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Taylor Pini, Tamara Leahy, Simon P de Graaf
Semen cryopreservation is an important tool for artificial breeding, species conservation and human reproductive medicine. However, sublethal freezing damage remains an important limitation of the cryopreservation process, inevitably leading to reduced fertility in vivo. This review explores several facets of sublethal freezing damage, touching on cryocapacitation, the generation of reactive oxygen species and alterations to sperm proteins, lipids and sugars. The effects of sublethal freezing damage on sperm performance in vivo are also discussed, examining fertile lifespan and interaction with female reproductive tract immune cells, mucus and oviductal cells...
June 11, 2018: Theriogenology
Shigeyuki Kitanaka, Ryota Takatori, Yuji Arai, Masateru Nagae, Hitoshi Tonomura, Yasuo Mikami, Nozomu Inoue, Taku Ogura, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Toshikazu Kubo
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective clinical case series (case-control study). OBJECTIVE: To clarify the influence of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) on the pathology of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) using in vivo 3-dimensional image analysis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There are no radical treatments to prevent progression of DS in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis associated with DS. Therefore, an effective treatment method based on the pathology of DS should be developed...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
Gudbjørg Øen, Bente Kvilhaugsvik, Kari Eldal, Anne-Grethe Halding
PURPOSE: This study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the perspectives and life experiences of adolescents living with obesity. METHODS: Five adolescents living with obesity were involved in repeated interviews, and qualitative content analysis was performed. RESULTS: Three themes emerged: obesity as a multi-faceted and difficult to solve condition; obesity as a shameful and vulnerable subject; and bullying and fragile social relationships...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Wenxiang He, Jianguo Liu, Wei Sun, Wuwei Yan, Liang Zhou, Congping Wu, Junsheng Wang, Xinliang Yu, Haimin Zhao, Tianren Zhang, Zhigang Zou
The octahedral core-shell Li-rich layered cathode material of Li1.2 Mn0.54 Ni0.13 Co0.13 O2 can be synthesized via an ingenious coprecipitation-gel method without subsequent annealing. Based on detailed XRD, SEM, TEM, and EELS characterizations, it is suggested that the as-prepared material consists of an octahedral morphology and a new type of core-shell structure with a spinel-layered heterostructure inside, which is the result of overgrowth of the spinel structure with {111} facets on {001} facets of the layered structure in a single orientation...
June 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juan Carlos Gómez Vega, Juan Carlos Acevedo-González
INTRODUCTION: Lumbar pain affects between 60-90% of people. It is a frequent cause of disability in adults. Pain may be generated by different anatomical structures such as the facet joint. However, nowadays pain produced by the facet joint has no clinical diagnosis. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to propose a clinical diagnostic scale for lumbar facet syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted by means of 6 phases as follows, Phase 1, a systematic review of the literature was performed regarding the clinical diagnosis of facet-based lumbar pain based on the PRISMA checklist; Phase 2, a list of signs and symptoms proposed for diagnosis lumbar pain of facet origin was made...
June 14, 2018: Neurocirugía
Victor Martinez-Loredo, Jose Ramon Fernandez-Hermida, Alejandro De La Torre-Luque, Sergio Fernandez-Artamendi
Although impulsivity and sensation seeking have been consistently associated with substance use, few studies have analyzed the relationship between changes in these variables and substance use in early adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify trajectories of impulsivity and sensation seeking and explore their relationship with substance use and heavy drinking. A total of 1342 non-user adolescents (53.6% males; mean age = 12.98, SD = 0.50) annually completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Zuckerman's Impulsive Sensation Seeking scale and a delay discounting task, over a total period of three years...
June 14, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Andrzej Jakubczyk, Elisa M Trucco, Maciej Kopera, Paweł Kobyliński, Hubert Suszek, Sylwia Fudalej, Kirk J Brower, Marcin Wojnar
Emotion dysregulation and impulsivity are important factors influencing the development and course of alcohol dependence. However, few empirical studies investigate the association between different aspects of impulsivity (cognitive, attentional, behavioral), emotion regulation, and alcohol use disorder symptoms in the same model. The goal of this study was to assess the association between emotion regulation and different facets of impulsivity among patients with an alcohol use disorder and healthy controls...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Fiona Scorgie, Jonathan Stadler, Deborah Baron, Susan Ju, Tshepiso Ikaneng, Zonke Mabude, Sylvia Makgopa, Matshidiso A Malefo, Kgahlisho N Manenzhe, Thulani Mazibuko, Hilda Ntjana, Busi Nkala, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Glenda Gray, Helen Rees, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
The FACTS 001 trial found that vaginal pre- and post-coital application of 1% tenofovir gel did not prevent HIV-1 infection amongst young South African women. The trial included a multi-faceted approach to adherence support and collected objective and self-reported adherence measures. Using qualitative data collected from a random sub-set of FACTS 001 participants (135 in-depth interviews at product discontinuation and 13 focus group discussions at dissemination of trial results), we explore the importance of 'place' and 'timing' in shaping acts of sexual intimacy and product adherence...
June 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Yunus Emre Kundakci, Nadire Unver Dogan, Ibrahim Guler, Ismihan Ilknur Uysal, Zeliha Fazliogullari, Ahmet Kagan Karabulut
PURPOSE: We aimed to research in detail the morphology of the facet orientation (FO) and tropism (FT) in degenerative diseases. METHOD: This study consisted of patients with disc degeneration (DD) and with lumbar spondylolisthesis (LS) as well as a control group without these two diseases. The group of patients with DD was separated by DD grades. Vertebral body and intervertebral discs' (IVDs) morphometric values, facet joint osteoarthritis (OA) grading, FO and FT were examined in all the groups...
June 16, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Ismail Sebina, Ashraful Haque
Type I interferons are a family of cytokines with a wide range of biological activities including anti-viral and immune-regulatory functions. Here, we focus on the protozoan parasitic disease, malaria, and examine the effects of type I IFN-signalling during Plasmodium infection of humans and experimental mice. Since the 1960's, there have been many studies in this area, but a simple explanation for the role of type I IFN has not emerged. Although epidemiological data are consistent with roles for type I IFN in influencing malaria disease severity, functional proof of this remains sparse in humans...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
Souhir Abdelkrim, Salwa Harzalli Jebara, Omar Saadani, Moez Jebara
The ability of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobateria (PGPR) to enhance Lathyrus sativus tolerance to lead (Pb) stress was investigated. Ten consortia formed by mixing four efficient and Pb-resistant PGPR strains were assessed for their beneficial effect in improving Pb (0.5 mM) uptake and in inducing host-defensive system of L. sativus under hydroponic conditions based on various physiological and biochemical parameters. Pb stress significantly decreased shoot and root dry weight but inoculation improves these biomasses with highest increases registred in SDW and RDW of plants inoculated with I5 (R...
June 15, 2018: Plant Biology
Sander C Steenbeek, Thang V Pham, Joep de Ligt, Anoek Zomer, Jaco C Knol, Sander R Piersma, Tim Schelfhorst, Rick Huisjes, Raymond M Schiffelers, Edwin Cuppen, Connie R Jimenez, Jacco van Rheenen
Recent data showed that cancer cells from different tumor subtypes with distinct metastatic potential influence each other's metastatic behavior by exchanging biomolecules through extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, it is debated how small amounts of cargo can mediate this effect, especially in tumors where all cells are from one subtype, and only subtle molecular differences drive metastatic heterogeneity. To study this, we have characterized the content of EVs shed in vivo by two clones of melanoma (B16) tumors with distinct metastatic potential...
June 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
Brittany L Adler, James W Russell, Laura K Hummers, Zsuzsanna H McMahan
OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is a known complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that can affect vascular tone, gastrointestinal (GI) motility, heart rate, and blood pressure control. We sought to quantify autonomic symptom burden in SSc, and to define the characteristics of patients with SSc and autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Patients with SSc were consecutively recruited during routine clinical visits at the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center and asked to complete the Composite Autonomic Symptom Score (COMPASS)-31 questionnaire, a validated tool to assess symptoms of autonomic dysfunction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Laura O'Halloran, Brian Pennie, Lee Jollans, Hanni Kiiski, Nigel Vahey, Laura Rai, Louisa Bradley, Robert Lalor, Robert Whelan
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity, broadly characterized as the tendency to act prematurely without foresight, is linked to alcohol misuse in college students. However, impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and different subdomains likely underlie different patterns of alcohol misuse. Here, we quantified the association between alcohol intoxication frequency and alcohol consumption frequency and choice, action, cognitive, and trait domains of impulsivity. METHODS: University student drinkers (n = 106) completed a battery of demographic and alcohol-related items, as well as self-report and task-based measures indexing different facets of impulsivity...
June 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yu Zhang, Xiaoyun Tang, Yaxun Zhang, Wenjie Su, Zhihai Liu, Xinghua Yang, Jianzhong Zhang, Jun Yang, Kyunghwan Oh, Libo Yuan
We proposed and experimentally demonstrated 3-dimensional dark traps for low refractive index bio-cells using a single optical fiber Bessel beam. The Bessel beam was produced by concatenating single-mode fiber and a step index multimode fiber, which was then focused by a high refractive index glass microsphere integrated on the fiber end facet. The focused Bessel beam provided two dark fields along the axial direction, where stable trapping of low refractive index bio-cells was realized in a high refractive index liquid bath...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Seba Ramhmdani, Marc Comair, Camilo A Molina, Daniel M Sciubba, Ali Bydon
Interspinous process devices (IPDs) have been developed as less-invasive alternatives to spinal fusion with the goal of decompressing the spinal canal and preserving segmental motion. IPD implantation is proposed to treat symptoms of lumbar spinal stenosis that improve during flexion. Recent indications of IPD include lumbar facet joint syndrome, which is seen in patients with mainly low-back pain. Long-term outcomes in this subset of patients are largely unknown. The authors present a previously unreported complication of coflex (IPD) placement: the development of a large compressive lumbar synovial cyst...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
O Karikari-Yeboah, W Skinner, J Addai-Mensah
Trace metals occur at various concentrations in all wetlands. Their proliferation, chemical speciation, mobility and bioavailability are dependent on the redox potential (Eh), pH and the presence of organic and inorganic adsorption surfaces and co-precipitating metals. Consequently, changes in these key parameters have the potential to alter the fate of the dominant trace metal species in the sediment. An imposition of preload surcharge is a technique use in geotechnical engineering to improve in the strength and load carrying capacity of waterlogged sediments...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Marcos G Becerra, Diego Pol, Gertrud E Rössner, Oliver W M Rauhut
New materials of the ornithischian dinosaur Manidens condorensis highlight a strong heterodonty between the upper and lower dentitions and reveal a novel occlusion type previously unreported in herbivorous dinosaurs. The diamond-shaped maxillary teeth have prominent cingular entolophs in a V- to Z-shaped configuration that are absent in dentary teeth. These cingular entolophs bear denticles and serrations with vertical wear that is coplanar with the apical wear facets, supporting their involvement in chewing...
June 14, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Andrea Calvo-Echenique, José Cegoñino, Raúl Chueca, Amaya Pérez-Del Palomar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal degeneration and instability are commonly treated with interbody fusion cages either alone or supplemented with posterior instrumentation with the aim to immobilise the segment and restore intervertebral height. The purpose of this work is to establish a tool which may help to understand the effects of intervertebral cage design and placement on the biomechanical response of a patient-specific model to help reducing post-surgical complications such as subsidence and segment instability...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Abby L Mulay, Nicole M Cain, Mark H Waugh, Christopher J Hopwood, Jonathan M Adler, Darren J Garcia, John E Kurtz, Katherine A Lenger, Rebecca Skadberg
The DSM-5 Section III alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) is a personality disorder (PD) nosology based on severity of personality dysfunction and pathological traits. We examined the degree to which the personality constructs identified by McAdams and Pals (2006; dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, narrative identity) and the paradigms of personality assessment described by Wiggins (2003; psychodynamic, interpersonal, personological, multivariate, empirical) are represented within the AMPD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
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