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Toxoplasmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237696/toxoplasmosis-in-rodents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-in-iran
#1
REVIEW
Shahram Khademvatan, Masoud Foroutan, Khosrow Hazrati-Tappeh, Sahar Dalvand, Hamidreza Khalkhali, Sajjad Masoumifard, Faezeh Hedayati-Rad
During recent years, implication of rodents in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii is overlooked in Iran; thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in rodents of Iran. For this purpose, following the general methodology recommended for systematic reviews and meta-analysis, 5 English and 3 Persian databases were explored from 1 January 2000 till 10 September 2016 using related keywords. Finally, 9 out of 291 citations were met to be included in this study...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237229/break-even-analysis-of-costs-for-controlling-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-slaughter-pigs-via-a-serological-surveillance-program-in-the-netherlands
#2
M van Asseldonk, C P A van Wagenberg, H J Wisselink
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms equaled the cost of averted human disease burden and cost-of-illness minus the costs of a T. gondii surveillance program. The surveillance program comprised serological testing of blood samples taken at slaughter. Break-even points were determined given alternative levels of the effectiveness of the intervention program (10% up to 90% in steps of 10%), the value of an averted DALY (20,000, 50,000 and 80,000 Euro), and threshold of sample prevalence for a farm to be under intervention (5% up to 50% out of 20 samples in steps of 5%)...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224388/ocular-safety-of-intravitreal-clindamycin-hydrochloride-released-by-plga-implants
#3
Gabriella M Fernandes-Cunha, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Gisele Rodrigues da Silva, Armando Silva-Cunha, Min Zhao, Francine Behar-Cohen
BACKGROUND: Drug ocular toxicity is a field that requires attention. Clindamycin has been injected intravitreally to treat ocular toxoplasmosis, the most common cause of eye posterior segment infection worldwide. However, little is known about the toxicity of clindamycin to ocular tissues. We have previously showed non intraocular toxicity in rabbit eyes of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants containing clindamycin hydrochloride (CLH) using only clinical macroscotopic observation...
February 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223455/acute-fetal-demise-with-first-trimester-maternal-infection-resulting-from-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#4
Bryce Wolfe, Gregory J Wiepz, Michele Schotzko, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Maureen Durning, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Nancy G Faith, Emmanuel Sampene, Marulasiddappa Suresh, Sophia Kathariou, Charles J Czuprynski, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217119/seroprevalence-isolation-genotyping-and-pathogenicity-of-toxoplasma-gondii-strains-from-sheep-in-china
#5
YuRong Yang, YongJie Feng, QiuXia Yao, YingHua Wang, YaoYao Lu, HongDe Liang, XingQuan Zhu, LongXian Zhang
Toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of reproductive failure in small ruminants that also poses a risk to consumers who consume undercooked meat. However, little is known about sheep toxoplasmosis in China for the world. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep from China, to isolate T. gondii via bioassay in mice and to evaluate the virulence of the isolated T. gondii based on vero cell invasion and mice. A total of 840 samples (304 unfrozen hearts and 536 sera) from sheep in China were collected from 2014 to 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215867/seroepidemiology-and-risk-assessment-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-captive-wild-birds-and-mammals-in-two-zoos-in-the-north-of-portugal
#6
Ana Tidy, Sara Fangueiro, Jitender P Dubey, Luís Cardoso, Ana Patrícia Lopes
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It can affect most warm-blooded animals but only felids are its definitive hosts. We determined seroprevalence and associated risk factors in birds and mammals kept in two zoological parks in northern Portugal. Sera from 77 birds and 42 mammals were assayed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off titre 20); 34.5% (41/119) were seropositive. All seropositive animals were apparently healthy except one seropostive mandarin (Aix galericulata) which had chorioretinitis...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214536/t-cell-immunoregulation-in-active-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#7
Cynthia A Cordeiro, Erica L M Vieira, Vinicius M Castro, Walderez O Dutra, Rogerio A Costa, Juliana L Orefice, Wesley R Campos, Fernando Orefice, Lucy H Young, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important cause of infectious ocular disease. The physiopathology of retinochoroidal lesions associated with this infection is not completely understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate cytokine production by T cells from individuals with active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TR) comparing with controls. Eighteen patients with active TR and 15 healthy controls (6 controls IgG(+) to Toxoplasma and 9 negative controls) were included in the study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated in the presence or absence of T...
February 15, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212681/toxoplasma-gondii-survey-in-cats-from-two-environments-of-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-by-modified-agglutination-test-on-sera-and-filter-paper
#8
Paula F Bolais, Philippe Vignoles, Pamela F Pereira, Rafael Keim, Abdelkrim Aroussi, Khadja Ismail, Marie-Laure Dardé, Maria Regina Amendoeira, Aurélien Mercier
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with a worldwide distribution, in warm-blood animals, including humans. Local conditions and environmental disturbances may influence transmission dynamics of a zoonotic agent. This study evaluates the epidemiology of T. gondii based on toxoplasmosis prevalence in two populations of cats living in distinct urbanization conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Among 372 domestic cats sampled, 265 were from a public shelter located downtown Rio and 107 from a relatively preserved wild environment in a residential area...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209732/direct-measurement-of-cortical-force-generation-and-polarization-in-a-living-parasite
#9
Rachel V Stadler, Lauren A White, Ke Hu, Brian P Helmke, William H Guilford
Apicomplexa is a large phylum of intracellular parasites that are notable for the diseases they cause, including toxoplasmosis, malaria and cryptosporidiosis. A conserved motile system is critical to their lifecycles as it drives directional gliding motility between cells, as well as invasion of and egress from host cells. However, our understanding of this system is limited by a lack of measurements of the forces driving parasite motion. We used a laser trap to measure the function of the motility apparatus of living Toxoplasma gondii by adhering a microsphere to the surface of an immobilized parasite...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208940/neurological-disorders-complicating-pregnancy-focus-on-obstetric-outcome
#10
Sandya Renukesh, Lavanya Rai
INTRODUCTION: Neurological disorders in pregnancy can be pregnancy related or can be caused by exacerbation of a pre-existing neurological condition or sometimes may even be detected for the first time during pregnancy in which it might be an incidental finding. The diagnosis and management of the neurological disorders in pregnancy is always a challenging task due to varied symptomatology and risks to the fetus. The evaluation and management should be performed in a stepwise fashion and requires multidisciplinary approach...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207736/congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-france-and-the-united-states-one-parasite-two-diverging-approaches
#11
Francois Peyron, Rima Mc Leod, Daniel Ajzenberg, Despina Contopoulos-Ioannidis, François Kieffer, Laurent Mandelbrot, L David Sibley, Hervé Pelloux, Isabelle Villena, Martine Wallon, Jose G Montoya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207292/occurrence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-carcasses-of-pigs-reared-in-intensive-systems-in-northern-italy
#12
Roberto Papini, Pierluigi di Ciccio, Marianna Marangi, Sergio Ghidini, Emanuela Zanardi, Alberto Vergara, Annunziata Giangaspero, Simona Nardoni, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Mancianti, Adriana Ianieri
To evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and to genetically characterize its isolates in carcasses of industrial fattening pigs, blood, diaphragm, and heart samples were collected from 375 carcasses of pigs slaughtered to be processed for Parma ham production. Pigs had been bred on approved farms (n = 75) located in the so-called Food Valley in Italy. Sera were examined for immunoglobulin G antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Both heart and diaphragm samples from seropositive carcasses were processed for the presence of T...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202940/mitochondrial-behaviour-throughout-the-lytic-cycle-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#13
Jana Ovciarikova, Leandro Lemgruber, Krista L Stilger, William J Sullivan, Lilach Sheiner
Mitochondria distribution in cells controls cellular physiology in health and disease. Here we describe the mitochondrial morphology and positioning found in the different stages of the lytic cycle of the eukaryotic single-cell parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The lytic cycle, driven by the tachyzoite life stage, is responsible for acute toxoplasmosis. It is known that whilst inside a host cell the tachyzoite maintains its single mitochondrion at its periphery. We found that upon parasite transition from the host cell to the extracellular matrix, mitochondrion morphology radically changes, resulting in a reduction in peripheral proximity...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202794/evaluation-of-the-toxoplasma-elite-mgb%C3%A2-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-toxoplasmosis
#14
Florence Robert-Gangneux, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Hélène Yera, Sorya Belaz, Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Patrick Bastien
Molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis or disseminated toxoplasmosis is mainly based on PCR. The repeated DNA element rep529 has become the main DNA target used in most, whether laboratory-developed or commercial, PCR methods. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the Toxoplasma ELITe MGB® (Elitech®) commercial kit, by comparison with three reference quantitative PCR assays (RA) used in routine in three proficient laboratories of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis network, using Toxoplasma calibrated suspensions diluted to obtain a range of concentrations from 0...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201950/uveitis-as-an-initial-manifestation-of-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#15
Chui-Lien Tsen, Shih-Chou Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Shwu-Jiuan Sheu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a multisystem disease that can involve the human eyes. Using ophthalmic examination records from January 2006 to November 2015, we retrospectively reviewed all patients who were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in our hospital. The study was performed at a tertiary referral center in southern Taiwan. Data included age, gender, ophthalmic examinations, systemic conditions, CD4 cell counts, course, and treatment. Eleven patients were identified as having AIDS with uveitis as their presenting manifestation...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191447/reexamining-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-surprising-activity-for-a-dormant-parasite
#16
Anthony P Sinai, Elizabeth A Watts, Animesh Dhara, Robert D Murphy, Matthew S Gentry, Abhijit Patwardhan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite over a third of the world's population being chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii, little is known about this largely asymptomatic phase of infection. This stage is mediated in vivo by bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The absence of overt symptoms has been attributed to the dormancy of bradyzoites. In this review, we reexamine the conventional view of chronic toxoplasmosis in light of emerging evidence challenging both the nature of dormancy and the consequences of infection in the CNS...
December 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187119/in-reply-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-combination-in-congenital-toxoplasmosis
#17
Damien Dupont, François Peyron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187118/sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-combination-in-congenital-toxoplasmosis
#18
Cathy Chemla, Isabelle Villena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186325/evaluation-of-the-immune-response-in-balb-c-mice-induced-by-a-novel-dna-vaccine-expressing-gra14-against-toxoplasma-gondii
#19
Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi Soteh, Mehdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani, Alireza Khalilian, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasma gondii can cause severe and even fatal disease in human beings and animals. Effective vaccines may contribute to control toxoplasmosis. GRA14, a novel secreted dense granule protein of T. gondii, has been proposed as a vaccine candidate due to its intervacuolar transport and unique topology in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. In this study, we constructed a DNA vaccine encoding GRA14 of T. gondii. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2 week intervals and challenged with T...
February 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183362/predictors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-czech-and-slovak-populations-the-possible-role-of-cat-related-injuries-and-risky-sexual-behavior-in-the-parasite-transmission
#20
J Flegr
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects about one-third of the world's population. The consumption of raw meat, contact with cats, contact with soil, and ingestion of food or water contaminated with soil are considered to be the most important sources of infection. Still in most women who were infected during pregnancy, no definitive source of infection is found. In 2014-2016, independent sources of T. gondii infection were searched for by gathering epidemiological data from 1865 (519 infected) responders. Touching garden soil (odds ratio (OR) 3·14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3-6·35), sustaining cat-related injuries (OR 2·16, 95% CI 1·25-3·74), and eating improperly washed root vegetables (OR 1·71, 95% CI 1·02-2·87), but not risky sexual behavior (OR 1·22, 95% CI 0·79-1·90), were the predictors of infection...
February 10, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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