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Attitudes advance directives

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133281/should-medical-assistance-in-dying-be-extended-to-incompetent-patients-with-dementia-research-protocol-of-a-survey-among-four-groups-of-stakeholders-from-quebec-canada
#1
Gina Bravo, Claudie Rodrigue, Vincent Thériault, Marcel Arcand, Jocelyn Downie, Marie-France Dubois, Sharon Kaasalainen, Cees M Hertogh, Sophie Pautex, Lieve Van den Block
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and related disorders affect a growing number of people worldwide. Quality of life is generally good in the early stages of these diseases. However, many individuals fear living through the advanced stages. Such fears are triggering requests for medical assistance in dying (MAiD) by patients with dementia. Legislation was recently passed in Canada and the province of Quebec allowing MAiD at the explicit request of a patient who meets a set of eligibility criteria, including competence...
November 13, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129010/social-simulation-models-at-the-ethical-crossroads
#2
Pawel Sobkowicz
Computational models of group opinion dynamics are one of the most active fields of sociophysics. In recent years, advances in model complexity and, in particular, the possibility to connect these models with detailed data describing individual behaviors, preferences and activities, have opened the way for the simulations to describe quantitatively selected, real world social systems. The simulations could be then used to study 'what-if' scenarios for opinion change campaigns, political, ideological or commercial...
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112876/factors-influencing-attitudes-toward-advance-directives-in-korean-older-adults
#3
Ji Eun Lee, Dong Wook Shin, Ki Young Son, Hyun Jung Park, Jae-Young Lim, Mi Soon Song, Yeon-Hwan Park, BeLong Cho
AIM: We aimed to determine the factors influencing attitudes toward advance directives in Korean older adults with consideration of an Asian cultural background. METHODS: We recruited community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older at a regional senior welfare center in Korea. Demographic factors and mental and physical health status were examined using questionnaires and a physical examination. The questionnaire also assessed perceived necessity of advance directives and related experiences...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110888/-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-health-professionals-towards-advance-directives
#4
Juan Miguel Aguilar-Sánchez, María José Cabañero-Martínez, Francisca Puerta Fernández, Mireia Ladios-Martín, José Fernández-de-Maya, Julio Cabrero-García
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the degree of knowledge and attitudes of medical and nursing professionals in two health departments to advance directives, as well as to examine their association with the sociodemographic and occupational variables of the professionals. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on 329 health professionals was carried out through the internet and a standardised procedure. The knowledge and attitudes of the professionals about advance directives were examined using two validated questionnaires of 17 and 12 items, respectively...
October 27, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059407/state-level-support-for-tobacco-21-laws-results-of-a-5-state-survey
#5
Stephanie R Morain, Arthur Garson, Jean L Raphael
Introduction: Legal strategies to raise the minimum age of purchase for tobacco from 18 to 21, known as "Tobacco 21 laws" are a promising means to reduce adolescent tobacco initiation and use. Tobacco 21 laws are enacted at the local and state level, yet prior studies have examined national support. To address this gap, we assessed attitudes of residents in five states toward Tobacco 21 laws, and how attitudes varied by demographic, political, and health status characteristics. Methods: The data are derived from the 2016 Texas Medical Center (TMC) Consumer Health Report, a survey of 5,007 adults from five states: California, Florida, Ohio, New York, and Texas...
September 15, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057254/learning-to-drive-safely-reasonable-expectations-and-future-directions-for-the-learner-period
#6
Bruce Simons-Morton, Johnathon P Ehsani
The young driver problem is typified by high crash rates early in licensure that decline with experience, but are higher initially and decline more slowly for the youngest novices. Despite considerable effort, only Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) policies have been shown to improve novice young driver safety outcomes. Unfortunately, GDLS policies are mostly limited to countries with a relatively young licensure age. Meanwhile, it is not entirely clear how GDLS and other young driver transportation safety efforts, including driver training and testing, supervised practice and parental management of young drivers, can best be configured...
December 2016: Safety (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988561/discussing-advance-care-planning-insights-from-older-people-living-in-nursing-homes-and-from-family-members
#7
Francesca Ingravallo, Veronica Mignani, Elena Mariani, Giovanni Ottoboni, Marie Christine Melon, Rabih Chattat
BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning when and in which manner older people living in nursing homes (NHs) would prefer to discuss advance care planning (ACP) is still scarce. This study explored the attitudes of NH residents and family members toward ACP and their opinions as to the right time to broach the subject, the manner in which it should be approached, and the content of ACP. METHODS: This was a qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 30 residents (age range 66-94), and 10 family members from 4 Italian NHs...
October 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972514/assisting-vulnerable-communities-canyon-ranch-institute-s-and-health-literacy-media-s-health-literacy-and-community-based-interventions
#8
Andrew Pleasant
Canyon Ranch Institute and Health Literacy Media are a 501(c)3 non-profit public charity working to improve health based on the best evidence-based practices of health literacy and integrative health. As an organization, we offer a spectrum of health literacy work extending from plain language services to intensive community-based interventions. (See www.canyoranchinstitute.org & www.healthliteracy.media) In this chapter, we discuss the methodologies and outcomes of two of those community-based interventions - the Canyon Ranch Institute Life Enhancement Program and our Theater for Health program...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957353/sources-of-implicit-and-explicit-intergroup-race-bias-among-african-american-children-and-young-adults
#9
Bentley L Gibson, Philippe Rochat, Erin B Tone, Andrew S Baron
Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development, are typically pro-ingroup, and remain stable across the lifespan. Such findings have been interpreted in terms of an automatic ingroup bias similar to what is observed with minimal groups paradigms. These studies are typically conducted with groups of high cultural standing (e.g., Caucasians in North America and Europe). Research conducted among culturally lower status groups (e.g., African-Americans, Latino-Americans) reveals a notable absence of an implicit ingroup bias...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865870/outcomes-that-define-successful-advance-care-planning-a-delphi-panel-consensus
#10
Rebecca L Sudore, Daren K Heyland, Hillary D Lum, Judith A C Rietjens, Ida J Korfage, Christine S Ritchie, Laura C Hanson, Diane E Meier, Steven Z Pantilat, Karl Lorenz, Michelle Howard, Michael J Green, Jessica E Simon, Mariko A Feuz, John J You
CONTEXT: Standardized outcomes that define successful advance care planning (ACP) are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To create an Organizing Framework of ACP outcome constructs and rate the importance of these outcomes. METHODS: This study convened a Delphi panel consisting of 52 multidisciplinary, international ACP experts including clinicians, researchers, and policy leaders from four countries. We conducted literature reviews and solicited attendee input from 5 international ACP conferences to identify initial ACP outcome constructs...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842378/end-of-life-discussions-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#11
Kathleen A Young, Margaret M Redfield, Jacob J Strand, Shannon M Dunlay
BACKGROUND: Although guidelines call on clinicians to conduct regular conversations about advance care planning and end-of-life (EOL) preferences with patients with heart failure (HF), research suggests that physicians often avoid these discussions. METHODS AND RESULTS: From January 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016, Southeastern Minnesota residents hospitalized with acute decompensated HF (ADHF) at Mayo Clinic hospitals were enrolled into an observational cohort study that included the administration of face-to-face questionnaires...
November 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776383/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-without-advanced-fibrosis-after-hcv-eradication-antiviral-treatment
#12
Yolanda Sánchez-Torrijos, Jara Eloísa Ternero Vega, Carmen Cepeda Franco
From the last few years, hepatitis C virus and the new direct antiviral treatments are being more and more important. In consequence, case studies like the one we present, the appearance of hepatocelullar carcinoma after its eradication with fibrosis grade 2, are getting special interest. In 2007, our patient was treated with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin, having a sustained virological response after it. In this way, liver fibrosis grade 2 was confirmed by a biopsy. Finally, after corroborating a good liver functioning, the patient was discharged (as, according to the guidebooks, an ultrasound scan of screeing every 6 months was not required)...
October 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760795/workforce-characteristics-and-interventions-associated-with-high-quality-care-and-support-to-older-people-with-cancer-a-systematic-review
#13
Jackie Bridges, Grace Lucas, Theresa Wiseman, Peter Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the evidence base on the effectiveness of workforce interventions for improving the outcomes for older people with cancer, as well as analysing key features of the workforce associated with those improvements. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for primary research, published in English, reporting on older people and cancer and the outcomes of interventions to improve workforce knowledge, attitudes or skills; involving a change in workforce composition and/or skill mix; and/or requiring significant workforce reconfiguration or new roles...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724363/comparing-patient-and-healthcare-worker-experiences-during-a-dengue-outbreak-in-singapore-understanding-the-patient-journey-and-the-introduction-of-a-point-of-care-test-poct-toward-better-care-delivery
#14
Qinghui Tan, Zoe J-L Hildon, Shweta Singh, Jin Jing, Tun Linn Thein, Richard Coker, Hubertus J M Vrijhoef, Yee Sin Leo
BACKGROUND: In the aftermath of an upsurge in the number of dengue cases in 2013 and 2014, the SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo rapid diagnostic Point-of-Care Test (POCT) kit was introduced in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore in June 2013. It is known that the success of POCT usage is contingent on its implementation within the health system. We evaluated health services delivery and the Dengue Duo rapid diagnostic test kit application in Singapore from healthcare workers' perspectives and patient experiences of dengue at surge times...
July 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716621/health-care-professionals-attitudes-about-physician-assisted-death-an-analysis-of-their-justifications-and-the-roles-of-terminology-and-patient-competency
#15
Derek W Braverman, Brian S Marcus, Paul G Wakim, Mark R Mercurio, Gary S Kopf
CONTEXT: Health care professionals (HCPs) are crucial to physician-assisted death (PAD) provision. OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively assess the favorability of justifications for or against PAD legalization among HCPs, the effect of the terms "suicide" and "euthanasia" on their views and their support for three forms of PAD. METHODS: Our questionnaire presented three cases: physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia for a competent patient, and euthanasia for an incompetent patient with an advance directive for euthanasia...
October 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676293/attitudes-toward-advance-directives-among-patients-and-their-family-members-in-china
#16
Lin Kang, Xiao-Hong Liu, Jing Zhang, Pei-Yan Shan, Jie-Ping Wang, Ping Zhong, Xiao-Hong Du, Yu-Feng Du, Bao-Cheng Yu, Nan Wei, Hui-Ling Lou, Ou Bian, Huai-Hong Chen, Fan Lin, Hong-Lian Zhou, Wen He, Huai-Cong Long, Lu-Rong Hong, Hui Su, Jun-Nan Yang, Yong-Liang Jiang, Ye Shi, Jing Ning, Fang Liang, Zhong Wang, Ting Gong, Ming-Lei Zhu, Xiao-Hong Ning, Zhi-Jun Chen, Liang-Kung Chen
OBJECTIVES: Chinese people are generally unfamiliar with the concept of advance care planning or advance directives (ACP/ADs), which raises dilemmas in life-support choice and can even affect clinical decision making. To understand and address the issues involved better, we investigated the awareness of ACP/ADs in China, as well as people's attitudes toward medical autonomy and end-of-life care. DESIGN: A multicenter cross-sectional survey, conducted from August 1 to December 31, 2016...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637730/the-relationship-between-physician-burnout-and-quality-of-healthcare-in-terms-of-safety-and-acceptability-a-systematic-review
#17
Carolyn S Dewa, Desmond Loong, Sarah Bonato, Lucy Trojanowski
OBJECTIVES: This study reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to physician burnout and two quality of care dimensions. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question, 'How does physician burnout affect the quality of healthcare related to the dimensions of acceptability and safety?' DESIGN: Using a multiphase screening process, this systematic literature review is based on publically available peer-reviewed studies published between 2002 and 2017...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551477/an-evaluation-of-approaches-used-to-teach-quality-improvement-to-pre-registration-healthcare-professionals-an-integrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Lorraine Armstrong, Ashley Shepherd, Fiona Harris
BACKGROUND: Improving the quality of healthcare remains central to UK and international policy, practice and research. In 2003, The Institute of Medicine's 'Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality', advocated quality improvement as a core competency for all healthcare professionals. As a result, developing capacity and capability of those applying improvement methodologies in the pre-registration population has risen, yet, little is known about the teaching approaches employed for this purpose...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523117/evaluation-of-pediatric-residents-attitudes-toward-ethical-conflict-a-cross-sectional-study-in-tehran-iran
#19
Maliheh Kadivar, Marjan Mardani-Hamooleh, Shiva Shayestefar
Ethical conflicts are recognized as critical aspects in assessing competence in clinical communication. Moreover, pediatrics residents may face more problems, compared to other disciplines; due to the specific characteristics of the age group receiving services as well as the presence of their families. This study has been conducted with the aim of determining the attitude and perspective of pediatric residents toward ethical conflicts in the field of pediatrics. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on all residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (90 residents), selected through census method, in 2014...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491126/developing-obstetric-medicine-training-in-latin-america
#20
José Rojas-Suarez, Niza Suarez, Oier Ateka-Barrutia
Maternal mortality is an important indicator of health in populations around the world. The distribution of maternal mortality ratio globally shows that middle- and low-income countries have ∼99% of the mortality burden. Most countries of Latin America are considered to be middle- or low-income countries, as well as areas of major inequities among the different social classes. Medical problems in pregnancy remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this region. Previous data indicate the need for a call to action for adequate diagnosis and care of medical diseases in obstetric care...
March 2017: Obstetric Medicine
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