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Attitudes advance directives

Stephanie T Lanza, Sara A Vasilenko, Michael A Russell
Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM), a statistical approach that enables researchers to estimate dynamic associations between variables across time, holds enormous potential to advance behavioral research. TVEM can address innovative questions about processes that unfold across different levels of time. We present a conceptual introduction to the approach and demonstrate 4 innovative ways to approach time in TVEM to advance research on the etiology of marijuana use. First, we examine changes in associations across historical time to understand how the link between marijuana use attitudes and marijuana use behavior has shifted from 1976 to present; gender differences in the relevance of attitudes diminished over time and were no longer significant after 2004...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Julie C McDonald, Jeanne M du Manoir, Nanor Kevork, Lisa W Le, Camilla Zimmermann
PURPOSE: The purposes of the study were to assess awareness and prevalence of advance directives (ADs) among patients with advanced cancer undergoing active outpatient care and to determine factors associated with AD completion before and after the diagnosis of cancer. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumor malignancy receiving treatment at the Chemotherapy Day Unit were approached for recruitment. They completed an onsite questionnaire about completion and timing of ADs, demographic information, and perceived health; a review of their medical records was conducted to document their cancer care and co-morbidities...
October 7, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Marcus Law, Sarah Wright, Maria Mylopoulos
OBJECTIVE: To obtain a deeper understanding of community faculty members' perceptions about engagement in educational scholarship. DESIGN: One-on-one semistructured interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and subsequently analyzed. SETTING: Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive, theoretical sample of 8 physician faculty members at the University of Toronto. METHODS: Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach...
September 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Jeanine Yonashiro-Cho, Sarah Cote, Susan Enguidanos
Although advance care planning (ACP) is associated with better care at the end of life, better quality of death, and less psychological distress in survivors, ethnic disparities in ACP completion rates have been documented and may be attributable to lack of knowledge about ACP or differences in cultural values and preferences. Despite rapid increases in the size of the Asian-American population, little is known about ACP preferences of Chinese Americans. The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of older Chinese Americans toward ACP...
September 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Lars Schröder, Gerhard Hommel, Stephan Sahm
BACKGROUND: Despite a recent statutory ruling stating the binding nature of advance directives (ADs), only a minority of the population has signed one. Yet, a majority deem it of utmost importance to ensure their wishes are followed through in case they are no longer able to decide. The reasons for this discrepancy have not yet been investigated sufficiently. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This article is based on a survey of patients using a well-established structured questionnaire...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Qiu Zhang, Chuanbo Xie, Shanghang Xie, Qing Liu
Advance directives (ADs) have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients' quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
B Keith Payne, Kent M Lee, Matteo Giletta, Mitchell J Prinstein
OBJECTIVE: Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predict drinking among adults and adolescents. If implicit attitudes reflected associations learned through direct experience with drinking, then they would likely only predict drinking among individuals who have previously consumed alcohol. In contrast, if implicit attitudes reflected indirect experience through social messages, they might also then predict future drinking, even among individuals with no drinking experience. In this study, we tested whether implicit attitudes would predict initiation of drinking for the first time, and whether parents' and friends' norms toward alcohol would influence the development of implicit attitudes...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Wongsa Laohasiriwong, Roshan Kumar Mahato, Rajendra Koju
INTRODUCTION: Health system delay is the time for complete diagnosis of the disease after patient approaches a health care provider. AIM: The study aims to identify the characteristics and the determinants of unacceptable health system delay (≥ 7 days delay from health system) in diagnosis of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending in Direct Observation Treatment Short course (DOTS) centers of Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted by administrating a structured questionnaire interview and reviewing the medical record of the new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases during January-May 2015...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Jerry Z Park, Brandon C Martinez, Ryon Cobb, Julie J Park, Erica Ryu Wong
Stereotypes of outgroups help create social identificational boundaries for ingroups. When the ingroup is dominant, members employ individualist sentiments to justify their status. In this study, we build on advances in social psychological research that account for multiple outgroup stereotypes. We argue the Asian American model minority stereotype is analogous to the "cold but competent" position of perceptions toward Asians in Fiske's stereotype content model. Asian Americans are perceived to be exceptional to other minority groups, and we hypothesize that perceived competence is associated with individualist sentiments directed at Blacks and Latinos...
December 2015: Social Psychology Quarterly
Grace W K Ho
The purpose of this article is to compare and discuss the use of Likert-type scales and Q-methodology to examine perceptions and attitudes in nursing research. This article provides a brief review of each approach, and how they have been used to advance our knowledge in health-related perceptions and attitudes. Although Likert-type scales are economical, efficient, and easy to analyze, the results can be difficult to interpret or translate into meaningful practice. In contrast, Q-methodology yields holistic and in-depth information on what the prevailing perceptions and attitudes are, but its conduct is logistically challenging and the results' generalizability can be limited...
July 24, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Rebecca Carabez, Megan Scott
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We used a question from the Healthcare Equality Index to explore nurses' knowledge and understanding of medical advance directives, medical power of attorney and other legal documents for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender patients. BACKGROUND: Until the landmark ruling in Obergefell vs. Hodges, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals and same-sex couples have had limited relationship rights as only a few states recognised marriages and provided legal protections for same-sex couples...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Sung Ae Kwon, Stacey Kolomer
As ethical issues arise concerning the continuation of futile medical treatment for dying patients in Korean society, advance directive planning initiatives have been put into place to guide practice. This article describes the awareness and attitudes of social workers in Korea regarding advance care planning and related factors. A total of 246 gerontological/geriatric social workers completed a mailed or in-person survey regarding awareness and attitudes toward advance care planning. Seventy-three percent (n = 180) of the participants reported no knowledge of advance directives...
August 2016: Social Work in Health Care
Barbara A Elliott, Charles E Gessert
PURPOSE: Recent nephrology literature focuses on the need for discussions regarding advance care planning (ACP) for people living with dialysis (PWD). PWD and their family members' attitudes toward ACP and other aspects of late-life decision making were assessed in this qualitative study. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-one interviews were completed with 20 PWD over the age of 70 (mean dialysis 34 months) and 11 family members, related to life experiences, making medical decisions, and planning for the future...
2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Christoph Steinert, Tilman Steinert, Erich Flammer, Susanne Jaeger
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN-CRPD) aims at stimulating profound changes and social development in many areas of the society. We wanted to examine the impact of the convention on mental health care research up to now by a systematic review. METHODS: We searched relevant electronic databases for empirical studies from the area of mental health which focused directly on the content of the UN-CRPD. RESULTS: One thousand six hundred ten articles were screened, 36 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and came from 22 different countries...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Kathleen Moreo, Laurence Greene, Tamar Sapir
In the U.S., suboptimal care quality for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reflected by high rates of emergency department visits and hospital readmissions, as well as excessive costs. Moreover, a substantial proportion of COPD patients do not receive guideline-directed therapies. In quality improvement (QI) programs, these types of health care problems are commonly addressed through interventions that primarily or exclusively support physicians in aligning their practices with guidelines and clinical quality measures...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
K Umgelter, J Landscheidt, K Jäger, M Blobner, E Kochs
BACKGROUND: Perioperative care demands consideration of individual treatment goals. We evaluated the attitudes of medical staff towards a short standardized advance directive (SSAD) as a means of improving patient-orientated care at the transition from operating theater to general or intensive care wards. METHOD: Multicenter anonymized standardized multiple-choice questionnaire among physicians and nurses from various operative and anesthesiology departments. Questions addressing demographic parameters and attitudes towards advance directives in acute care settings (eleven 4‑stepped Likert items)...
July 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Hye-Min Lee
This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie...
April 2016: Ŭi Sahak
Vyjeyanthi S Periyakoil, Helena Kraemer, Eric Neri
BACKGROUND: As aid-in-dying laws are gaining more public acceptance and support, it is important to understand diverse perceptions toward physician-assisted death (PAD). We compare attitudes of residents from California and Hawaii to identify variables that may predict attitudes toward PAD. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 1095 participants (a 75.8% survey completion rate) from California and 819 from Hawaii (a 78.4% survey completion rate). Data were collected between July through October 2015...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
S Elmeadawy, C Fitzner, F Elsner, C G Dietrich
BACKGROUND: In September 2009 a new legislation for advance care planning was introduced in Germany with the important characteristics of bindingness and unlimited validity for individual directives. Knowledge regarding this act and the attitude towards its characteristics among patients is unclear. AIM OF THIS STUDY: Analysis of knowledge, attitude and opinion of patients in a general internal medical department regarding advance care planning in general and the recent German legislation...
June 7, 2016: Der Schmerz
Ru-Jun Zheng, Yan Fu, Qiu-Fen Xiang, Mei Yang, Lin Chen, Ying-Kang Shi, Chun-Hua Yu, Jun-Ying Li
PURPOSE: Many cancer patients do not have advance directives (ADs), which may lead to unwanted excessive or aggressive care when patients have lost decision-making capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes of approving ADs and explore factors associated with willing to designate ADs among cancer patients in China. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interview method investigating 753 in-patients with cancer in two cancer centers...
October 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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