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Toxoplasmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533649/cerebral-toxoplasmosis-masquerading-cns-lymphoma-on-fdg-pet-ct-in-post-renal-transplant-patient
#1
Anirban Mukherjee, Chandrasekhar Bal, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandan Jyoti Das, Shamim Ahmed Shamim
20 year old post renal transplant patient developed recurrent episodes of seizure. MRI revealed focal lesion in right parieto-occipital lobe with perilesional edema. FDG PET-CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions in bilateral cerebral hemisphere. Subsequent biopsy from the lesion demonstrated bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii with inflammatory cells and thereby, a confirmatory diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. This case demonstrates the fact that increased FDG uptake in cerebral lesions in post transplant patient should be interpreted with caution and confirmed with histopathological correlation...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527270/-effect-of-antenatal-spiramycin-treatment-on-the-frequency-of-retinochoroiditis-due-to-congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-a-colombian-cohort
#2
Liliana María Zuluaga, John Camilo Hernández, Carlos Felipe Castaño, Jorge Hernando Donado
INTRODUCTION: Gestational toxoplasmosis is frequent and severe. There is still debate about the benefits of treatment against ocular manifestations in the newborn. Spiramycin treatment is used for this purpose, unfortunately prenatal diagnosis is sometimes delayed and pregnant women are not treated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy in mothers with gestational toxoplasmosis and development of ocular toxoplasmosis in newborns...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516409/survival-after-severe-rhabdomyolysis-following-monensin-ingestion
#3
Michela Blain, Alexander Garrard, Robert Poppenga, Betty Chen, Matthew Valento, Melissa Halliday Gittinger
INTRODUCTION: Monensin is a veterinary antibiotic with a narrow therapeutic window that has led to lethal intoxication in many animal species. Only two prior cases of human toxicity have been reported, both fatal. We present the first case of survival from severe toxicity following monensin ingestion. CASE: A 58-year-old man presented with 8 days of vomiting and abdominal pain. Due to delusions of central nervous system toxoplasmosis, he ingested 300 mg of monensin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513493/inflammatory-choroidal-neovascularization-in-indian-eyes-etiology-clinical-features-and-outcomes-to-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#4
Rupak Roy, Kumar Saurabh, Aditya Bansal, Amitabh Kumar, Anindya Kishore Majumdar, Swakshyar Saumya Paul
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study the clinical profile of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and its treatment response to intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab on pro re nata (PRN) basis in Indian eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients with inflammatory CNV treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India between 2009 and 2014...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508165/frequency-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-the-retina-in-eye-banks-in-brazil
#5
Deise F Costa, Heloisa Nascimento, Aline Sutili, Fernando A J Nobrega, Flavio Fowler, Mario Junqueira Nobrega, Cristina Garrido, Janaina de Oliveira Dias, Consuelo B D Adán, Luiz Vicente Rizzo, Claudio Silveira, Rubens Belfort, Alessandra G Commodaro
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the main cause of posterior uveitis worldwide frequently leading to vision loss. In Brazil, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection ranges from 50 to 80% depending of the region studied. The frequency of toxoplasmic retinal scar may reach 18% of the adults in the South of Brazil. Our goal was to determine the frequency of T. gondii DNA in retinas from eye banks from different regions in Brazil. A total of 162 eyes were obtained from eye banks in Manaus (n = 60), Sao Paulo (n = 60), Chapeco (n = 26), and Joinville (n = 16)...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507471/seroepidemiological-study-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-a-population-of-iranian-epileptic-patients
#6
Jalal Babaie, Mohammad Sayyah, Kourosh Gharagozli, Ehsan Mostafavi, Majid Golkar
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Underlying cause of epilepsy is unknown in 60 % of the patients. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite which is capable of forming tissue cysts in brain of chronically infected hosts including humans. Some epidemiological studies suggested an association between toxoplasmosis and acquisition of epilepsy. In this study we determined seroprevalence of latent Toxoplasma infection in a population of Iranian epileptic patients. Participants were classified in three groups as Iranian epileptic patients (IEP, n = 414), non-epileptic patients who had other neurologic disorders (NEP, n = 150), and healthy people without any neurologic disorders (HP, n = 63)...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507409/toxoplasma-gondii-type-i-predominant-genotype-isolated-from-sheep-in-south-of-iran
#7
Belal Armand, Kavous Solhjoo, Manoochehr Shabani Kordshooli, Mohammad Hasan Davami, Morteza Pourahmad, Vahideh Orfaee
AIM: This study was performed to determine the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep using nested-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Southern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tissue samples of diaphragm and heart from 125 sheep were collected from the main slaughterhouses of Jahrom district in South of Fars province, Iran, between Aprils and June 2013. The DNA were extracted and analyzed by nested-PCR using specific primers for SAG2 and GRA6 loci...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506241/socio-demographic-determinants-of-toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-in-migrant-workers-of-peninsular-malaysia
#8
Norhidayu Sahimin, Yvonne A L Lim, Farnaza Ariffin, Jerzy M Behnke, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Martin Walker, John W Lewis, Rahmah Noordin, Khairul Anuar Abdullah, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
BACKGROUND: The number of migrants working in Malaysia has increased sharply since the 1970's and there is concern that infectious diseases endemic in other (e.g. neighbouring) countries may be inadvertently imported. Compulsory medical screening prior to entering the workforce does not include parasitic infections such as toxoplasmosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia by means of serosurveys conducted on a voluntary basis among low-skilled and semi-skilled workers from five working sectors, namely, manufacturing, food service, agriculture and plantation, construction and domestic work...
May 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506044/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-among-cat-sitters-in-korea
#9
Bong-Kwang Jung, Hyemi Song, Sang-Eun Lee, Min-Jae Kim, Jaeeun Cho, Eun-Hee Shin, Jong-Yil Chai
The seroprevalence of human toxoplasmosis has been increasing in Korea, and it is controversial whether cats are an important infection source or not. This study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a high risk group (cat sitters) and to determine the possible importance of cats as an infection source in Korea. Risk factors, including the age, sex, and diet of cat sitters, their contact experience and contact frequency with stray cats, and origin, number, and outdoor activity of their pet cats, were analyzed using structured questionnaires...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495193/first-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-stray-cats-from-algeria
#10
Feriel Yekkour, Dominique Aubert, Aurélien Mercier, Jean-Benjamin Murat, Mammar Khames, Paul Nguewa, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Isabelle Villena, Zahida Bouchene
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution and a major public health problem. In Algeria, no data are currently available about genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from animals or humans. The present study assesses for the first time the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray cats, and provides molecular characterization of T. gondii strains circulating in this feline population in Algiers, the capital city of Algeria. Sera from 96 stray cats were tested for the presence of antibodies against T...
May 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491889/infections-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-results-from-the-organ-transplant-infection-project-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Mindy G Schuster, Angela A Cleveland, Erik R Dubberke, Carol A Kauffman, Robin K Avery, Shahid Husain, David L Paterson, Fernanda P Silveira, Tom M Chiller, Kaitlin Benedict, Kathleen Murphy, Peter G Pappas
BACKGROUND: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our object was to better define the epidemiology and outcomes of infections after HCT. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HCT recipients and conducted from 2006 to 2011. The study included 4 US transplant centers and 444 HCT recipients. Data were prospectively collected for up to 30 months after HCT using a standardized data collection tool...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491442/respiratory-distress-associated-with-lungworm-infection-in-a-kitten
#12
Melissa M Hawley, Lynelle R Johnson, Donato Traversa, Dan Bucy, Karen M Vernau, William Vernau
CASE SUMMARY: A 5-month-old feral kitten developed worsening respiratory signs, including tachypnea, coughing and wheezing after standard anthelmintic treatment with fenbendazole at a local shelter. The kitten was referred to the University of California, Davis, William R Pritchard Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital for further evaluation. Thoracic radiographs revealed a severe diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern with bronchial cuffing, ill-defined nodules and lymphadenomegaly. Differentials included infectious etiologies such as toxoplasmosis, feline infectious peritonitis and cryptococcosis...
July 2016: JFMS Open Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487847/recombinant-tghsp70-immunization-protects-against-toxoplasma-gondii-brain-cyst-formation-by-enhancing-inducible-nitric-oxide-expression
#13
Paulo Czarnewski, Ester C B Araújo, Mário C Oliveira, Tiago W P Mineo, Neide M Silva
Toxoplasma gondii is known to cause congenital infection in humans and animals and severe disease in immunocompromised individuals; consequently development of vaccines against the parasite is highly necessary. Under stress conditions, T. gondii expresses the highly immunogenic heat shock protein 70 (TgHSP70). Here, we assessed the protective efficacy of rTgHSP70 immunization combined with Alum in oral ME-49 T. gondii infection and the mechanisms involved on it. It was observed that immunized mice with rTgHSP70 or rTgHSP70 adsorbed in Alum presented a significantly reduced number of cysts in the brain that was associated with increased iNOS+ cell numbers in the organ, irrespective the use of the adjuvant...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486997/the-antifungal-aureobasidin-a-and-an-analogue-are-active-against-the-protozoan-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-but-do-not-inhibit-sphingolipid-biosynthesis
#14
A Q I Alqaisi, A J Mbekeani, M Bassas Llorens, A P Elhammer, P W Denny
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, and toxoplasmosis is an important disease of both humans and economically important animals. With a limited array of drugs available there is a need to identify new therapeutic compounds. Aureobasidin A (AbA) is an antifungal that targets the essential inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC, sphingolipid) synthase in pathogenic fungi. This natural cyclic depsipeptide also inhibits Toxoplasma proliforation, with the protozoan IPC synthase orthologue proposed as the target...
May 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486633/development-of-a-murine-vertical-transmission-model-for-toxoplasma-gondii-oocyst-infection-and-studies-on-the-efficacy-of-bumped-kinase-inhibitor-bki-1294-and-the-naphthoquinone-buparvaquone-against-congenital-toxoplasmosis
#15
Joachim Müller, Adriana Aguado-Martínez, Luis-Miguel Ortega-Mora, Javier Moreno-Gonzalo, Ignacio Ferre, Matthew A Hulverson, Ryan Choi, Molly C McCloskey, Lynn K Barrett, Dustin J Maly, Kayode K Ojo, Wes Van Voorhis, Andrew Hemphill
Objectives: Establishment of a mouse model for congenital toxoplasmosis based on oral infection with oocysts from Toxoplasma gondii ME49 and its application for investigating chemotherapeutic options against congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: CD1 mice were mated, orally infected with 5, 25, 100, 500 or 2000 oocysts and monitored for clinical signs and survival of dams and pups until 4 weeks post partum . The parasite burden in infected mice was quantified by real-time PCR in lungs, brains and, in the case of surviving pups, also in eyes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484433/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-induces-high-mobility-group-box-1-released-from-mouse-macrophages
#16
Hui Wang, Muzi Li, Jing Liu, Jianhai Xu, Qian Han, Qun Liu
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is abundantly expressed in intracellular engaged DNA binding ability. However, more importantly, it is a weapon against infection through proinflammatory response and immune regulation while released to extracellular. Toxoplasma gondii causes inflammatory pathological changes including ileitis and encephalitis in chronic infection. To investigate whether HMGB1 contributes to the toxoplasmosis lesions, we examined HMGB1 changes during T. gondii infection. The results showed that HMGB1 transcription was down-regulated in the murine macrophage ANA1 cell line and mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMΦs) after T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483726/prevalence-of-igg-and-igm-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-blood-donors-at-urmia-blood-transfusion-organization-iran
#17
Khosrow Hazrati Tappeh, Jalil Musavi, Mohammad Baradaran Safa, Hosein Galavani, Hamid Alizadeh
OBJECTIVE: The importance of toxoplasmosis lies in its global spread, opportunistic nature, and causative role in abortion or irreparable adverse effects on infants of infected pregnant women. Toxoplasma gondii has different transmission routes to humans, including blood transfusion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific for T. gondii in blood donors at the Urmia Blood Transfusion Organization in west Azerbaijan, Iran. METHODS: The present analytical, descriptive study evaluated the plasma of 270 randomly selected blood bags donated in 2013...
March 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483381/brains-and-brawn-toxoplasma-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-and-skeletal-muscle
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Wohlfert, Ira J Blader, Emma H Wilson
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasitic pathogen that infects over a third of the world's population. Following an acute infection, the parasite can persist within its mammalian host as intraneuronal or intramuscular cysts. Cysts will occasionally reactivate, and - depending on the host's immune status and site of reactivation - encephalitis or myositis can develop. Because these diseases have high levels of morbidity and can be lethal, it is important to understand how Toxoplasma traffics to these tissues, how the immune response controls parasite burden and contributes to tissue damage, and what mechanisms underlie neurological and muscular pathologies that toxoplasmosis patients present with...
May 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481155/a-unique-case-series-of-autosomal-recessive-bestrophinopathy-exhibiting-multigenerational-inheritance
#19
Joshua S Hardin, G Bradley Schaefer, Ahmed B Sallam, M Kathryn Williams, Sami Uwaydat
INTRODUCTION: Autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) is a retinal disease caused by biallelic mutations of the BEST1 gene. It has a variable phenotype with white flecks in the retina, multifocal yellow subretinal deposits, macular edema, choroidal neovascularization, hyperopia, and electrophysiological abnormalities. We describe a family with ARB and multigenerational inheritance. METHODS: Three generations of a Middle Eastern family (a woman, one son, and two grandchildren) were evaluated by our ocular genetics team...
May 8, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477099/nanomedicine-advances-in-toxoplasmosis-diagnostic-treatment-and-vaccine-applications
#20
REVIEW
João Paulo Assolini, Virginia Márcia Concato, Manoela Daiele Gonçalves, Amanda Cristina Machado Carloto, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Francine Nesello Melanda, Idessania Nazareth Costa
Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii that affects about one third of the world's population. The diagnosis of this disease is carried out by parasite isolation and host antibodies detection. However, the diagnosis presents problems in regard to test sensitivity and specificity. Currently, the most effective T. gondii treatment is a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, although both drugs are toxic to the host. In addition to the problems that compromise the effective diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis, there are no reports or indications of any vaccine capable of fully protecting against this infection...
May 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
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