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Toxoplasmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156547/knowledge-and-practices-of-toxoplasmosis-among-clinical-laboratory-professionals-a-cross-sectional-study-in-durango-mexico
#1
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Omar Berumen-Segovia, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Yazmin Del Rosario Rico-Almochantaf, Alfredo Cisneros-Camacho, Jorge Arturo Cisneros-Martínez
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and practices about toxoplasmosis in a sample of clinical laboratory professionals in Mexico. Methods: 192 clinical laboratory professionals were surveyed. They were asked about (1) Toxoplasma gondii; (2) clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiology of toxoplasmosis; and (3) their practices with respect to toxoplasmosis. Results: The range of animals infected by T. gondii was known by 44.8% of participants. Clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis were known by up to 44...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156082/an-unexpected-but-underestimated-case-of-disseminated-toxoplasmosis
#2
Tiffany Chan, Patrick T Shannon, Michael E Detsky
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous intracellular parasite that can cause disseminated infection following reactivation in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a 58-year-old man who died of refractory shock because of disseminated toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis was only made post-mortem on autopsy. We discuss the importance of considering toxoplasmosis on the differential diagnosis in high-risk patients, and review the role of screening and chemoprophylaxis in preventing infection. This article is protected by copyright...
November 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155634/how-does-imaging-of-congenital-zika-compare-with-imaging-of-other-torch-infections
#3
Deborah Levine, Jacques C Jani, Ilse Castro-Aragon, Mieke Cannie
The acronym TORCH is used to refer to congenital infections, such as toxoplasmosis, other infections (such as syphillis, varicella-zoster, and parvovirus B19), cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. The classic findings in patients with TORCH infections include rash in the mother during pregnancy and ocular findings in the newborn. Zika virus has emerged as an important worldwide congenital infection. It fits well with other congenital TORCH infections since there is a rash in the mother and there are commonly ocular abnormalities in the newborn...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153066/-age-related-prevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-among-pregnant-women-in-hatay-estimation-depending-on-model
#4
Meryem Çetin, Şirin Çetin
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a common parasitic infection affecting approximately one-third of the world population. T.gondii infections are usually acquired by ingesting raw or insufficiently cooked meat and from unwashed fruits and vegetables contaminated with soil or water with cat feces. Primary infection acquired during pregnancy can cause severe congenital abnormalities in the fetus such as neurologic and ocular malformations, abortion, or stillbirth according to the degree of infection...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142473/genetic-associations-with-adverse-events-from-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#5
Daniel Lew, Soon Man Yoon, Xiaofei Yan, Lori Robbins, Talin Haritunians, Zhenqiu Liu, Dalin Li, Dermot Pb McGovern
AIM: To study the type and frequency of adverse events associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and evaluate for any serologic and genetic associations. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of patients attending the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) centers at Cedars-Sinai IBD Center from 2005-2016. Adverse events were identified via chart review. IBD serologies were measured by ELISA. DNA samples were genotyped at Cedars-Sinai using Illumina Infinium Immunochipv1 array per manufacturer's protocol...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141790/cerebral-toxoplasmosis-in-an-ms-patient-receiving-fingolimod
#6
Alejandro Enriquez-Marulanda, Jaime Valderrama-Chaparro, Laura Parrado, Juan Diego Vélez, Ana Maria Granados, Jorge Luis Orozco, Jairo Quiñones
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which lymphocytes target putative myelin antigens in the CNS, causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (FTY720) is an immunosuppressive drug used as a second line therapy for relapsing forms of MS due to its safety profile and good response to treatment. Despite its safety, there are still concerns about the possibility of Fingolimod being linked to the development of opportunistic infections like disseminated varicella zoster infections and herpes simplex encephalitis...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136773/the-potential-use-of-melatonin-to-treat-protozoan-parasitic-infections-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Ahmad Daryani, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Abdol Satar Pagheh, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Ramtin Hadighi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a circadian hormone produced in vertebrates by the pineal gland and other organs. Melatonin is believed to influence immune cells leading to modulation of the proliferative response of stimulated lymphocytes as well as cytokine production. Due to the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, it is suggested that this molecule could be a therapeutic alternative agent to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections by a variety of mechanisms. Herein, we review the effects of melatonin on the cell biology of protozoan parasites and host's immune response...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133550/discovery-of-new-inhibitors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-thanks-to-the-pathogen-box
#8
Jérémy Spalenka, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Ali Bakiri, Jane Hubert, Jean-Hugues Renault, Frédéric Velard, Simon Duchateau, Dominique Aubert, Antoine Huguenin, Isabelle Villena
Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite which affects approximately 30% of the population worldwide. The drugs currently used against toxoplasmosis are few in number and show several limitations, such as a drug intolerance, poor bioavailability or drug resistance mechanism developed by the parasite. Thus it is important to find new compounds able to inhibit parasite invasion or proliferation. In this study, the 400 compounds of the open access Pathogen Box provided by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) foundation were screened for their anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131528/the-design-of-a-social-cost-benefit-analysis-of-preventive-interventions-for-toxoplasmosis-an-example-of-the-one-health%C3%A2-approach
#9
A W M Suijkerbuijk, P F van Gils, A A Bonačić Marinović, T L Feenstra, L M Kortbeek, M-J J Mangen, M Opsteegh, G A de Wit, J W B van der Giessen
Toxoplasma gondii infections cause a large disease burden in the Netherlands, with an estimated health loss of 1,900 Disability Adjusted Life Years and a cost-of-illness estimated at €44 million annually. Infections in humans occur via exposure to oocysts in the environment and after eating undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, leading to asymptomatic or mild symptoms, but potentially leading to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Infection in pregnant women can lead to stillbirth and disorders in newborns...
November 12, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130475/immunological-interaction-between-giardia-cyst-extract-and-experimental-toxoplasmosis
#10
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Lamees M Dawood, Yomna Zamzam
Toxoplasmosis is mostly associated with other intestinal parasitic infections especially Giardia due to shared mode of peroral infection. Toxoplasma and Giardia induce a strong T-helper 1- immune response. Our aim is to induce a protective immune response that results in significant impact on intestinal and extra-intestinal phases of Toxoplasma infection. This study was conducted in experimental animals and assessment of Giardia cyst extract effect on Toxoplasma infection was investigated by histopathological examination of small intestine and brain, Toxoplasma cyst count and iNOS staining of the brain, measurement of IFN-γ and TGF-β in intestinal tissues...
November 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126978/toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-in-goats-cats-and-humans-in-russia
#11
Eduard A Shuralev, Nikolai D Shamaev, Malik N Mukminov, Kisaburo Nagamune, Yuji Taniguchi, Taizo Saito, Katsuya Kitoh, Marina I Arleevskaya, Anastasiya Yu Fedotova, Diana R Abdulmanova, Natalya M Aleksandrova, Marina A Efimova, Aynur I Yarullin, Anna R Valeeva, Kamil S Khaertynov, Yasuhiro Takashima
Toxoplasmosis, a most common zoonosis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. However, there is little epidemiological information on T. gondii infections in humans and livestock animals in Russia. Therefore, in this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats in Russia was investigated. A total of 216 goats from 32 farms were investigated and 95 of them were seropositive for T. gondii. The difference in seroprevalence between the examined regions was not statistically significant. We next collected serum samples from 99 cats and 181 humans in Kazan city, the state capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and examined their T...
November 7, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126146/genomic-and-proteomic-evidence-for-the-presence-of-a-peroxisome-in-the-apicomplexan-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-and-other-coccidia
#12
Daniel Moog, Jude M Przyborski, Uwe G Maier
Apicomplexans are successful parasites responsible for severe human diseases including malaria, toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis. For many years it has been discussed whether these parasites are in possession of peroxisomes, highly variable eukaryotic organelles usually involved in fatty acid degradation and cellular detoxification. Conflicting experimental data has been published. With the age of genomics, ever more high quality apicomplexan genomes have become available, that now allow a new assessment of the dispute...
November 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120678/patterns-of-uveitis-at-two-university-based-referral-centres-in-cape-town-south-africa
#13
Wilna Rautenbach, Jonel Steffen, Derrick Smit, Karin Lecuona, Tonya Esterhuizen
PURPOSE: To analyze the pattern of uveitis at two tertiary hospitals in South Africa which has a high prevalence of HIV, TB and syphilis. METHODS: Data of 198 patients were obtained retrospectively between August 2014 and August 2016, including patient demographics, clinical examination, special investigations and final diagnosis. RESULTS: Infectious uveitis was the most common aetiological category (47%), followed by idiopathic (34.8%) and non-infectious (18...
November 9, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119944/immune-responses-and-protection-after-dna-vaccination-against-toxoplasma-gondii-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-2-tgcdpk2
#14
Kai Chen, Jin-Lei Wang, Si-Yang Huang, Wen-Bin Yang, Wei-Ning Zhu, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular zoonotic protozoan parasite, is possibly the most widespread parasite of warm-blooded animals and can cause serious public health problems and economic losses worldwide. TgCDPK2, a member of the T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase family, was recently identified as an essential regulator for viable cyst development in T. gondii. In the present study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination based on a recombinant eukaryotic plasmid, pVAX-TgCDPK2, against acute toxoplasmosis in mice...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117879/human-parasitology-worldwide-research
#15
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Concepción Mesa-Valle, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
In this article, the trends in human parasitology have been studied through the analysis of the number of publications in this area. The parameters studied were: number of articles, language, countries and institutions with the highest number of publications, and keywords with greater presence in the articles of human parasitology. The results of the analysis confirm the growing interest in this area, observing an exponential growth in the number of publications in the last decades. We also verified that the main country in terms of scientific production is the USA, although among the most important institutions, we find non-US centres such as the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine...
November 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117540/a-weak-spot-in-multiple-protozoan-parasites
#16
Wilson Wong
Eukaryotic protozoan parasites, including the etiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis, collectively cause significant mortality in humans. In a recent issue of Structure,Jain et al. (2017) identify a set of quinazolinone-based derivatives targeting the parasitic prolyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme as promising drugs for the clearance of diverse parasites.
November 7, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116885/feline-toxoplasmosis-tumor-necrosis-factor-nitric-oxide-and-free-radicals-in-seropositive-cats
#17
Joice Faria, Caroline Couto, Sheron Wierzynski, Nathieli Bottari, Matheus Baldissera, Wanderson Pereira, Aleksandro Da Silva
Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan that causes disease in several species, including humans. In cats, these infections are usually asymptomatic, but in other species it can lead to high levels of inflammatory and cell damage markers, which may cause cellular damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (nitrite/nitrate - NOx) in the serum of cats seropositive for T. gondii. Initially, we investigated the presence of antibodies against T...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114158/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-in-voluntary-blood-donors-of-puducherry-and-surrounding-districts-of-tamil-nadu
#18
Selvaraj Stephen, Jothimani Pradeep, Velmurugan Anitharaj, Venkatraman Janarthanam
Our objective is to study the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the voluntary blood donors of Puducherry and surrounding districts of Tamil Nadu. A total of 275 healthy blood donors were screened for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA test. Donor samples positive for IgM and/or IgG antibodies to T. gondii were subjected to IgG avidity ELISA. While, 54 out of 275 donors had IgG antibodies (19.66%), only one donor had IgM (0.36%) along with IgG. Among 54 IgG positive donors, only two had low avidity (3...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114124/seroprevalence-and-molecular-evaluation-of-toxoplasmosis-in-children-with-cancer-in-khuzestan-province-southwest-of-iran
#19
Jasem Saki, Sanaz Tavakoli, Mohammad Pedram
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with global distribution. Toxoplasmosis in individuals with normal immune system is usually asymptomatic, but in immunocompromised patients may lead to death if not cured. In this study, the prevalence rate of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in children with cancer was investigated using serological and molecular methods. Blood samples were taken from 372 children with cancer in Shafa hospital in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were investigated by ELISA...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103265/dna-vaccines-encoding-toxoplasma-gondii-cathepsin-c-1-induce-protection-against-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#20
Yali Han, Aihua Zhou, Gang Lu, Guanghui Zhao, Wenchao Sha, Lin Wang, Jingjing Guo, Jian Zhou, Huaiyu Zhou, Hua Cong, Shenyi He
Toxoplasma gondii cathepsin C proteases (TgCPC1, 2, and 3) are important for the growth and survival of T. gondii. In the present study, B-cell and T-cell epitopes of TgCPC1 were predicted using DNAstar and the Immune Epitope Database. A TgCPC1 DNA vaccine was constructed, and its ability to induce protective immune responses against toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice was evaluated in the presence or absence of the adjuvant α-GalCer. As results, TgCPC1 DNA vaccine with or without adjuvant α-GalCer showed higher levels of IgG and IgG2a in the serum, as well as IL-2 and IFN-γ in the spleen compared to controls (PBS, pEGFP-C1, and α-Galcer)...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
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