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Toxoplasmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317026/toxoplasma-gondii-ap2ix-4-regulates-gene-expression-during-bradyzoite-development
#1
Sherri Huang, Michael J Holmes, Joshua B Radke, Dong-Pyo Hong, Ting-Kai Liu, Michael W White, William J Sullivan
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of great importance to human and animal health. In the host, this obligate intracellular parasite persists as a tissue cyst that is imperceptible to the immune response and unaffected by current therapies. The tissue cysts facilitate transmission through predation and give rise to chronic cycles of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Transcriptional changes accompany conversion of the rapidly replicating tachyzoites into the encysted bradyzoites, and yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations in gene expression are not well defined...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290263/diagnosis-of-toxoplasmosis-in-pregnancy-evaluation-of-latex-protein-complexes-by-immnunoagglutination
#2
Leandro E Peretti, Verónica D G Gonzalez, Iván S Marcipar, Luis M Gugliotta
The aim of this work was to obtain a reagent based on latex particles for ruling out acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women by immunoagglutination (IA). Latex-protein complexes (LPC) were previously synthesized coupling the recombinant protein of Toxoplasma gondii P22Ag and the homogenate of the parasite to latex particles with different size, chemical functionality and charge density. LPC were tested in IA assays against a panel of 72 pregnant women serum samples. Results were analysed through receiver operating characteristic curves, determining area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively)...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288770/experimental-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-pigs-humoral-immune-response-estimation-of-specific-igg-avidity-and-the-challenges-of-reproducing-vertical-transmission-in-sows
#3
Walter Basso, Felix Grimm, Maja Ruetten, Vitomir Djokic, Radu Blaga, Xaver Sidler, Peter Deplazes
Ten pregnant sows were experimentally inoculated per os with T. gondii in order to investigate vertical and galactogenic transmission of the parasite and the evolution and maturation of the specific IgG humoral response in the sows and piglets. Five seronegative sows received 10(4)T. gondii (CZ isolate clone H3) sporulated oocysts during late-pregnancy (Exp. 1), three sows received 10(4) oocysts during mid-pregnancy (Exp. 2) and three sows from Exp. 1 (and two seronegative sows) were re-inoculated with 10(5) oocysts during a further pregnancy (late-pregnancy) (Exp...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287391/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-domestic-pets-from-metropolitan-regions-of-panama
#4
Claudia Rengifo-Herrera, Edwin Pile, Anabel García, Alexander Pérez, Dimas Pérez, Felicia K Nguyen, Valli de la Guardia, Rima Mcleod, Zuleima Caballero
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286231/enhancing-immune-responses-to-a-dna-vaccine-encoding-toxoplasma-gondii-gra14-by-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-as-an-adjuvant
#5
Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi Soteh, Mehdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani, Alireza Khalilian, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Ahmad Daryani
Several approaches have been used to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. In the current study, we constructed the plasmid encoding T. gondii dense granule 14 (GRA14) and investigated the immunological properties of calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNs) as nano-adjuvant to enhance the protective efficacy of pcGRA14. BALB/c mice intramuscularly injected three times at two-week intervals and the immune responses were evaluated using lymphocyte proliferation assay, cytokine and antibody measurements, survival times, and parasite load of mice challenged with the virulent T...
March 9, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285515/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-among-hiv-patients-in-jahrom-southern-iran
#6
Hassan Rezanezhad, Fateme Sayadi, Enayatollah Shadmand, Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab, Hadi Rezaei Yazdi, Kavous Solhjoo, Akbar Kazemi, Monireh Maleki, Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani
Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic agent especially in immunocompromised hosts and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, detection and monitoring of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are of a great interest in HIV-infected patients. A study on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors was carried out among HIV-infected patients in Jahrom, southern Iran. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was 21.1% in HIV-infected patients by ELISA. PCR was performed on all of the samples, and 1 of the blood samples was positively detected...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285512/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-wild-boars-wild-rabbits-and-wild-chickens-in-hubei-province-china
#7
Houqiang Luo, Kun Li, Muhammad Shahzad, Hui Zhang, Yanfang Lan, Xiong Xiong
Toxoplasma gondii causes serious infection worldwide in humans and animals. In this study, the seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n=377), wild rabbits (cape hare, Lapus capensis) (n=331), and wild chickens (red junglefwol, Gallus gallus) (n=571) in 4 forested and country sided area of Hubei province of China. For this, blood samples were collected and tested by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). The seroprevalence was found to be 7.2%, 5.1%, and 12.6% in wild boars, rabbits, and chickens, respectively, with significant differences among these species...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285501/high-seroprevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-detected-by-rdt-among-the-residents-of-seokmo-do-island-in-ganghwa-gun-incheon-city-korea
#8
Yeong Hoon Kim, Jihoo Lee, Seongkyu Ahn, Tong-Soo Kim, Sung-Jong Hong, Chom-Kyu Chong, Hye-Jin Ahn, Ho-Woo Nam
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among the residents of Seokmo-do (Island) in Ganghwa-gun, Incheon, Korea was surveyed for 4 years by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) using recombinant fragment of major surface antigen (SAG1), GST-linker-SAG1A. Sera from 312, 343, 390, and 362 adult residents were collected on a yearly basis from 2010 to 2013, respectively. Total positive seroprevalence regardless of gender was 29.2, 35.3, 38.7, and 45.3% from 2010 to 2013, respectively. Positive seroprevalence in male adults was 43...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285268/cardiac-manifestations-of-parasitic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Maria Carmo P Nunes, Milton Henriques Guimarães Júnior, Adriana Costa Diamantino, Claudio Leo Gelape, Teresa Cristina Abreu Ferrari
The heart may be affected directly or indirectly by a variety of protozoa and helminths. This involvement may manifest in different ways, but the syndromes resulting from impairment of the myocardium and pericardium are the most frequent. The myocardium may be invaded by parasites that trigger local inflammatory response with subsequent myocarditis or cardiomyopathy, as occurs in Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and infection with free-living amoebae. In amoebiasis and echinococcosis, the pericardium is the structure most frequently involved with consequent pericardial effusion, acute pericarditis, cardiac tamponade or constrictive pericarditis...
March 11, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283010/-effects-of-azithromycin-and-chlorella-vulgaris-treatment-on-certain-cytokine-values-and-nk-cell-activity-in-an-acute-murine-toxoplasmosis-model
#10
Deniz Gözde Çelik Payçu, Özden Büyükbaba Boral
Toxoplasmosis is a common infection with a complicated treatment process. Azithromycin (AZT) is a macrolide antibiotic that can be effectively used in patients with cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis and has fewer side effects. Chlorella vulgaris (CV), a single-cell green algae that contains nutrients and has various biological effects. CV extract (CVE) has been shown to have protective effects against infections via immune enhancement by increasing the cytotoxicity of NK cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of AZT and CV, individually and in combination, against acute toxoplasmosis in mice, and their effects on NK cell cytotoxixity, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-2 levels...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276701/genomics-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#11
Lakshmipuram Seshadri Swapna, John Parkinson
The increasing prevalence of infections involving intracellular apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium (the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively) represent a significant global healthcare burden. Despite their significance, few treatments are available; a situation that is likely to deteriorate with the emergence of new resistant strains of parasites. To lay the foundation for programs of drug discovery and vaccine development, genome sequences for many of these organisms have been generated, together with large-scale expression and proteomic datasets...
February 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274286/galectins-expressed-differently-in-genetically-susceptible-c57bl-6-and-resistant-balb-c-mice-during-acute-ocular-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#12
S-J Chen, Y-X Zhang, S-G Huang, F-L Lu
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) caused by Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of infectious uveitis, however little is known about its immunopathological mechanism. Susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) and resistant BALB/c mice were intravitreally infected with 500 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. B6 mice showed more severe ocular pathology and higher parasite loads in the eyes. The levels of galectin (Gal)-9 and its receptors (Tim-3 and CD137), interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the eyes of B6 mice than those of BALB/c mice; however, the levels of IFN-α and -β were significantly decreased in the eyes and CLNs of B6 mice but significantly increased in BALB/c mice after infection...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266723/contribution-of-dopamine-neurotransmission-in-proconvulsant-effect-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-male-mice
#13
Jalal Babaie, Mohammad Sayyah, Pezhman Fard-Esfahani, Majid Golkar, Kourosh Gharagozli
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders worldwide with no distinguishable cause in 60% of patients. One-third of world's population is infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). This intracellular parasite has high tendency to excitable cells including neurons. We assessed seizure susceptibility and involvement of dopaminergic system in male mice with acute and chronic T. gondii infection. Mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of T. gondii cysts. Acute and chronic stages of infection were determined by quantification of SAG1/BAG1 transcripts and level of repetitive REP-529 sequence in the brain of mice by real-time PCR...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263855/production-of-refolded-toxoplasma-gondii-recombinant-sag1-related-sequence-3-srs3-and-its-use-for-serodiagnosis-of-human-toxoplasmosis
#14
Abolfazl Mirzadeh, Geita Saadatnia, Majid Golkar, Jalal Babaie, Rahmah Noordin
SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) is one of the major Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface antigens and has been shown to be potentially useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis. This protein is highly conformational due to the presence of six disulfide bonds. To achieve solubility and antigenicity, SRS3 depends on proper disulfide bond formation. The aim of this study was to over-express the SRS3 protein with correct folding for use in serodiagnosis of the disease. To achieve this, a truncated SRS3 fusion protein (rtSRS3) was produced, containing six histidyl residues at both terminals and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography...
March 2, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261175/immuno-efficacy-of-a-t-gondii-secreted-protein-with-an-altered-thrombospondin-repeat-tgspatr-as-a-novel-dna-vaccine-candidate-against-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-balb-c-mice
#15
Bin Zheng, Jianzu Ding, Xiaoheng Chen, Haijie Yu, Di Lou, Qunbo Tong, Qingming Kong, Shaohong Lu
Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) is distributed worldwide and infects most species of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Toxoplasmosis has serious consequences, especially in people with an impaired or immature immune system. Thus, an effective vaccine is urgently required. Secretory microneme proteins are essential for the adhesion and invasion of T. gondii. The gene encoding the microneme protein, T. gondii secreted protein with an altered thrombospondin repeat (TgSPATR), we constructed a recombinant eukaryotic plasmid, pVAX1-TgSPATR, as a DNA vaccine, injected it intramuscularly into BALB/c mice and evaluated the induced immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256490/retinal-imaging-with-smartphone
#16
D S Ademola-Popoola, V A Olatunji
BACKGROUND: The use of smartphones for various purposes among health professionals is increasing, especially with the availability of different applications. On account of cost, fundus cameras are not readily available in ophthalmic practice in developing countries. Since smartphones are readily available, easy to use and portable, they may present a cheap alternative in a resource-limited economy. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: to explore the use of smartphone (Blackberry Z-10) for retinal imaging in a resource-limited economy...
March 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254558/early-serum-biomarker-networks-in-infants-with-distinct-retinochoroidal-lesion-status-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis
#17
Thádia Evelyn de Araújo, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Samantha Ribeiro Béla, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos Carneiro, Anderson Silva Machado, Ludmila Melo Cardoso, Ágata Lopes Ribeiro, Michelle Hallais França Dias, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz Andrade, Daniel Vitor Vasconcelos-Santos, José Nélio Januário, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vitor, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho
The present study characterized the early changes in the serum chemokines/cytokine signatures and networks in infants with congenital-toxoplasmosis/(TOXO) as compared to non-infected-controls/(NI). TOXO were subgrouped according to the retinochoroidal lesion status as no-lesion/(NL), active-lesion/(ARL), active/cicatricial-lesion/(ACRL) and cicatricial-lesion/(CRL). The results showed that TOXO display prominent chemokine production mediated by IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and RANTES/CCL5. Additionally, TOXO is accompanied by mixed proinflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern mediated by IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10...
February 28, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254246/congenital-toxoplasmosis
#18
Rahul Guha, Lauren Miley, Madison Aspiri, Radhika Dhamija
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251231/serologic-evidence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-among-cancer-patients-a-prospective-study-from-qassim-region-saudi-arabia
#19
Abdelmageed Imam, Faisal G Al-Anzi, Mohammad A Al-Ghasham, Moayad A Al-Suraikh, Azzam O Al-Yahya, Zafar Rasheed
To determine the frequency of antibody seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii  infection in a cancer patient population. We also explored on association of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity with selected variables. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at  Prince Faisal bin Bandar cancer center, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, from November 2014 to  March 2015. One hundred thirty seven patients were involved in the study. Demographic data was collected using structured questionnaire, and clinical information was retrieved from the patient's medical reports...
March 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248682/causes-of-visual-impairment-in-patients-with-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#20
Nedime Şahinoğlu Keşkek, Fikret Ünal, Selim Cevher, Şakir Özgür Keşkek
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to report the causes of visual impairment in patients with the classic clinical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). METHODOLOGY: Eight patients with OT underwent standardized ophthalmologic examination and fundus imaging. Macula and the lesions that could be visualized were evaluated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SOCT) at presentation. The scan acquisition protocols for SOCT included a radial line scan through the retinochoroiditis lesion, radial line macular scan, and horizontal volume scans at the macula...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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