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Toxoplasmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653591/mechanism-of-dexamethasone-in-the-context-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#1
Jing Zhang, Xin Qin, Y U Zhu, Shuang Zhang, Xue-Wei Zhang, H E Lu
Toxoplasmosis is a serious zoonoses disease and opportunistic, and can be life-threatening. Dexamethasone (DEX) is widely used in the clinic for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, long-term use of DEX is often easy to lead to acute toxoplasmosis in patients, and the potential molecular mechanism is still not very clear. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of DEX on proliferation of Toxoplasma and its molecular mechanisms, and to establish the corresponding control measures...
June 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652238/characterization-of-the-activities-of-dinuclear-thiolato-bridged-arene-ruthenium-complexes-against-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
Afonso P Basto, Joachim Müller, Riccardo Rubbiani, David Stibal, Federico Giannini, Georg Süss-Fink, Vreni Balmer, Andrew Hemphill, Gilles Gasser, Julien Furrer
The in vitro effects of 18 dinuclear-thiolato bridged arene ruthenium complexes, (1 mono-, 4 di- and 13-tri-thiolato compounds), originally designed as anti-cancer agents, were studied in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii grown in human foreskin fibroblast host cells (HFF). Some tri-thiolato compounds exhibited anti-parasitic efficacy at 250 nM and below. Among those, complex 1 and complex 2 inhibited T. gondii proliferation with IC50 values of 34 and 62 nM, respectively, and they did not affect HFF at dosages of 200 μM or above, resulting in selectivity indices of > 23' 000...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650970/point-of-care-testing-for-toxoplasma-gondii-igg-igm-using-toxoplasma-ict-igg-igm-test-with-sera-from-the-united-states-and-implications-for-developing-countries
#3
Ian J Begeman, Joseph Lykins, Ying Zhou, Bo Shiun Lai, Pauline Levigne, Kamal El Bissati, Kenneth Boyer, Shawn Withers, Fatima Clouser, A Gwendolyn Noble, Peter Rabiah, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Despina G Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Jose G Montoya, Yvonne Maldonado, Raymund Ramirez, Cindy Press, Eileen Stillwaggon, François Peyron, Rima McLeod
BACKGROUND: Congenital toxoplasmosis is a serious but preventable and treatable disease. Gestational screening facilitates early detection and treatment of primary acquisition. Thus, fetal infection can be promptly diagnosed and treated and outcomes can be improved. METHODS: We tested 180 sera with the Toxoplasma ICT IgG-IgM point-of-care (POC) test. Sera were from 116 chronically infected persons (48 serotype II; 14 serotype I-III; 25 serotype I-IIIa; 28 serotype Atypical, haplogroup 12; 1 not typed)...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647172/infection-related-microcephaly-after-the-2015-and-2016-zika-virus-outbreaks-in-brazil-a-surveillance-based-analysis
#4
Wanderson Kleber de Oliveira, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França, Eduardo Hage Carmo, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Maria Inês Schmidt
BACKGROUND: On Nov 11, 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a Public Health Emergency of National Concern in response to an increased number of microcephaly cases, possibly related to previous Zika virus outbreaks. We describe the course of the dual epidemics of the Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in Brazil up to Nov 12, 2016, the first anniversary of this declaration. METHODS: We used secondary data for Zika virus and microcephaly cases obtained through the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance systems from Jan 1, 2015, to Nov 12, 2016...
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643940/proteomic-profiling-of-extracellular-vesicles-secreted-from-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Maria Luisa Zardo, Halisson Tesseroli Miot, Samuel Goldenberg, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Patricia Alves Mörking
Toxoplasma gondii infects a wide range of hosts worldwide, including humans and domesticated animals causing toxoplasmosis disease. Recently, exosomes, small extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids derived from their original cells were linked with disease protection. The effect of EVs derived from T. gondii on the immune response and its relevance in a physiological context is unknown. Here we disclose the first proteomic profiling of T. gondii EVs compared to EVs isolated from a human foreskin fibroblast infected cell line cultured in a vesicle- free medium...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642841/strain-and-dose-dependent-reduction-of-toxoplasma-gondii-burden-in-pigs-is-associated-with-interferon-gamma-production-by-cd8-lymphocytes-in-a-heterologous-challenge-model
#6
Malgorzata Jennes, Stéphane De Craeye, Bert Devriendt, Katelijne Dierick, Pierre Dorny, Eric Cox
Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite of humans and animals. The global infection burden exceeds yearly one million disability-adjusted life years (DALY's) in infected individuals. Therefore, effective preventive measures should be taken to decrease the risk of infection in humans. Although human toxoplasmosis is predominantly foodborne by ingestion of tissue cysts in meat from domestic animals such as pigs, the incidence risk is difficult to estimate due to the lack of screening of animals for infection and insights in location and persistence of the parasite in the tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640004/ocular-lesions-in-congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-santa-isabel-do-iva%C3%A3-paran%C3%A3-brazil
#7
Ana Paula Sanders, Tatiane Dos Santos, Cleusa KimieKoike Felipe, Maria Lucia Estevão, Caroni Cícero, Fernanda Evangelista, Carlos Alexandre Manrique, Angélica Sayuri Mizutani, Ana Lucia Falavigna-Guilherme
We verified clinical and psychopedagogic aspects of congenital cases with ocular sequelae, 13 years after toxoplasmosis outbreak in Santa Isabel do Ivaí, and current seroprevalence of this zoonosis in pregnant women. Audiologic and ophthalmologic evaluations were performed in congenital cases, in addition to collection of clinical and psychopedagogic data. In pregnant women, current seroprevalence was observed. Among affected teenagers, 2/5 are behind in school grade, 4/5 reported learning difficulties, requiring psychopedagogic monitoring, as well as ocular complaints...
June 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632476/extensive-brain-masses-and-cavitary-lung-lesions-associated-with-toxoplasmosis-and-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#8
Folusakin Ayoade, John Todd, Firas Al-Delfi, John King
Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of enhancing brain lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and it is typically associated with low CD4-lymphocyte counts. Extensive toxoplasma encephalitis when the CD4-lymphocyte count is above 100 cells/µl is unusual. Cavitary lung lesions are also not typically associated with toxoplasmosis. Here, we present a case of toxoplasmosis associated with extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions, both of which improved with directed toxoplasmosis therapy, in an AIDS patient with a CD4 cell count of 120 cells/µl...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630781/development-of-neurological-mouse-model-for-toxoplasmosis-using-toxoplasma-gondii-isolated-from-chicken-in-kenya
#9
John Mokua Mose, David Muchina Kamau, John Maina Kagira, Naomi Maina, Maina Ngotho, Adele Njuguna, Simon Muturi Karanja
Animal models for the toxoplasmosis are scarce and have limitations. In this study, a neurological mouse model was developed in BALB/c mice infected intraperitoneally with 15 cysts of a Toxoplasma gondii isolate. The mice were monitored for 42 days and euthanized at different time points. Another group of mice were orally treated with dexamethasone (DXM: 2.66 mg/kg daily, 5.32 mg/kg daily) at 42 days after infection and monitored for a further 42 days. A mortality rate of 15% and 28.6% was observed in mice given 2...
2017: Pathology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630403/new-molecular-tools-in-neospora-caninum-for-studying-apicomplexan-parasite-proteins
#10
Caroline M Mota, Allan L Chen, Kevin Wang, Santhosh Nadipuram, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, Tiago W P Mineo, Peter J Bradley
The development of molecular genetics has greatly enhanced the study of the biology and pathology associated with parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. We have established a system specifically designed for Neospora caninum, and used this system as a heterologous platform for the expression of foreign genes. Plasmid constructs containing fluorescent proteins or targeted genes of Toxoplasma gondii, driven by N. caninum promoters, have yielded robust expression and correct trafficking of target gene products as assessed by immunofluorescence assays and Western blot analyses...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630065/ccr5-is-involved-in-interruption-of-pregnancy-in-mice-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii-during-early-pregnancy
#11
Maki Nishimura, Kousuke Umeda, Masayuki Suwa, Hidefumi Furuoka, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Toxoplasmosis can cause abortion in pregnant humans and other animals; however, the mechanism of abortion remains unknown. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is essential for host defense in T. gondii infection. To investigate the relationship between CCR5 and abortion in toxoplasmosis, we inoculated wild-type and CCR5-deficient (CCR5(-/-)) mice with T. gondii tachyzoites intraperitoneally on day 3 of pregnancy (E3). The pregnancy rate decreased as pregnancy progressed in the infected wild-type mice. Histopathologically, no inflammatory lesions were observed in the fetoplacental tissues...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629230/association-between-toxoplasma-gondii-types-and-outcomes-of-human-infection-a-meta-analysis
#12
Jing Xia, Xin-Yu Cheng, Xiao-Jun Wang, Hong-Juan Peng
The virulence and pathogenicity of various types of Toxoplasma gondii differ considerably in mice. Recent studies have claimed that similar phenomenon was observed in humans, but no relevant studies have been performed to validate this finding. In addition, reports showing association between a given T. gondii type and outcomes of human infection yielded conflicting results. To provide a more precise estimation of the association and a more reliable conclusion on this subject, we performed this meta-analysis...
June 20, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629167/igg-avidity-test-in-congenital-toxoplasmosis-diagnoses-in-newborns
#13
Zulmirene Cardoso Fonseca, Isolina Maria Xavier Rodrigues, Natália Cruz E Melo, Juliana Boaventura Avelar, Ana Maria Castro, Mariza Martins Avelino
The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of IgG avidity testing in newborns (NBs) diagnosed with early congenital toxoplasmosis. We collected samples from 88 puerperae infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and their NBs (48 acutely-infected puerperae (AIP) and 40 chronically-infected puerperae (CIP)), from two public maternity hospitals in Goiania city, Goias, Brazil, from 2010 to 2015. Specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG serum levels and IgG avidity tests were evaluated using chemiluminescence...
June 18, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626822/a-prospective-randomized-trial-of-azithromycin-versus-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-in-treatment-of-toxoplasmic-retinochoroiditis
#14
Alireza Lashay, Ahmad Mirshahi, Najaf Parandin, Hamid Riazi Esfahani, Mehdi Mazloumi, Mohammad Reza Lashay, Mohammad Karim Johari, Elham Ashrafi
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of oral azithromycin in the treatment of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. METHODS: A randomized interventional comparative study was conducted on 14 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis who were treated with oral azithromycin and 13 patients who were treated with oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for 6-12 weeks. The achievement of treatment criteria in the two groups and lesion size reduction were considered as primary outcome measures...
June 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626452/proteomic-differences-between-developmental-stages-of-toxoplasma-gondii-revealed-by-itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics
#15
Ze-Xiang Wang, Chun-Xue Zhou, Hany M Elsheikha, Shuai He, Dong-Hui Zhou, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii has a complex two-host life-cycle between intermediate host and definitive host. Understanding proteomic variations across the life-cycle stages of T. gondii may improve the understanding of molecular adaption mechanism of T. gondii across life-cycle stages, and should have implications for the development of new treatment and prevention interventions against T. gondii infection. Here, we utilized LC-MS/MS coupled with iTRAQ labeling technology to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) specific to tachyzoite (T), bradyzoites-containing cyst (C) and sporulated oocyst (O) stages of the cyst-forming T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625894/evaluation-of-protective-immunity-induced-by-dna-vaccination-with-genes-encoding-toxoplasma-gondii-gra17-and-gra23-against-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#16
Wei-Ning Zhu, Jin-Lei Wang, Kai Chen, Dong-Mei Yue, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Si-Yang Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoan, can cause serious public health problems and economic losses worldwide. Two novel dense granule proteins (GRA17 and GRA23) were recently identified as T. gondii-secreted proteins which are localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) and can mediate the movement of small molecules between the host cell and parasitophorous vacuole (PV). In the present study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination with genes encoding GRA17 and GRA23 against acute toxoplasmosis in mice...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615877/pcr-rflp-based-genotyping-of-indian-isolates-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#17
Hilal Ahmad Rather, Mir Mehraj Din, Aasif Ahmad Sheikh, Anup Kumar Tewari, Biswa Ranjan Maharana
Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite capable of infecting a wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including birds and humans and is zoonotically important too. Felidae serve its definitive hosts and most infections are inoccous while in various intermediate hosts (e.g. sheep), it is responsible for abortion, still births. Humans which are immune compromised are also susceptible to toxoplasmosis. Most of the epidemiological studies have revealed it to be belonging to three clonal types with exceptions in South Africa having atypical isolates...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612638/should-isolated-fetal-ventriculomegaly-measured-below-12%C3%A2-mm-be-viewed-as-a-variant-of-the-norm-results-of-a-5-year-experience-in-a-prenatal-referral-center
#18
Anaïs Lavongtheung, Guillaume Jedraszak, Philippe Naepels, Pierre Tourneux, Catherine Gondry-Jouet, Anne-Gaëlle L E Moing, Jean Gondry, Julien Chevreau
BACKGROUND: Fetal ventriculomegaly (VM) is defined as lateral ventricles measured above 10 mm. Some authors believe VM < 12 mm are variants of the norm and needn't be addressed for referral ultrasound. METHODS: A retrospective continuous cohort study of 127 confirmed fetal VM was divided in 3 groups after initial referral sonographic assessment: isolated VM < 12 mm (group A), isolated VM ≥ 12 mm (group B), and VM associated with other malformations (group C)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610938/toxoplasmosis-seroprevalence-in-pregnant-women-and-serological-and-molecular-screening-in-neonatal-umbilical-cord-blood
#19
Mahshad Shieh, Mojtaba Didehdar, Reza Hajihossein, Farzam Ahmadi, Zahra Eslamirad
Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic disease that can also be transmitted from the mother to the embryo, with the risk of congenital infection varying around the world. The aim of this study was to screen pregnant women and their neonates for toxoplasmosis by serologic and molecular methods and assess the impact of risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis on the rate of congenital infection. This study was conducted at a regional maternity hospital in Arak, the capital of the Markazi Province in Iran, during a period of six months...
June 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609444/identification-of-compounds-that-suppress-toxoplasma-gondii-tachyzoites-and-bradyzoites
#20
Yuho Murata, Tatsuki Sugi, Louis M Weiss, Kentaro Kato
Drug treatment for toxoplasmosis is problematic, because current drugs cannot eradicate latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii and can cause bone marrow toxicity. Because latent infection remains after treatment, relapse of infection is a problem in both infections in immunocompromised patients and in congenitally infected patients. To identify lead compounds for novel drugs against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a chemical compound library for anti-Toxoplasma activity, host cell cytotoxicity, and effect on bradyzoites...
2017: PloS One
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