-adhd-and-the-mediating-roles-of-stress-self-esteem-and-craving
#19
Ofir Turel, Antoine Bechara
BACKGROUND: Adults who present ADHD symptoms have an increased risk for vehicle accidents. One conceivable overlooked account for this association is the possibility that people with ADHD symptoms use rewarding technologies such as social networking sites (SNS) while driving, more than others. The objective of this study was to understand if and how ADHD symptoms can promote SNS use while driving and specifically to conceptualize and examine mechanisms which may underlie this association...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009924/objective-level-of-alertness-and-inhibitory-control-predict-highway-driving-impairment-in-adults-with-adhd
#20
Stéphanie Bioulac, Patricia Sagaspe, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Ellemarije Altena, Jacques Taillard, Carmen Schröder, Manuel-Pierre Bouvard, Colette Fabrigoule, Pierre Philip
OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether daytime impairments in ADHD patients are better explained by an altered level of alertness and/or by cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of these factors on driving performance in ADHD adults. METHOD: ADHD adults (n= 39) and healthy controls (n= 18) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) followed by a Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), a simulated driving task, and a neuropsychological evaluation...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
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