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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933569/decision-making-in-clinical-practice-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-in-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-and-a-single-additional-stroke-risk-factor
#1
REVIEW
Tatjana S Potpara, Nikolaos Dagres, Nebojša Mujović, Dragan Vasić, Milika Ašanin, Milan Nedeljkovic, Francisco Marin, Laurent Fauchier, Carina Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Gregory Y H Lip
Approximately 1 in 3-4 patients presenting with an ischemic stroke will also have atrial fibrillation (AF), and AF-related strokes can be effectively prevented using oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC), either with well-controlled vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). In addition, OAC use (both VKAs and NOACs) is associated with a 26% reduction in all-cause mortality (VKAs) or an additional 10% mortality reduction with NOACs relative to VKAs. The decision to use OAC in individual AF patient is based on the estimated balance of the benefit from ischemic stroke reduction against the risk of major OAC-related bleeding [essentially intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)]...
December 8, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933491/nlrp3-is-required-for-complement-mediated-caspase-1-and-il-1beta-activation-in-ich-short-title-for-running-head-nlrp3-is-required-for-ich
#2
Sheng-Tao Yao, Fang Cao, Jia-Lin Chen, Wei Chen, Rui-Ming Fan, Gang Li, You-Chao Zeng, Song Jiao, Xiang-Ping Xia, Chong Han, Qi-Shan Ran
Complement-mediated inflammation plays a vital role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), implicating pro-inflammatory factor interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) secretion. Brain samples and contralateral hemiencephalon were all collected and detected by Western blot. NLRP3 expression was located by dual immunofluorescence staining at 1, 3, and 5 days post-ICH. Brain water content was examined post-ICH. The neural deficit scores were evaluated by observers blindly. ILs were detected by ELISA. SiRNAs targeting NLRP3 (siNLRP3), siASC, and siControl were injected to inhibit NLRP3 function...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931157/biotransformation-of-lignan-glycoside-to-its-aglycone-by-woodfordia-fruticosa-flowers-quantification-of-compounds-using-a-validated-hptlc-method
#3
Shikha Mishra, Vidhu Aeri
CONTEXT: Saraca asoca Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) is an important traditional remedy for gynaecological disorders and it contains lyoniside, an aryl tetralin lignan glycoside. The aglycone of lyoniside, lyoniresinol possesses structural similarity to enterolignan precursors which are established phytoestrogens. OBJECTIVES: This work illustrates biotransformation of lyoniside to lyoniresinol using Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. (Lythraceae) flowers and simultaneous quantification of lyoniside and lyoniresinol using a validated HPTLC method...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929421/ghrelin-attenuates-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#4
Yijun Cheng, Yongxu Wei, Wenlei Yang, Yu Cai, Bin Chen, Guoyuan Yang, Hanbing Shang, Weiguo Zhao
Intestinal barrier dysfunction remains a critical problem in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with poor prognosis. Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide, has been shown to exert protection in animal models of gastrointestinal injury. However, the effect of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction post-ICH and its possible underlying mechanisms are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether ghrelin administration attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental ICH using an intrastriatal autologous blood infusion mouse model...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927936/blood-pressure-levels-and-the-risk-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-after-ischemic-stroke
#5
Nina A Hilkens, Jacoba P Greving, Ale Algra, Catharina J M Klijn
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between blood pressure (BP) levels and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after ischemic stroke. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial, a randomized clinical trial including 20,332 patients with recent noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. BP measurements were divided into predefined categories. We calculated incidence rates per BP category and performed multivariable Cox regression analysis with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) categories as time-dependent covariables...
December 7, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927933/disparities-and-guideline-adherence-in-drugs-of-abuse-screening-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Laura M Tormoehlen, Ashley D Blatsioris, Elizabeth A S Moser, Ravan J L Carter, Alec Stevenson, Susan Ofner, Abigail L Hulin, Darren P O'Neill, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Thomas J Leipzig, Linda S Williams, Jason Mackey
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pattern of urine drug screening in a cohort of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients at our academic centers. METHODS: We identified cases of primary ICH occurring from 2009 to 2011 in our academic centers. Demographic data, imaging characteristics, processes of care, and short-term outcomes were ascertained. We performed logistic regression to identify predictors for screening and evaluated preguideline and postguideline reiteration screening patterns...
December 7, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924525/a-three-day-consecutive-fingolimod-administration-improves-neurological-functions-and-modulates-multiple-immune-responses-of-cci-mice
#7
Chuang Gao, Yu Qian, Jinhao Huang, Dong Wang, Wanqiang Su, Peng Wang, Linyue Guo, Wei Quan, Shuo An, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang
Excessive inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of secondary TBI. Though several inflammatory biomarkers have been postulated as the risk factors of TBI, there has not been any comprehensive description of them. Fingolimod, a new kind of immunomodulatory agent which can diminish various kinds of inflammatory responses, has shown additional therapeutic effects in the treatment of intracranial cerebral hematoma (ICH), ischemia, spinal cord injury (SCI), and many other CNS disorders...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919055/associations-with-health-related-quality-of-life-after-intracerebral-haemorrhage-pooled-analysis-of-interact-studies
#8
Candice Delcourt, Danni Zheng, Xiaoying Chen, Maree Hackett, Hisatomi Arima, Jun Hata, Emma Heeley, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Mark Woodward, Yining Huang, Thompson Robinson, Pablo M Lavados, Richard I Lindley, Christian Stapf, Leo Davies, John Chalmers, Craig S Anderson, Shoichiro Sato
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Limited data exist on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to determine baseline factors associated with HRQoL among participants of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trials (INTERACT 1 and 2). METHODS: The INTERACT studies were randomised controlled trials of early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in patients with ICH (<6 hours) and elevated systolic BP (150-220 mm Hg)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918771/association-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-with-the-risk-for-spontaneous-intracranial-hemorrhage
#9
Christel Renoux, Sarah Vahey, Sophie Dell'Aniello, Jean-François Boivin
Importance: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may increase the risk for spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), an effect that is in theory linked to the strength of inhibition of serotonin reuptake of an antidepressant. However, whether antidepressants that are strong inhibitors of serotonin reuptake actually increase the risk for ICH and the effect of concomitant use of antithrombotics are unknown. Objectives: To assess the risk for ICH associated with the use of SSRIs compared with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) among new users of antidepressants and according to the relative affinity of the antidepressant for the serotonin transporter and to assess whether concomitant use of antithrombotics modifies this risk...
December 5, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918458/new-electrochemically-modified-carbon-paste-inclusion-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-carbon-nanotubes-sensors-for-quantification-of-dorzolamide-hydrochloride
#10
Nawal Ahmad Alarfaj, Maha Farouk El-Tohamy
The present article introduces a new approach to fabricate carbon paste sensors, including carbon paste, modified carbon paste inclusion β-cyclodextrin, and carbon nanotubes for the quantification of dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ). This study is mainly based on the construction of three different carbon paste sensors by the incorporation of DRZ with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) to form dorzolamide-phosphotungstate (DRZ-PT) as an electroactive material in the presence of the solvent mediator ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE)...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917647/admission-neutrophil-count-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-90-day-outcome-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#11
Chuanyuan Tao, Xin Hu, Jiajing Wang, Junpeng Ma, Hao Li, Chao You
AIM: Inflammation plays a role in secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of admission white blood cell (AWC), neutrophil count (ANC), lymphocyte count, monocyte count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for 90-day outcome after ICH. PATIENTS & METHODS: A total of 336 patients with spontaneous ICH were retrospectively investigated. Clinical outcome was assessed by modified Rankin Scale at 90 days...
December 5, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917153/intracerebral-hemorrhage-perihemorrhagic-edema-and-secondary-hematoma-expansion-from-bench-work-to-ongoing-controversies
#12
REVIEW
Manoj K Mittal, Aaron LacKamp
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a medical emergency, which often leads to severe disability and death. ICH-related poor outcomes are due to primary injury causing structural damage and mass effect and secondary injury in the perihemorrhagic region over several days to weeks. Secondary injury after ICH can be due to hematoma expansion (HE) or a consequence of repair pathway along the continuum of neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and perihemorrhagic edema (PHE). This review article is focused on PHE and HE and will cover the animal studies, related human studies, and clinical trials relating to these mechanisms of secondary brain injury in ICH patients...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915393/role-of-prothrombin-complex-concentrate-pcc-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-with-positive-cta-spot-sign-an-institutional-experience-at-a-regional-and-state-designated-stroke-center
#13
Razia Rehmani, Angela Han, Jawaad Hassan, Jeffrey Farkas
PURPOSE: Our objective is to identify the effect of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) by evaluating intraparenchymal hematoma expansion between initial and follow-up head CT at 5-24 h, in those with positive CTA spot sign (CTASS). CTASS is an independent predictor of hematoma growth (1). Acute ICH, regardless of etiology, can present with quick mental status decline often resulting in irreversible brain damage. Hematoma expansion appears to be a modifiable predictor of clinical outcome and an appropriate target for medical therapy...
December 3, 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913203/incidence-of-recurrent-intracerebral-hemorrhages-in-a-multiethnic-south-asian-population
#14
Liming Qiu, Trisha Upadhyaya, Angela An Qi See, Yew Poh Ng, Nicolas Kon Kam King
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 25% of all strokes in Singapore. Incidence of recurrent ICH is not well studied, and previous studies have reported inconsistent findings in the rate and risk factors associated with ICH recurrences. We aimed to study the incidence of recurrent ICHs in Singapore and to identify the associated risk factors as well as pattern of ICH recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive admissions for intracerebral hemorrhage at the National Neuroscience Institute between January 2006 and November 2013 was performed...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912968/validation-of-a-thin-layer-chromatography-densitometry-method-for-the-characterization-of-invertase-activity
#15
Justine Ferey, David Da Silva, Sophie Bravo-Veyrat, Pierre Lafite, Richard Daniellou, Benoît Maunit
This paper presents a kinetic study of invertase, a specific fructofuranosidase cloned from the Leishmania major genome. The kinetic parameters of the β-d-fructofuranosidase from Leishmania major (BfrA) were determined using Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and UV-densitometry (TLC@UV) specifically developed for the separation and detection of three carbohydrates namely sucrose, glucose and fructose. Separation was performed on TLC silica gel 60 F254 plates impregnated with sodium bisulphate and citrate and heated prior to development...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908928/development-and-validation-of-a-normal-phase-chiral-hplc-method-for-analysis-of-afoxolaner-using-a-chiralpak%C3%A2-ad-3-column
#16
Jinyou Zhuang, Satish Kumar, Abu Rustum
Afoxolaner is a new antiparasitic molecule from the isoxazoline family that acts on the insect acarine gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate receptors. Isoxazoline family of compounds has been employed as active pharmaceutical ingredient in drug products prescribed for control of fleas and ticks in dogs. Afoxolaner with a chiral center at isoxazoline ring exists as a racemic mixture. A normal phase chiral high performance liquid chromatography analytical method has been developed to verify that afoxolaner is a racemic mixture as demonstrated by specific rotation, as well as to determine enantiomeric purity of single enantiomer samples...
November 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907957/surgical-strategies-for-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#17
Wendy Ziai, J Ricardo Carhuapoma, Paul Nyquist, Daniel F Hanley
In recent decades, the medical and surgical treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have become the focus of a number of scientific investigations. This effort has been led by an international group of neurologists and neurosurgeons with the goal of studying functional recovery and developing new medical and surgical treatments to facilitate improved clinical outcomes. Currently, two of the most pressing ICH investigational goals are (1) early blood pressure control, and (2) safe hematoma volume reduction...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906602/meta-analysis-of-pre-clinical-trials-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#18
Kara R Melmed, Patrick D Lyden
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a potent neuroprotectant for experimental ischemic stroke, but studies of TH for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are emerging. We systematically reviewed the experimental literature to assess TH efficacy for ICH. We found 18 suitable papers; quality scores were moderately good. Compared with normothermia, TH reduced measures of edema (mean effect size (95% CI) -1.6873 (-2.3640, -1.0106), p < 0.0001) or blood-brain barrier leakage (p < 0.0001) and improved behavioral outcomes (p < 0...
December 1, 2016: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904587/inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-preterm-infants-an-updated-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Yun Feng, Xiao-Guang Zhou, Jing-Jing Pan, Xiao-Yu Zhou
BACKGROUND: In the past several years, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have indicated that inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) can potentially lower for both the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality in affected infants. Other research has, however, disagreed with these findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an updated meta analysis of all relevant RCTs to assess the benefits of iNO in preterm infants by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, Wanfang, VIP, and CNKI databases for English and Chinese references...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904506/safety-and-efficacy-of-tenecteplase-versus-alteplase-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#20
REVIEW
Alexandre Guillermin, David Jun Yan, Arnaud Perrier, Christophe Marti
INTRODUCTION: Alteplase and tenecteplase are two widely used thrombolytic agents and are both approved for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. These two molecules have increased fibrin specificity compared with older thrombolytics but distinct pharmacokinetic properties and may differ in terms of risks and benefits. We decided to review the available evidence comparing the safety and efficacy of these two molecules in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or pulmonary embolism (PE)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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