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Toxoplasmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807857/prevalence-and-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-donkeys-in-northeastern-china
#1
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Wei Shi, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Kun Shi, Jian-Ming Li, Peng Xu, Quan Zhao, Rui Du
Toxolasma gondii is one of the most important obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. Recently, toxoplasmosis is of increasing concerns because T. gondii not only has a worldwide distribution but also can infect virtually all warm-blooded hosts including donkeys. However, limited information is available concerning the genetic characterization of T. gondii in donkeys in northeastern China. In this study, a total of 302 brain tissue samples collected from donkeys from Jilin (n=108) and Liaoning (n=194) provinces, northeastern China, were examined for T...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807274/isolation-of-viable-toxoplasma-gondii-molecular-characterization-and-seroprevalence-in-elk-cervus-canadensis-in-pennsylvania-usa
#2
J P Dubey, J Brown, S K Verma, C K Cerqueira-Cézar, J Banfield, O C H Kwok, Y Ying, F H A Murata, A K Pradhan, C Su
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. T. gondii has been reported in multiple cervid species; however, little is known of the parasite in North American elk (Cervus canadensis). In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were detected in serum of wild elk from Pennsylvania collected during 2013-2016 by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); 221 of 317 (69...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803905/azithromycin-treatment-is-able-to-control-the-infection-by-two-genotypes-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-human-trophoblast-bewo-cells
#3
Mayara Ribeiro, Priscila Silva Franco, Janice Buiate Lopes-Maria, Mariana Bodini Angeloni, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa, Angelica de Oliveira Gomes, Andressa Silva Castro, Rafaela José da Silva, Fernanda Chaves de Oliveira, Iliana Claudia Balga Milian, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Francesca Ietta, José Roberto Mineo, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro
Trophoblast infection by Toxoplasma gondii plays a pivotal role in the vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis. Here, we investigate whether the antibiotic therapy with azithromycin, spiramycin and sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine are effective to control trophoblast infection by two Brazilian T. gondii genotypes, TgChBrUD1 or TgChBrUD2. Two antibiotic protocols were evaluated, as follow: i) pre-treatment of T. gondii-tachyzoites with selected antibiotics prior trophoblast infection and ii) post-treatment of infected trophoblasts...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803790/utility-of-the-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-i-gene-for-the-diagnosis-of-toxoplasmosis-using-pcr
#4
Xue Feng, Kazumi Norose, Kexin Li, Kenji Hikosaka
Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Since this parasite causes severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is essential. PCR is currently used for early diagnosis, but there is no consensus regarding the most effective method for amplifying Toxoplasma DNA. In this study, we considered the utility of the cytochrome c subunit I (cox1) gene, which is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of this parasite, as a novel target of PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803228/utility-of-routine-urine-cmv-pcr-and-total-serum-igm-testing-of-small-for-gestational-age-infants-a-single-center-review
#5
Michael M Espiritu, Sean Bailey, Elena V Wachtel, Pradeep V Mally
BACKGROUND: Due to the extremely low incidence of TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, CMV, herpes simplex virus) infections, diagnostic testing of all small for gestational age (SGA) infants aimed at TORCH etiologies may incur unnecessary tests and cost. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of urine CMV PCR and total IgM testing among infants with birth weight <10% and the rate of test positivity. To evaluate the frequency of alternative etiologies of SGA in tested infants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798905/enrofloxacin-and-toltrazuril-are-able-to-reduce-toxoplasma-gondii-growth-in-human-bewo-trophoblastic-cells-and-villous-explants-from-human-third-trimester-pregnancy
#6
Rafaela J da Silva, Angelica O Gomes, Priscila S Franco, Ariane S Pereira, Iliana C B Milian, Mayara Ribeiro, Paolo Fiorenzani, Maria C Dos Santos, José R Mineo, Neide M da Silva, Eloisa A V Ferro, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa
Classical treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis is based on combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine plus folinic acid. Due to teratogenic effects and bone marrow suppression caused by pyrimethamine, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies is indispensable to minimize the side effects and improve the control of infection. Previous studies demonstrated that enrofloxacin and toltrazuril reduced the incidence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in the control of T...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793826/toxoplasma-appendicitis-a-once-in-a-lifetime-diagnosis
#7
Anisha M Fernandes, Maheshkumar M Lakhe, Sanjay A Pai
Toxoplasmosis is generally asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, but it can be life-threatening in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of a 62-year-old man with clinical features of acute appendicitis. Histology showed a transmural infiltrate of eosinophils. In addition, there were reactive lymphoid follicles with histiocytes in the submucosa and tachyzoites in the muscularis propria. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of toxoplasma appendicitis. Serological evaluation yielded negative results...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791002/antibody-detection-isolation-genotyping-and-virulence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-captive-felids-from-china
#8
Yu-Rong Yang, Yong-Jie Feng, Yao-Yao Lu, Hui Dong, Tong-Yi Li, Yi-Bao Jiang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Long-Xian Zhang
The felids are the only definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii, which could excrete oocysts into the environment and provide an infection source for toxoplasmosis in various warm-blooded animal species, particularly the captive felids that live close to human communities. The infection rate of the captive felids is a perfect standard in detecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment. In this study, sera or tissue samples from zoo (1 young tiger, 2 adult tigers, 6 young lions), farm (10 masked palm civets), and pet hospital (28 cats) from Henan Province (China) were collected...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780216/neuroimaging-findings-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-cytomegalovirus-and-zika-virus-infections-a-comparison-of-three-cases
#9
Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are among the common infectious agents that may infect the fetuses vertically. Clinical presentations of these congenital infections overlap significantly, and it is usually impossible to determine the causative agent clinically. The objective was the comparison of neuroimaging findings in three fetuses who underwent intrauterine infection by toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV. METHODS: Three confirmed cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV infections were included in the study over 7 months prospectively...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775382/divergent-co-transcriptomes-of-different-host-cells-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii-reveal-cell-type-specific-host-parasite-interactions
#10
Izabela J Swierzy, Ulrike Händel, Alexander Kaever, Michael Jarek, Maren Scharfe, Dirk Schlüter, Carsten G K Lüder
The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects various cell types in avian and mammalian hosts including humans. Infection of immunocompetent hosts is mostly asymptomatic or benign, but leads to development of largely dormant bradyzoites that persist predominantly within neurons and muscle cells. Here we have analyzed the impact of the host cell type on the co-transcriptomes of host and parasite using high-throughput RNA sequencing. Murine cortical neurons and astrocytes, skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and fibroblasts differed by more than 16,200 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after infection with T...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774497/activity-of-rosuvastatin-in-tachyzoites-of-toxoplasma-gondii-rh-strain-in-hela-cells
#11
Raquel Arruda Sanfelice, Laís Fernanda Machado, Larissa Rodrigues Bosqui, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Gabriela de Alcântara Dalevedo, Dielle Ioris, Guilherme Fonseca Reis, Luciano Aparecido Panagio, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Juliano Bordignon, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ricardo Sergio Almeida, Idessania Nazareth Costa
Due to the toxicity of conventional medication in toxoplasmosis, some drugs are being studied for treating this infection, such as statins, especially rosuvastatin compound, which is efficient in inhibiting the initial isoprenoid biosynthesis processes in humans and the parasite. The goal of this study was to assess the activity of rosuvastatin in HeLa cells infected with the RH strain of T. gondii. In the experiment, HeLa cells (1 × 10(5)) were infected with tachyzoites of T. gondii (5 × 10(5)). After the experimental infection, we assessed the number of infected cells and the amount of intracellular tachyzoites...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769551/intravitreal-aflibercept-for-choroidal-neovascularization-associated-with-chorioretinitis-a-pilot-study
#12
Andrii R Korol, Oleksandra Zborovska, Taras Kustryn, Oleksandra Dorokhova, Nataliya Pasyechnikova
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of intravitreal aflibercept injections for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to chorioretinitis. METHODS: In this uncontrolled, prospective cohort study, 15 eyes of 14 consecutive patients affected by CNV associated with ocular toxoplasmosis were treated with intravitreal aflibercept (2 mg) pro re nata and observed over a 12-month follow-up period. The primary outcome was the change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to month 12...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765346/pitfalls-of-pacns-a-rare-case-of-central-nervous-system-vasculitis-associated-with-toxoplasmosis
#13
Hua-Xia Yang, Hong-Rui Liu, Feng-Chun Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765144/comparing-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-different-aetiologies-of-infectious-necrotising-retinitis
#14
Alessandro Invernizzi, Aniruddha Kishandutt Agarwal, Vittoria Ravera, Chiara Mapelli, Agostino Riva, Giovanni Staurenghi, Peter J McCluskey, Francesco Viola
AIMS: To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of active necrotising infectious retinitis (NIR) due to toxoplasmosis or herpesviruses and to determine distinctive OCT signs for these two causes of infectious retinitis. METHODS: OCT scans from eyes with active NIR due to varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis (TOXO) were reviewed. All images were evaluated for the presence of previously described OCT findings in TOXO-NIR and compared with the viral group...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761539/extensive-intracranial-calcification-of-pseudo-torch-syndrome-with-features-of-dandy-walker-malformation
#15
Ashis Patnaik, Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra, Srikanta Das
Pseudo-TORCH syndrome or congenital infection-like syndrome is a group of conditions which resemble congenital infections such as those caused by toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes (TORCH) group of organisms, clinico-radiologically, but serological tests are negative for the organisms. One of the variety shows features such as microcephaly, extensive intracranial calcification showing gross resemblance to congenital CMV infection, making its other name as microcephaly intracranial calcification syndrome (MICS)...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761468/seroepidemiological-study-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-among-psychiatric-patients-in-mashhad-northeast-of-iran
#16
Ebrahim Abdollahian, Reza Shafiei, Naghmeh Mokhber, Kurosh Kalantar, Abdolmajid Fata
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric patients have an increased risk of some infections like toxoplasmosis. Investigations on Toxoplasma gondii infection among psychiatric patients have been limited in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. In this case-control study, prevalence of T. gondii was investigated by serological method. METHODS: This case-control study was performed among psychiatric patients admitted to Avicenna Hospital in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Three hundred and fifty inpatients and 350 controls were examined in 2012-2013 for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against T...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761461/pcr-based-diagnosis-of-toxoplasma-parasite-in-ocular-infections-having-clinical-indications-of-toxoplasmosis
#17
Atieh Farhadi, Ali Haniloo, Asghar Fazaeli, Siamak Moradian, Mehdi Farhadi
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis is mainly based on clinical features. However, ocular fluid testing by PCR may be very helpful for approval or rejection of this etiology. In this study, we utilized a nested-PCR technique, targeting the B1 partial sequence to analyze the aqueous and vitreous samples for evaluating the presence of the Toxoplasma DNA. METHODS: Fifty aqueous or vitreous humor samples were obtained from patients with clinical features of ocular toxoplasmosis admitted to ophthalmology hospitals and clinics in Iran, within 2014...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759251/toxoplasma-gondii-a-foodborne-pathogen-in-the-swine-production-chain-from-a-european-perspective
#18
Alberto De Berardinis, Domenico Paludi, Luca Pennisi, Alberto Vergara
Toxoplasmosis is a foodborne zoonosis transmitted by Toxoplasma gondii, a cosmopolitan protozoan that infects humans through exposure to different parasite stages, in particular by ingestion of tissue cysts or tachyzoites contained in meat, primary offal (viscera), and meat-derived products or ingestion of environmental sporulated oocysts in contaminated food or water. The pig is an important species for infection: raw or undercooked pork consumption not subject to treatment able to inactivate the parasite represents a risk to consumers' health...
July 31, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757199/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-brain-and-spleen-infected-with-spring-viremia-of-carp-virus-svcv
#19
Yeda Wang, Hao Zhang, Yuanan Lu, Fang Wang, Liyue Liu, Jingxia Liu, Xueqin Liu
Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is the pathogen of spring viremia of carp (SVC) and often causes acute hemorrhagic symptoms in various kinds of cyprinids and induces serious environmental and economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms of infection remain poorly understood, especially at the individual level. In this study, zebrafish was employed as the infection model to explore the pathogenesis of SVCV. 4 groups of zebrafish tissues were set and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology was employed to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after SVCV-infection...
July 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746450/anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-beef-cattle-slaughtered-in-the-metropolitan-region-of-bel%C3%A3-m-brazilian-amazon
#20
Ediclei Lima do Carmo, Rafaela Dos Anjos Pinheiro Bogoevich Morais, Michele de Souza Lima, Carla Cristina Guimarães de Moraes, George Rêgo Albuquerque, Aristeu Vieira da Silva, Marinete Marins Póvoa
The relevance of consuming raw or undercooked beef in the transmission of toxoplasmosis is unclear due to the high resistance of cattle to infection. However, this possibility needs to be considered in endemic areas, such as the Amazon, where the consumption of beef is frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belem, Pará state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 500 animals of both genders in a licensed slaughterhouse in Belém...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
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