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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650575/creation-of-faceted-polyhedral-microgels-from-compressed-emulsions
#1
Jing Fan, Shin-Hyun Kim, Zi Chen, Shaobing Zhou, Esther Amstad, Tina Lin, David A Weitz
Compressed monodisperse emulsions in confined space exhibit highly ordered structures. The influence of the volume fraction and the confinement geometry on the organized structures is investigated and the mechanism by which structural transition occurs is studied. Based on the understanding of ordering behavior of compressed emulsions, a simple and high-throughput method to fabricate monodisperse polyhedral microgels using the emulsions as the template is developed. By controlling the geometry of the confined spaces, a variety of shapes such as hexagonal prism, Fejes Toth honeycomb prism, truncated octahedron, pyritohedron, and truncated hexagonal trapezohedron are implemented...
June 26, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649647/moonshots-and-metastatic-disease-the-need-for-a-multi-faceted-approach-when-studying-atypical-responses
#2
REVIEW
Kristine De La Torre, Elly Cohen, Anne Loeser, Marc Hurlbert
Clinical research generally focuses on results involving a statistical mean with little attention in trial design to patients who respond considerably better or worse than average. Exploring the reasons underlying an "atypical response" will increase understanding of the mechanisms involved in cancer progression and treatment resistance, accelerate biomarker identification, and improve precision medicine by allowing clinicians to prospectively select optimal treatments. Based on our review, we suggest two ways to move this field forward...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648985/aging-and-caloric-restriction-research-a-biological-perspective-with-translational-potential
#3
REVIEW
Priya Balasubramanian, Porsha R Howell, Rozalyn M Anderson
Aging as a research pursuit is fairly new compared with traditional lines of medical research. A growing field of investigators is focused on understanding how changes in tissue biology, physiology, and systemic homeostasis, conspire to create increased vulnerability to disease as a function of age. Aging research as a discipline is necessarily broad; in part because aging itself is multi-faceted and in part because different model systems are employed to define the underlying biology. In this review we outline aspects of aging research that are likely to uncover the pivotal events leading to age-related disease vulnerability...
June 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648962/exosomes-as-reconfigurable-therapeutic-systems
#4
REVIEW
R Steven Conlan, Simone Pisano, Marta I Oliveira, Mauro Ferrari, I Mendes Pinto
Historically, small molecules, including steroid hormones and cytokines, have been attributed a role in paracrine and endocrine signaling, and now include a new player: biological nanoparticles, or 'exosomes'. Generated intracellularly, and defined simply as nanoparticulate packages of signaling moieties, exosomes have emerged as vehicles for highly specialized local and distant intercellular communication. Exosomes are increasingly being recognized as contributing factors in many diseases, and their potential as biomarkers and in therapeutics is rapidly emerging...
May 29, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648689/gaining-thermodynamic-insight-from-distinct-glass-formation-kinetics-of-structurally-similar-organic-compounds
#5
Arjun Kalra, Paul Luner, Lynne S Taylor, Stephen R Byrn, Tonglei Li
Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of crystallization of 12 structurally similar organic compounds were investigated from the supercooled liquid state by calorimetric and rheological measurements. Based on their crystallization behaviors, these compounds were divided into three categories: stable glass formers, poor glass formers, and good glass formers with poor stability on reheating. Correlation was sought between thermodynamic quantities and glass formation based on nucleation and crystal growth theories...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648185/exosomes-as-reconfigurable-therapeutic-systems
#6
REVIEW
R Steven Conlan, Simone Pisano, Marta I Oliveira, Mauro Ferrari, I Mendes Pinto
Historically, small molecules, including steroid hormones and cytokines, have been attributed a role in paracrine and endocrine signaling, and now include a new player: biological nanoparticles, or 'exosomes'. Generated intracellularly, and defined simply as nanoparticulate packages of signaling moieties, exosomes have emerged as vehicles for highly specialized local and distant intercellular communication. Exosomes are increasingly being recognized as contributing factors in many diseases, and their potential as biomarkers and in therapeutics is rapidly emerging...
July 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647747/comparing-the-effects-of-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-and-sleep-psycho-education-with-exercise-on-chronic-insomnia-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, De-Xing Zhang, Carole Chi-Kwan Li, Benjamin Hon-Kei Yip, Dicken Cheong-Chun Chan, Yuet-Man Ling, Cola Siu-Lin Lo, Doris Mei-Sum Woo, Yu-Ying Sun, Helen Ma, Winnie Wing-Sze Mak, Ting Gao, Tatia Mei-Chun Lee, Yun-Kwok Wing
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a potential treatment for chronic insomnia. We evaluated the efficacy of MBCT for insomnia (MBCT-I) by comparing it with a sleep psycho-education with exercise control (PEEC) group. METHODS: Adults with chronic primary insomnia (n = 216) were randomly allocated to the MBCT-I or PEEC group. The MBCT-I included mindfulness and psycho-education with cognitive and behavioural components under cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia...
June 24, 2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647488/autoreactivity-to-malondialdehyde-modifications-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-linked-to-disease-activity-and-synovial-pathogenesis
#8
Caroline Grönwall, Khaled Amara, Uta Hardt, Akilan Krishnamurthy, Johanna Steen, Marianne Engström, Meng Sun, A Jimmy Ytterberg, Roman A Zubarev, Dagmar Scheel-Toellner, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Lars Klareskog, Anca I Catrina, Vivianne Malmström, Gregg J Silverman
Oxidation-associated malondialdehyde (MDA) modification of proteins can generate immunogenic neo-epitopes that are recognized by autoantibodies. In health, IgM antibodies to MDA-adducts are part of the natural antibody pool, while elevated levels of IgG anti-MDA antibodies are associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Yet, in human autoimmune disease IgG anti-MDA responses have not been well characterized and their potential contribution to disease pathogenesis is not known. Here, we investigate MDA-modifications and anti-MDA-modified protein autoreactivity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647332/longitudinal-relationship-between-fecal-culture-fecal-quantitative-pcr-and-milk-elisa-in-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis-infected-cows-from-low-prevalence-dairy-herds
#9
A Beaver, R W Sweeney, E Hovingh, D R Wolfgang, Y T Gröhn, Y H Schukken
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of ruminant Johne's disease, presents a particular challenge with regard to infection mitigation on dairy farms. Diagnostic testing strategies to identify and quantify MAP and associated antibodies are imperfect, and certain facets of the relationship between diagnostic tests remain to be explored. Additional repeated-measures data from known infected animals are needed to complement the body of cross-sectional research on Johne's disease-testing methods...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646828/spent-yeast-as-natural-source-of-functional-food-additives
#10
Rita Rakowska, Anna Sadowska, Ewa Dybkowska, Franciszek Świderski
Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646400/a-brief-assessment-tool-for-investigating-facets-of-moral-judgment-from-realistic-vignettes
#11
Michael Kruepke, Erin K Molloy, Konrad Bresin, Aron K Barbey, Edelyn Verona
Humans make moral judgments every day, and research demonstrates that these evaluations are based on a host of related event features (e.g., harm, legality). In order to acquire systematic data on how moral judgments are made, our assessments need to be expanded to include real-life, ecologically valid stimuli that take into account the numerous event features that are known to influence moral judgment. To facilitate this, Knutson et al. (in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4), 378-384, 2010) developed vignettes based on real-life episodic memories rated concurrently on key moral features; however, the method is time intensive (~1...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645248/characterizing-the-reproductive-transcriptomic-correlates-of-acute-dehydration-in-males-in-the-desert-adapted-rodent-peromyscus-eremicus
#12
Lauren Kordonowy, Matthew MacManes
BACKGROUND: The understanding of genomic and physiological mechanisms related to how organisms living in extreme environments survive and reproduce is an outstanding question facing evolutionary and organismal biologists. One interesting example of adaptation is related to the survival of mammals in deserts, where extreme water limitation is common. Research on desert rodent adaptations has focused predominantly on adaptations related to surviving dehydration, while potential reproductive physiology adaptations for acute and chronic dehydration have been relatively neglected...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645033/acetic-acid-assisted-fabrication-of-hierarchical-flower-like-bi2o3-for-photocatalytic-degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-and-rhodamine-b-under-solar-irradiation
#13
Yueping Bao, Teik-Thye Lim, Ziyi Zhong, Rong Wang, Xiao Hu
With the assistance of acetic acid (CH3COOH), a novel 3D flower-like Bi2O3 was synthesized via hydrothermal process followed by calcination. For the first time, the role of CH3COOH as a capping agent in the formation of flower-like structure was investigated. The as-prepared flower-like Bi2O3 had a high activity on the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under simulated solar light irradiation due to the narrow band gap of 2.69eV, high percentage of β-Bi2O3 as well as high intensity of polar facets (120) and (200)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#14
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642861/reported-systems-changes-and-sustainability-perceptions-of-three-state-departments-of-health-implementing-multi-faceted-evidence-based-fall-prevention-efforts
#15
Matthew Lee Smith, Ellen C Schneider, Imani N Byers, Tiffany E Shubert, Ashley D Wilson, Samuel D Towne, Marcia G Ory
Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH) that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of "before funding" and "after funding was received")...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641261/robust-web-image-annotation-via-exploring-multi-facet-and-structural-knowledge
#16
Mengqiu Hu, Yang Yang, Fumin Shen, Luming Zhang, Heng Tao Shen, Xuelong Li
Driven by the rapid development of Internet and digital technologies, we have witnessed the explosive growth of Web images in recent years. Seeing that labels can reflect the semantic contents of the images, automatic image annotation, which can further facilitate the procedure of image semantic indexing, retrieval and other image management tasks, has become one of the most crucial research directions in multimedia. Most of the existing annotation methods heavily rely on well-labeled training data (expensive to collect) and/or single view of visual features (insufficient representative power)...
June 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640857/glucose-dysregulation-and-response-to-common-anti-diabetic-agents-in-the-fatzo-pco-mouse
#17
Richard G Peterson, Charles Van Jackson, Karen M Zimmerman, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, M Dodson Michael, Paul J Emmerson, Tamer Coskun
The FATZO/Pco mouse is the result of a cross of the C57BL/6J and AKR/J strains. The crossing of these two strains and the selective inbreeding for obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia has resulted in an inbred strain exhibiting obesity in the presumed presence of an intact leptin pathway. Routinely used rodent models for obesity and diabetes research have a monogenic defect in leptin signaling that initiates obesity. Given that obesity and its sequelae in humans are polygenic in nature and not associated with leptin signaling defects, the FATZO mouse may represent a more translatable rodent model for study of obesity and its associated metabolic disturbances...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640660/chromosome-territory-relocation-paradigm-during-dna-damage-response-some-insights-from-molecular-biology-to-physics
#18
Sarosh N Fatakia, Mugdha Kulashreshtha, Ishita S Mehta, Basuthkar J Rao
Among the many facets of DNA damage response (DDR), relocation of chromosome territories (CTs) is most intriguing. We have previously reported that cisplatin induced DDR in human dermal fibroblasts led to relocation of CTs 12, 15 from the nuclear periphery to its interior while CTs 19, 17 repositioned from the interior to its periphery. Studies of CT relocation remain nascent as we begin unraveling the role of key players in DDR to demonstrate its mechanistic basis. Consolidating our recent reports, we argue that γH2AX-signaling leads to enhanced recruitment of nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) to chromatin, which via its motor function, results in CT repositioning...
June 22, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640641/first-principles-calculation-of-pt-surface-energies-in-an-electrochemical-environment-thermodynamic-driving-forces-for-surface-faceting-and-nanoparticle-reconstruction
#19
Ian T McCrum, Michael A Hickner, Michael J Janik
Platinum is a widely used catalyst in aqueous and electrochemical environments. The size and shape of Pt nanoparticles and the faceting (and roughness) of extended Pt surfaces change during use in these environments due to dissolution, growth, and reconstruction. Further, many Pt nanoparticle synthesis techniques are carried out in an aqueous environment. The surface structures formed are impacted by the relative surface energies of the low index facets in these environments. Density functional theory is used to calculate the surface energy of the low index facets of platinum as a function of electrochemical potential and coverage of adsorbed hydrogen, hydroxide, oxygen, and the formation of surface oxide in an aqueous environment...
June 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640586/self-supported-bi2moo6-nanowall-for-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#20
Minghong Wu, Yuxi Wang, Yang Xu, Jie Ming, Min Zhou, Rui Xu, Qun Fu, Yong Lei
Nanowall has been regarded as a promising architecture for highly efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to various superiorities, such as open geometry, highly reactive facets, independent contact with current collector etc. Here, vertically aligned Bi2MoO6 nanosheet array, which is also called nanowall, is first achieved directly on the ITO glass by a facile solvothermal approach. The structural features not only offer multiple superiorities for PEC processes, and also provide the bridge for in-depth insights of intrinsic features of Bi2MoO6 photoanodes...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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