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Kyle D Gilroy, Xuan Yang, Shuifen Xie, Ming Zhao, Dong Qin, Younan Xia
Controlling the surface structure of metal nanocrystals while maximizing the utilization efficiency of the atoms is a subject of great importance. An emerging strategy that has captured the attention of many research groups involves the conformal deposition of one metal as an ultrathin shell (typically 1-6 atomic layers) onto the surface of a seed made of another metal and covered by a set of well-defined facets. This approach forces the deposited metal to faithfully replicate the surface atomic structure of the seed while at the same time serving to minimize the usage of the deposited metal...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Joachim von Braun
Large shares of the world population are still affected by nutrition deficiencies and undernutrition. However, the current global agriculture and food system and its international governance shows signs of serious malfunctioning, and is not equipped to cope with the current and future challenges it is facing. In view of the complex and multi-dimensional nature of nutrition problems, a framework is put forward here to improve the understanding of underlying causalities, and to identify priorities for action...
April 13, 2018: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Louise Byrne, Helena Roennfeldt, Peri O'Shea, Fiona Macdonald
Mental health peer work is attracting growing interest and provides a potentially impactful method of service user involvement in mental health design and delivery, contributing to mental health reform. The need to effectively support this emerging workforce is consequently increasing. This study aimed to better understand the views of management in relation to peer work and specifically explores the value of peer work from the perspective of management. This qualitative research employed grounded theory methods...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Johannes Hillbrand, Pierre Jouy, Mattias Beck, Jérôme Faist
Compensating for group velocity dispersion is an important challenge to achieve stable midinfrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) frequency combs with large spectral coverage. We present a tunable dispersion compensation scheme consisting of a planar mirror placed behind the back facet of the QCL. Dispersion can be either enhanced or decreased depending on the position of the mirror. We demonstrate that the fraction of the comb regime in the dynamic range of the laser increases considerably when the dispersion induced by the Gires-Tournois interferometer compensates the intrinsic dispersion of the laser...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Matthew L Goodwin, William Ryan Spiker, Darrel S Brodke, Brandon D Lawrence
The aim of this study was to report on 2 patients in whom metal-on-metal (MOM) facet replacements failed, with subsequent positive findings on allergy testing. Motion-preserving devices have been used with limited success when instrumentation is indicated in the mobile spine. MOM-bearing surfaces in orthopedics were developed to increase implant longevity, yet have been associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including local tissue reactions, pseudotumors, metallosis, and the need for revision surgery. Five patients with spinal stenosis and low-grade spondylolisthesis were randomized to undergo facet replacement surgery with the ACADIA facet replacement system at the authors' institution...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
T Schneider, S Andronopoulos, J Camps, T Duranova, E Gallego, F Gering, O Isnard, M Maître, C Murith, D Oughton, W Raskob
NERIS is the European platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery. Created in 2010 with 57 organisations from 28 different countries, the objectives of the platform are to: improve the effectiveness and coherency of current approaches to preparedness; identify further development needs; improve 'know how' and technical expertise; and establish a forum for dialogue and methodological development. The NERIS Strategic Research Agenda is now structured with three main challenges: (i) radiological impact assessments during all phases of nuclear and radiological events; (ii) countermeasures and countermeasure strategies in emergency and recovery, decision support, and disaster informatics; and (iii) setting up a multi-faceted framework for preparedness for emergency response and recovery...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Ateka Gunja, Maggie A Stanislawski, Anna E Barón, Thomas M Maddox, Steven M Bradley, Mladen I Vidovich
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. It is unclear if this association is due to direct effects of cocaine or other factors. METHODS: The Veterans Affairs cardiac catheterization database was used to identify Veterans undergoing coronary catheterization between 2007 and 2014. We analyzed association between cocaine use and 1-year all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) among Veterans with obstructive CAD (N=122,035)...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Kenneth Mah, Sophie Lebel, Jonathan Irish, Andrea Bezjak, Ada Y M Payne, Gerald M Devins
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study presents an initial psychometric evaluation of a two-dimensional (perceptual and evaluative) conceptualization and measure of disrupted body integrity (DBI)-illness-related disruption of the sense of the body as an integrated, smoothly functioning whole. METHODS: Male and female head and neck cancer (HNC) outpatients (N = 98) completed a questionnaire package prior to outpatient visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Disrupted Body Integrity Scale (DBIS) was developed to measure the perceptual and evaluative facets of DBI...
April 13, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Oleg V'yunov, Anatolii Belous, Sofiia Kobylianska, Leonid Kovalenko
The effect of starting reagents (PbI2:{CH3 NH3 I + CH3 NH3 Cl}) with different ratios in raw solutions on the microstructure of films of organic-inorganic perovskites CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Clx , as well as on the electrical properties, has been investigated. It was found that the crystallinity is increased sharply when the ratio of the starting reagents increases from 1:1 to 1:2 and is changed slightly with a further increase of ratio to 1:3. It is shown that when the ratio of starting reagents varies, the morphology of the films changes; at a ratio of 1:1, the films consist of needle-like particles, and when the ratio is increased, particles become roundish and then faceted...
April 12, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Dandan Pang, René T Proyer
Compared with playfulness in infants and children, playfulness in adults is relatively under-studied. Although there is no empirical research comparing differences in adult playfulness across cultures, one might expect variations between Western and Eastern societies such as China. While playfulness is typically seen as a positive trait in Western culture, there are hints in Chinese culture that being playful has negative connotations (e.g., associations with laziness and seeing play as the opposite of work)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Florent Morfoisse, Florence Tatin, Benoit Chapût, Nicole Therville, Charlotte Vaysse, Raphael Métivier, Julie Malloizel-Delaunay, Francoise Pujol, Anne-Claire Godet, Fabienne De Toni, Frederic Boudou, Katia Grenier, David Dubuc, Eric Lacazette, Anne-Catherine Prats, Julie Guillermet-Guibert, Francoise Lenfant, Barbara Garmy-Susini
OBJECTIVE: Estrogens exert beneficial effect on the blood vascular system. However, their role on the lymphatic system has been poorly investigated. We studied the protective effect of the 17β estradiol-the most potent endogenous estrogen-in lymphedema-a lymphatic dysfunction, which results in a massive fluid and fat accumulation in the limb. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Screening of DNA motifs able to mobilize ERs (estrogen receptors) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that estradiol promotes transcriptional activation of lymphangiogenesis-related gene expression including VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-D, VEGFR (VEGF receptor)-3, lyve-1, and HASs (hyaluronan synthases)...
April 12, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Dilbar Mammadova, Ines Marek, Matthias Galiano, Wolfgang Rascher
BACKGROUND: Increased patient mobility and restricted treatment of children with end-stage renal disease forced families from the former Eastern Bloc countries to flee with their children to Germany for adequate medical treatment. METHODS: In a case study, the patients' charts were analysed retrospectively. In structured interviews, parents and patients were asked about their flight routes to Germany, their medical treatment and their integration. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2013, eight children and adolescents with renal failure were treated with dialysis or renal transplantation in Erlangen...
April 12, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
Joel Cutinho, Boyce S Chang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Jiahao Chen, S Sabrina Akhter, Ian D Tevis, Nelson J Bello, Andrew Martin, Michelle C Foster, Martin M Thuo
Droplets capture an environment-dictated equilibrium state of a liquid material. Equilibrium, however, often necessitates nanoscale interface organization, especially with formation of a passivating layer. Herein, we demonstrate that this kinetics-driven organization may predispose a material to autonomous thermal-oxidative composition inversion (TOCI) and texture reconfiguration under felicitous choice of trigger. We exploit inherent structural complexity, differential reactivity, and metastability of the ultrathin (∼0...
April 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Xiaofeng Yin, Xiaoning Li, Wen Gu, Wei Zou, Huan Liu, Liuyang Zhu, Zhengping Fu, Yalin Lu
In this work, the Aurivillius-phase ferroelectric Bi3Fe0.5Nb1.5O9 were synthesized by hydrothermal (BFNO-H) and solid state methods (BFNO-S) respectively. The BFNO-H shows a hierarchical morphology, which is stacked by intersecting single-crystal nanosheets with {001} and {110} exposed facets, while the BFNO-S shows disorganized micron-scale morphology. BFNO-H shows a much stronger photodegradation activity (10.4 times and 9.8 times) than BFNO-S in the visible-light photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and salicylic acid (SA)...
April 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Kathryn MacKay, Muireann Quigley
There have been calls for some time for a new approach to public health in the United Kingdom and beyond. This is consequent on the recognition and acceptance that health problems often have a complex and multi-faceted aetiology. At the same time, policies which utilise insights from research in behavioural economics and psychology ('behavioural science') have gained prominence on the political agenda. The relationship between the social determinants of health (SDoH) and behavioural science in health policy has not hitherto been explored...
April 11, 2018: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
Wen-Ta Tseng, Tzi-Ying Su, John-Michael L Nix
This study applied the many-facet Rasch model to assess learners' translation ability in an English as a foreign language context. Few attempts have been made in extant research to detect and calibrate rater severity in the domain of translation testing. To fill the research gap, this study documented the process of validating a test of Chinese-to-English sentence translation and modeled raters' scoring propensity defined by harshness or leniency, expert/novice effects on severity, and concomitant effects on item difficulty...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Hongpo Liu, Ping Zhong, Kai Liu, Lu Han, Haoquan Zheng, Yadong Yin, Chuanbo Gao
Ultrathin Pt nanostructures exposing controlled crystal facets are highly desirable for their superior activity and cost-effectiveness in the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and they are conventionally synthesized by epitaxial growth of Pt on a limited range of templates, such as Pd nanocrystals, resulting in a high cost and less structural diversity of the ultrathin Pt nanostructures. To solve this problem, we demonstrate that ultrathin Pt nanostructures can be synthesized by templating conveniently available Ag nanocrystals without involving galvanic replacement, which enables a much-reduced cost and controllable new morphologies, such as ultrathin Pt nanoplates that expose the {111} facets...
January 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Lyubomir I Aftanas, Olga M Bazanova, Nataliya V Novozhilova
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that the assessment of postural performance may be a potentially reliable and objective marker of the psychomotor retardation (PMR) in the major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the important facets of MDD-related PMR is reflected in disrupted central mechanisms of psychomotor control, heavily influenced by compelling maladaptive depressive rumination. In view of this we designed a research paradigm that included sequential execution of simple single-posture task followed by more challenging divided attention posture tasks, involving concurring motor and ideomotor workloads...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
K Al-Tawil, D Lopez, M Blackman, S Suresh
Background: Facet joint pain contributes significantly to lower back pain. Image intensifier x-ray guidance is used to locate the facet joints. This can either be in the oblique "Scotty dog" or antero-posterior views. The aim is to investigate whether improved visualisation of facet joints using the oblique method would increase the accuracy of the injection and hence lead to enhanced pain relief effect when compared to AP views in Lumbar facet joints. Methods: Single centre, single blinded...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Rory Cuthbert, Saket Tibrewal, Sheo B Tibrewal
Isolated patellofemoral arthritis (IPA) is a debilitating condition characterised by a loss of articular cartilage on the patella facets, the trochlear groove or both. By definition, patients with IPA must have normal cartilage in the tibiofemoral compartments of their knee. It is therefore logical to pursue arthroplasty which corrects the abnormality while sparing healthy bone and preserving the knee's native kinematics, which is the premise underpinning patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA). However, its use remains controversial, with many surgeons still favouring total knee replacement (TKR) in these patients...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
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