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Attitudes advance directives

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077097/what-patients-really-think-about-asthma-guidelines-barriers-to-guideline-implementation-from-the-patients-perspective
#1
H Lingner, B Burger, P Kardos, C P Criée, H Worth, E Hummers-Pradier
BACKGROUND: Treatment of asthma does not always comply with asthma guidelines (AG). This may be rooted in direct or indirect resistance on the doctors' and/or patients' side or be caused by the healthcare system. To assess whether patients' concepts and attitudes are really an implementation barrier for AG, we analysed the patients' perspective of a "good asthma therapy" and contrasted their wishes with current recommendations. METHODS: Using a qualitative exploratory design, topic centred focus group (FG) discussions were performed until theoretical saturation was reached...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032076/clinical-competence-and-its-related-factors-of-nurses-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#2
Jila Mirlashari, Robabeh Qommi, Shahin Nariman, Nasser Bahrani, Jamaloddin Begjani
Introduction: Clinical competence of nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units together with advancements in medical science and technology increased the survival rate of newborns that need specialized care. To ensure the quality of care and provide the safety of patients, evaluating the clinical competence of nurses seems necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical competence of nurses in the neonatal intensive care units. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 117 nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by census method...
December 2016: Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026070/cancer-related-pain-management-a-review-of-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-healthcare-professionals
#3
REVIEW
M A M Kasasbeh, C McCabe, S Payne
Cancer-related pain (CRP) is common and many patients continue to experience pain in spite of advances in pain management modalities. The lack of knowledge, inadequate assessment of CRP and/or organisational factors, such as lack of time due to heavy workload, can be a barrier to effective pain management of healthcare professionals. The purpose was to examine the evidence with regard to the knowledge and attitudes towards practice of healthcare professionals in relation to CRP management. A search of the literature (1999-2015) was conducted searching databases and journals including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct and Wiley-Blackwell...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965013/patients-attitudes-and-physicians-perceptions-toward-maintenance-therapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-multicenter-italian-survey
#4
Maria Vittoria Pacchiana, Enrica Capelletto, Simona Carnio, Cesare Gridelli, Antonio Rossi, Domenico Galetta, Elisabetta Sara Montagna, Paola Bordi, Anna Ceribelli, Diego Cortinovis, Vieri Scotti, Olga Martelli, Giuseppe Valmadre, Alessandro Del Conte, Annamaria Miccianza, Raffaella Morena, Francesco Rosetti, Massimo Di Maio, Luca Ostacoli, Silvia Novello
INTRODUCTION: Pemetrexed maintenance therapy (MT) after induction with platinum-based chemotherapy has recently become a common treatment strategy for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the benefits of MT should be weighed with consideration of the patients' perceptions and preferences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate patients' attitudes toward MT and to describe physicians' awareness of their patients' inclinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered a 12-question anonymous survey and the Distress Thermometer Questionnaire to patients with advanced or recurrent nonsquamous NSCLC...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943487/a-comparison-of-attitudes-toward-length-and-quality-of-life-between-community-dwelling-older-adults-and-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#5
Chetna Malhotra, Ling Xiang, Semra Ozdemir, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Noreen Chan, Eric Andrew Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: Applying prospect theory to end-of-life (EOL) decision-making, we hypothesize that community dwelling older adults (CDOAs) will be relatively less inclined towards extending length over improving quality of life compared to patients. We also hypothesize that differences in relative inclination for length over quality of life between the two groups will decrease with advancing age. METHODS: We tested these hypotheses by administering the Quality-Quantity questionnaire to 1067 CDOAs and 320 stage IV cancer patients and applying a linear regression model to assess whether relative inclination for length over quality of life, as estimated by the questionnaire, differed between CDOAs and patients after controlling for differences in socio-demographic characteristics...
December 10, 2016: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891235/interaction-and-medical-inducement-between-pharmaceutical-representatives-and-physicians-a-meta-synthesis
#6
REVIEW
Shahrzad Salmasi, Long Chiau Ming, Tahir Mehmood Khan
BACKGROUND: It has been proven that the interaction between pharmaceutical representatives and physicians can directly influence the latter's prescribing behaviour. This meta-synthesis aims to explore the available studies regarding the nature of the interaction that takes place between pharmaceutical representatives and physicians. It highlights the different aspects of that interaction by investigating the reasons why these meetings happen in the first place, their benefits and drawbacks and their impact on patients' health and, ultimately, the health of the public...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852819/factors-influencing-advance-care-planning-among-older-adults-in-two-socioeconomically-diverse-living-communities
#7
Jennifer L Tripken, Cathy Elrod, Susan Bills
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Advance care planning (ACP) is an iterative, complex, and dynamic process of discussion, decision-making, and documentation about end-of-life care. The extent to which this process takes place in older adults in diverse socioeconomic settings is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about ACP among older adults in two socioeconomically diverse settings to identify the individual and contextual factors that influence behaviors regarding end-of-life care...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834564/linking-narcissism-motivation-and-doping-attitudes-in-sport-a-multilevel-investigation-involving-coaches-and-athletes
#8
Doris Matosic, Nikos Ntoumanis, Ian David Boardley, Andrew Stenling, Constantine Sedikides
Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803566/clinical-impact-of-education-provision-on-determining-advance-care-planning-decisions-among-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-receiving-regular-hemodialysis-in-university-malaya-medical-centre
#9
Albert Hing Wong, Loh Ee Chin, Tan Li Ping, Ng Kok Peng, Lim Soo Kun
INTRODUCTION: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of shared decision-making about future health-care plans between patients, health care providers, and family members, should patients becomes incapable of participating in medical treatment decisions. ACP discussions enhance patient's autonomy, focus on patient's values and treatment preferences, and promote patient-centered care. ACP is integrated as part of clinical practice in Singapore and the United States. AIM: To assess the clinical impact of education provision on determining ACP decisions among end-stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777757/a-quasi-experimental-study-to-determine-the-effects-of-a-multifaceted-educational-intervention-on-hand-hygiene-compliance-in-a-radiography-unit
#10
Margaret O'Donoghue, Suk-Hing Ng, Lorna Kp Suen, Maureen Boost
BACKGROUND: Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses' compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759075/applying-an-extended-theory-of-planned-behaviour-to-predict-breakfast-consumption-in-adolescents
#11
S Kennedy, E L Davies, L Ryan, M E Clegg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736149/time-varying-effect-modeling-to-address-new-questions-in-behavioral-research-examples-in-marijuana-use
#12
Stephanie T Lanza, Sara A Vasilenko, Michael A Russell
Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM), a statistical approach that enables researchers to estimate dynamic associations between variables across time, holds enormous potential to advance behavioral research. TVEM can address innovative questions about processes that unfold across different levels of time. We present a conceptual introduction to the approach and demonstrate 4 innovative ways to approach time in TVEM to advance research on the etiology of marijuana use. First, we examine changes in associations across historical time to understand how the link between marijuana use attitudes and marijuana use behavior has shifted from 1976 to present; gender differences in the relevance of attitudes diminished over time and were no longer significant after 2004...
December 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718068/advance-directives-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-receiving-active-treatment-attitudes-prevalence-and-barriers
#13
Julie C McDonald, Jeanne M du Manoir, Nanor Kevork, Lisa W Le, Camilla Zimmermann
PURPOSE: The purposes of the study were to assess awareness and prevalence of advance directives (ADs) among patients with advanced cancer undergoing active outpatient care and to determine factors associated with AD completion before and after the diagnosis of cancer. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumor malignancy receiving treatment at the Chemotherapy Day Unit were approached for recruitment. They completed an onsite questionnaire about completion and timing of ADs, demographic information, and perceived health; a review of their medical records was conducted to document their cancer care and co-morbidities...
February 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629687/exploring-community-faculty-members-engagement-in-educational-scholarship
#14
Marcus Law, Sarah Wright, Maria Mylopoulos
OBJECTIVE: To obtain a deeper understanding of community faculty members' perceptions about engagement in educational scholarship. DESIGN: One-on-one semistructured interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and subsequently analyzed. SETTING: Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive, theoretical sample of 8 physician faculty members at the University of Toronto. METHODS: Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach...
September 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584825/knowledge-about-and-perceptions-of-advance-care-planning-and-communication-of-chinese-american-older-adults
#15
Jeanine Yonashiro-Cho, Sarah Cote, Susan Enguidanos
Although advance care planning (ACP) is associated with better care at the end of life, better quality of death, and less psychological distress in survivors, ethnic disparities in ACP completion rates have been documented and may be attributable to lack of knowledge about ACP or differences in cultural values and preferences. Despite rapid increases in the size of the Asian-American population, little is known about ACP preferences of Chinese Americans. The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of older Chinese Americans toward ACP...
September 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574407/intricate-decision-making-ambivalences-and-barriers-when-fulfilling-an-advance-directive
#16
Lars Schröder, Gerhard Hommel, Stephan Sahm
BACKGROUND: Despite a recent statutory ruling stating the binding nature of advance directives (ADs), only a minority of the population has signed one. Yet, a majority deem it of utmost importance to ensure their wishes are followed through in case they are no longer able to decide. The reasons for this discrepancy have not yet been investigated sufficiently. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This article is based on a survey of patients using a well-established structured questionnaire...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529264/the-attitudes-of-chinese-cancer-patients-and-family-caregivers-toward-advance-directives
#17
Qiu Zhang, Chuanbo Xie, Shanghang Xie, Qing Liu
Advance directives (ADs) have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients' quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505203/implicit-attitudes-predict-drinking-onset-in-adolescents-shaping-by-social-norms
#18
B Keith Payne, Kent M Lee, Matteo Giletta, Mitchell J Prinstein
OBJECTIVE: Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predict drinking among adults and adolescents. If implicit attitudes reflected associations learned through direct experience with drinking, then they would likely only predict drinking among individuals who have previously consumed alcohol. In contrast, if implicit attitudes reflected indirect experience through social messages, they might also then predict future drinking, even among individuals with no drinking experience. In this study, we tested whether implicit attitudes would predict initiation of drinking for the first time, and whether parents' and friends' norms toward alcohol would influence the development of implicit attitudes...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504315/health-system-delay-among-the-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-presenting-in-the-dots-centers-of-nepal
#19
Wongsa Laohasiriwong, Roshan Kumar Mahato, Rajendra Koju
INTRODUCTION: Health system delay is the time for complete diagnosis of the disease after patient approaches a health care provider. AIM: The study aims to identify the characteristics and the determinants of unacceptable health system delay (≥ 7 days delay from health system) in diagnosis of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending in Direct Observation Treatment Short course (DOTS) centers of Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted by administrating a structured questionnaire interview and reviewing the medical record of the new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases during January-May 2015...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478288/exceptional-outgroup-stereotypes-and-white-racial-inequality-attitudes-toward-asian-americans
#20
Jerry Z Park, Brandon C Martinez, Ryon Cobb, Julie J Park, Erica Ryu Wong
Stereotypes of outgroups help create social identificational boundaries for ingroups. When the ingroup is dominant, members employ individualist sentiments to justify their status. In this study, we build on advances in social psychological research that account for multiple outgroup stereotypes. We argue the Asian American model minority stereotype is analogous to the "cold but competent" position of perceptions toward Asians in Fiske's stereotype content model. Asian Americans are perceived to be exceptional to other minority groups, and we hypothesize that perceived competence is associated with individualist sentiments directed at Blacks and Latinos...
December 2015: Social Psychology Quarterly
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