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Alex Hatzimanolis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Dan E Arking, Anna Moes, Pallav Bhatnagar, Todd Lencz, Anil K Malhotra, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Roussos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Panos Bitsios, Nicholas C Stefanis
Schizotypal personality traits may increase proneness to psychosis and likely index familial vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), implying shared genetic determinants with SZ. Here, we sought to investigate the contribution of common genetic risk variation for SZ on self-reported schizotypy in 2 ethnically homogeneous cohorts of healthy young males during compulsory military service, enrolled in the Athens Study of Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia (ASPIS, N = 875) and the Learning on Genetics of Schizophrenia Spectrum study (LOGOS, N = 690)...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Louis Grillet, Wolfgang Schmidt
The biological significance of iron (Fe) is based on its propensity to oscillate between the ferric and ferrous forms, a transition that also affects its phyto-availability in soils. With the exception of grasses, Fe3+ is unavailable to plants. Most angiosperms employ a reduction-based Fe uptake mechanism, which relies on enzymatic reduction of ferric iron as an obligatory, rate-limiting step prior to uptake. This system functions optimally in acidic soils. Calcicole plants are, however, exposed to environments that are alkaline and/or have suboptimal availability of phosphorous, conditions under which the enzymatic reduction mechanism ceases to work effectively...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hanan Khalil, Monica Shahid, Libby Roughead
BACKGROUND: Medication safety plays an essential role in all healthcare organizations; improving this area is paramount to quality and safety of any wider healthcare program. While several medication safety programs in the hospital setting have been described and the associated impact on patient safety evaluated, no systematic reviews have described the impact of medication safety programs in the primary care setting. A preliminary search of the literature demonstrated that no systematic reviews, meta-analysis or scoping reviews have reported on medication safety programs in primary care; instead they have focused on specific interventions such as medication reconciliation or computerized physician order entry...
October 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Jinyou Xu, Eitan Oksenberg, Ronit Popovitz-Biro, Katya Rechav, Ernesto Joselevich
Tri-gate transistors offer better performance than planar transistors by exerting additional gate control over a channel from two lateral sides of semiconductor nanowalls (or "fins"). Here we report the bottom-up assembly of aligned CdS nanowalls by a simultaneous combination of horizontal catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth and vertical facet-selective noncatalytic vapor-solid growth, and their parallel integration into tri-gate transistors and photodetectors at wafer scale (cm(2)) without post-growth transfer or alignment steps...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Indika K Hewavitharana, Stephanie L Brock
This study demonstrates that ligand-exchange of nanocrystals (NCs) is not always an innocuous process, but can lead to facile (room temperature) ion-exchange, depending on the surface crystal faceting. Rock salt PbTe NCs prepared as cubes with neutral facets undergo room-temperature ligand exchange with sulfide ions, whereas cuboctahedron-shaped particles with neutral {100} and polar {111} facets are transformed to PbS, driven by ion-exchange along the <111> direction. Likewise, cation-exchange (with Ag+) occurs rapidly for cuboctahedra, whereas cubes remain inert...
October 16, 2017: ACS Nano
Yucheng He, Wenxiu Que, Xiaobin Liu, Chao Wu
Spatial separation of photogenerated charges between different crystal facets has been observed in some semiconductor photocatalysts, however, the charge separation mechanism is still ambiguous. As a characteristic parameter of crystal facet, surface energy may be a crucial factor to dictate the flow of photogenerated charges. In this work, the relationship between surface energy and the flow mode of photogenerated charges is investigated by using model photocatalysts, including lance-shaped SnO2 particles and dodecahedral SnO2 particles...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Itamar Kolvin, Gil Cohen, Jay Fineberg
Cracks develop intricate patterns on the surfaces that they create. As faceted fracture surfaces are commonly formed by slow tensile cracks in both crystalline and amorphous materials, facet formation and structure cannot reflect microscopic order. Although fracture mechanics predict that slow crack fronts should be straight and form mirror-like surfaces, facet-forming fronts propagate simultaneously within different planes separated by steps. Here we show that these steps are topological defects of crack fronts and that crack front separation into disconnected overlapping segments provides the condition for step stability...
October 16, 2017: Nature Materials
Karin Villaume, Dan Hasson
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about personality in relation to assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership. Therefore the objective of this study is to explore possible associations and differences in mean values between employee health-relevant personality traits and assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behaviors. METHODS: 754 survey responses from ten organizations were selected from a large-scale intervention study...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Chih-Shan Tan, Pei-Lun Hsieh, Lih-Juann Chen, Michael Hsuan-Yi Huang
By breaking intrinsic Si (100) and (111) wafers to expose sharp {111} and {112} facets, electrical conductivity measurements on single and different silicon crystal faces have been performed through contacts with two tungsten probes. While Si {100} and {110} faces are barely conductive at low applied voltages as expected, Si {112} surface is highly conductive and Si {111} surface also shows good conductivity. Asymmetrical I-V curves have been recorded for the {111}/{112}, {111}/{110}, and {112}/{110} facet combinations because of different degrees of conduction band bending at these crystal surfaces presenting different barrier heights to current flow...
October 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Giulia Spezzati, Yaqiong Su, Jan P Hofmann, Angelica D Benavidez, Andrew T DeLaRiva, Jay McCabe, Abhaya K Datye, Emiel J M Hensen
Ceria-supported Pd is a promising heterogeneous catalyst for CO oxidation relevant to environmental cleanup reactions. Pd loaded onto a nanorod form of ceria exposing predominantly (111) facets is already active at 50 °C. Here we report a combination of CO-FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations that allows assigning different forms of Pd on the CeO2(111) surface during reaction conditions. Single Pd atoms stabilized in the form of PdO and PdO2 in a CO/O2 atmosphere participate in a catalytic cycle involving very low activation barriers for CO oxidation...
October 6, 2017: ACS Catalysis
Huiyu Yuan, Kai Han, David Dubbink, Guido Mul, Johan E Ten Elshof
The nature of the external crystal facets is critical to control the (photo)catalytic properties. Two-dimensional materials can expose only one type of crystal facet among zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) materials. Controllable tuning of the nature of the external crystal facets of 2D materials is highly desirable but very challenging. Here, we show that 2D particles with the desirable crystal facet for high-performance photocatalytic H2 generation can be obtained by using 2D metal oxide materials (i...
October 6, 2017: ACS Catalysis
Antonine Nicoglou, Francesca Merlin
The concept of epigenetics has evolved since Waddington defined it from the late 1930s as the study of the causal mechanisms at work in development. It has become a multi-faceted notion with different meanings, depending on the disciplinary context it is used. In this article, we first analyse the transformations of the concept of epigenetics, from Waddington to contemporary accounts, in order to identify its different meanings and traditions, and to come up with a typology of epigenetics throughout its history...
October 12, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
D E Michael, C Eliopoulos, S K Manolis
Sex and temporal differences are assessed in relation to dietary habits and activity patterns in three ancient populations from Corinth, Greece. The skeletal sample spans time from the Geometric to the Early Byzantine Period (9th c. BCE-5th c. CE). Dental caries and tooth wear have been proven to be reliable dietary indicators. Similarly, spinal osteoarthritis, spinal facet remodeling and Schmorl's nodes, have been used to infer activity patterns.
September 15, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Shutao Gao, Zhengtao Lv, Huang Fang
PURPOSE: Several studies have revealed that robot-assisted technique might improve the pedicle screw insertion accuracy, but owing to the limited sample sizes in the individual study reported up to now, whether or not robot-assisted technique is superior to conventional freehand technique is indefinite. Thus, we performed this systematic review and meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials to assess which approach is better. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, CNKI and WanFang were systematically searched to identify potentially eligible articles...
October 14, 2017: European Spine Journal
Matteo Pejrona, Gabriele Ristori, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Fabrizio Ernesto Pregliasco, Pedro Berjano
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spine surgery is a multi-faceted sub-speciality requiring a breadth of knowledge and skill from different branches of medicine for the treatment of pathologies varying from degenerative to deformity, oncological, and trauma. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the self-perceived competency of spine surgeons in relation to different types of spinal procedures. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Survey study. METHODS: We conducted a survey on 176 surgeons (Orthopaedic surgeons and Neurosurgeons)...
October 11, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Julie Krans, Manon Peeters, Gérard Näring, Adam D Brown, June de Bree, Agnes van Minnen
The self is a multi-faceted and temporally dynamic construct reflecting representations and beliefs about identity in the past, present, and future. Clinical studies have shown that individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) exhibit alterations in self-related processing but these studies have focused primarily on memory. Few studies in PTSD and SAD have examined self-related processing for the present and future, and no studies have directly compared these processes across these two disorders...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Anthony L Riley, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen
The study of sex as a biological variable is a necessary emphasis across a wide array of endpoints, including basic neuroscience, medicine, mental health, physiology and behavior. The present review summarizes work from clinical and preclinical populations on sex differences in drug use and abuse, ranging from initiation to escalation/dysregulation and from drug cessation/abstinence to relapse. These differences are analyzed in the context of the addiction cycle conceptualization of Koob and his colleagues and address patterns of drug use (binge/intoxication), motivation underlying its use (withdrawal/negative affect) and likelihood and causes of craving and relapse of drug taking (anticipation/preoccupation)...
October 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Kathleen England, Natasha Azzopardi-Muscat
Demographic trends in Europe are currently being shaped by an ageing population, falling fertility rates and diverse migration flows. Fertility rates are lowest in Eastern and Southern Europe with Eastern Europe also experiencing the lowest net migration and an exodus of its working population. All regions in Europe are experiencing aging of their population with some countries having the added burden of high rates of unemployment among the working age population. The impact of these demographic changes on the current and future public health of the country depends on how countries have been preparing and adapting to demographic changes over the past years...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Dominik K E Beyer, Nadja Freund
Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes. Patients suffering from this disorder experience dramatic mood swings with a wide variety of typical behavioral facets, affecting overall activity, energy, sexual behavior, sense of self, self-esteem, circadian rhythm, cognition, and increased risk for suicide. Effective treatment options are limited and diagnosis can be complicated. To overcome these obstacles, a better understanding of the neurobiology underlying bipolar disorder is needed...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
HyukSu Han, Kang Min Kim, Chan-Woo Lee, Caroline S Lee, Rajendra C Pawar, Jacob L Jones, Yu-Rim Hong, Jeong Ho Ryu, Taeseup Song, Suk Hyun Kang, Heechae Choi, Sungwook Mhin
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) with exposed (001) facets (TiO2(001)) has attractive photocatalytic properties. However, the high recombination rate of the photo-excited charge carriers on this surface often limits its application. Here, we report that a few-layered 1T-MoS2 coating on TiO2(001) nanosheets (abbreviated as MST) can be a promising candidate that overcomes some of the challenges of TiO2(001). Computational and experimental results demonstrate that MST as a photocatalyst exhibits a significantly low-charge recombination rate as well as excellent long-term durability...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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