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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538469/an-assessment-of-the-clinical-acceptability-of-direct-acoustic-cochlear-implantation-for-adults-with-advanced-otosclerosis-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Pádraig Thomas Kitterick, Guna Reddy-Kolanu, David Baguley, Jeremey Lavy, Peter Monksfield, Rupan Banga, Jaydip Ray, Ad Snik, Gerard M O'Donoghue
HYPOTHESIS: Assess the clinical acceptability of direct acoustic cochlear implantation for patients with advanced otosclerosis and the support for conducting a controlled trial of its effectiveness in the United Kingdom. BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence supports the efficacy of direct acoustic cochlear implantation in patients with advanced otosclerosis whose needs cannot be managed using the combination of stapes surgery and hearing aids. A controlled trial would provide evidence for its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to healthcare commissioners...
May 22, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538186/an-engineered-virus-library-as-a-resource-for-the-spectrum-wide-exploration-of-virus-and-vector-diversity
#2
Wenli Zhang, Jun Fu, Jing Liu, Hailong Wang, Maren Schiwon, Sebastian Janz, Lukas Schaffarczyk, Lukas von der Goltz, Eric Ehrke-Schulz, Johannes Dörner, Manish Solanki, Philip Boehme, Thorsten Bergmann, Andre Lieber, Chris Lauber, Andreas Dahl, Andreas Petzold, Youming Zhang, A Francis Stewart, Anja Ehrhardt
Adenoviruses (Ads) are large human-pathogenic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses presenting an enormous natural diversity associated with a broad variety of diseases. However, only a small fraction of adenoviruses has been explored in basic virology and biomedical research, highlighting the need to develop robust and adaptable methodologies and resources. We developed a method for high-throughput direct cloning and engineering of adenoviral genomes from different sources utilizing advanced linear-linear homologous recombination (LLHR) and linear-circular homologous recombination (LCHR)...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537986/an-update-on-lupus-animal-models
#3
Wei Li, Anton A Titov, Laurence Morel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complexity and heterogeneity of the clinical presentation in systemic lupus of erythematosus (SLE), combined to the inherent limitations of clinical research, have made it difficult to investigate the cause of this disease directly in patients. Various mouse models have been developed to dissect the cellular and genetic mechanisms of SLE, as well as to identify therapeutic targets and to screen treatments. The purpose of this review is to summarize the major spontaneous and induced mouse models of SLE and to provide an update on the major advances they have contributed to the field...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535104/measuring-the-value-of-new-drugs-validity-and-reliability-of-4-value-assessment-frameworks-in-the-oncology-setting
#4
Tanya G K Bentley, Joshua T Cohen, Elena B Elkin, Julie Huynh, Arnab Mukherjea, Thanh H Neville, Matthew Mei, Ronda Copher, Russell Knoth, Ioana Popescu, Jackie Lee, Jenelle M Zambrano, Michael S Broder
BACKGROUND: Several organizations have developed frameworks to systematically assess the value of new drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the convergent validity and interrater reliability of 4 value frameworks to understand the extent to which these tools can facilitate value-based treatment decisions in oncology. METHODS: Eight panelists used the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) frameworks to conduct value assessments of 15 drugs for advanced lung and breast cancers and castration-refractory prostate cancer...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535069/monolithic-ingaas-nanowire-array-lasers-on-silicon-on-insulator-operating-at-room-temperature
#5
Hyunseok Kim, Wook-Jae Lee, Alan Cervantes Farrell, Juan S D Morales, Pradeep Nuwan Senanayake, Sergey V Prikhodko, Tomasz Ochalski, Diana L Huffaker
Chip-scale integrated light sources are a crucial component in a broad range of photonics applications. III-V semiconductor nanowire emitters have gained attention as a fascinating approach due to their superior material properties, extremely compact size, and the capability to grow directly on lattice-mismatched silicon substrates. Although there have been remarkable advances in nanowire-based emitters, their practical applications are still in the early stages due to the difficulties in integrating nanowire emitters with photonic integrated circuits...
May 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534877/light-enhances-the-growth-rates-of-natural-populations-of-aerobic-anoxygenic-phototrophic-bacteria
#6
Isabel Ferrera, Olga Sánchez, Eva Kolářová, Michal Koblížek, Josep M Gasol
Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are microorganisms that can harvest light energy using bacteriochlorophyll a to supplement their predominantly organotrophic metabolism. Growth enhancement by light has repeatedly been demonstrated in laboratory experiments with AAP isolates. However, the ecological advantage of light utilization is unclear, as it has never been proven in the natural environment. Here, we conducted manipulation experiments in the NW Mediterranean and found that AAP bacteria display high growth rates which are controlled to a large extent by intense grazing pressure and phosphorous availability...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534869/advancing-precambrian-palaeomagnetism-with-the-paleomagia-and-pint-qpi-databases
#7
Toni H Veikkolainen, Andrew J Biggin, Lauri J Pesonen, David A Evans, Nicholas A Jarboe
State-of-the-art measurements of the direction and intensity of Earth's ancient magnetic field have made important contributions to our understanding of the geology and palaeogeography of Precambrian Earth. The PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases provide thorough public collections of important palaeomagnetic data of this kind. They comprise more than 4,100 observations in total and have been essential in supporting our international collaborative efforts to understand Earth's magnetic history on a timescale far longer than that of the present Phanerozoic Eon...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534706/analyses-of-thrombi-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-consensus-statement-on-current-knowledge-and-future-directions
#8
Simon F De Meyer, Tommy Andersson, Blaise Baxter, Martin Bendszus, Patrick Brouwer, Waleed Brinjikji, Bruce Cv Campbell, Vincent Costalat, Antoni Dávalos, Andrew Demchuk, Diederik Dippel, Jens Fiehler, Urs Fischer, Michael Gilvarry, Matthew J Gounis, Jan Gralla, Olav Jansen, Tudor Jovin, David Kallmes, Pooja Khatri, Kennedy R Lees, Elena López-Cancio, Charles Majoie, Henk Marquering, Ana Paula Narata, Raul Nogueira, Peter Ringleb, Adnan Siddiqui, István Szikora, David Vale, Rüdiger von Kummer, Albert J Yoo, Werner Hacke, David S Liebeskind
Limited data exist on clot composition and detailed characteristics of arterial thrombi associated with large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke. Advances in endovascular thrombectomy and related imaging modalities have created a unique opportunity to analyze thrombi removed from cerebral arteries. Insights into thrombus composition, etiology, physical properties and neurovascular interactions may lead to future advancements in acute ischemic stroke treatment and improved clinical outcomes. Advances in imaging techniques may enhance clot characterization and inform therapeutic decision-making prior to treatment and reveal stroke etiology to guide secondary prevention...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534526/impact-of-genetic-polymorphisms-determining-leukocyte-neutrophil-count-on-chemotherapy-toxicity
#9
S J Glisovic, Y D Pastore, V Gagne, M Plesa, C Laverdière, J M Leclerc, D Sinnett, M Krajinovic
Neutropenia and infection are major dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. The risk of initial infection and subsequent complications are directly related to the depth and duration of neutropenia. Recent genome-wide association studies identified variants in DARC and CXCL2 genes, and in ORMDL3-GSDMA-CSF3 locus on chromosome 17q21 that influence white blood cell and neutrophil counts in healthy individuals. To investigate whether polymorphisms in these loci in conjunction with chemotherapy may modulate risk of treatment complications, we analyzed 21 SNPs across these genes for an association with chemotherapy-related neutropenia and infection in 286 Caucasian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
May 23, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534516/transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-regulation-of-hoxa13-by-lncrna-hottip-facilitates-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis-in-esophageal-squamous-carcinoma-cells
#10
C Lin, Y Wang, Y Wang, S Zhang, L Yu, C Guo, H Xu
The long non-coding RNA, HOTTIP, has an important role in tumorigenesis. It is known that HOTTIP regulates HOX gene family; however, its regulatory mechanism in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of HOTTIP in ESCC and observed that HOTTIP/HOXA13 was upregulated in ESCC and promoted cell proliferation and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, harboring a miR-30b-binding site, HOTTIP as a molecular sponge mainly regulated miR-30b level in the nucleus and modulated the repression of HOXA13 mediated by miR-30b in the cytoplasm, resulting in the positive HOTTIP/HOXA13 correlation...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534512/a-viral-microrna-downregulates-metastasis-suppressor-cd82-and-induces-cell-invasion-and-angiogenesis-by-activating-the-c-met-signaling
#11
W Li, M Hu, C Wang, H Lu, F Chen, J Xu, Y Shang, F Wang, J Qin, Q Yan, B J Krueger, R Renne, S-J Gao, C Lu
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as the most common AIDS-associated malignancy is etiologically caused by KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KS is a highly disseminated and vascularized tumor. KSHV encodes 12 pre-microRNAs that yield 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs), but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor metastasis and angiogenesis remain largely unclear. KSHV-encoded miR-K12-6 (miR-K6) can generate two mature miRNAs, miR-K6-5p and miR-K6-3p. Recently, we have shown that miR-K6-3p induced cell migration and angiogenesis via directly targeting SH3 domain binding glutamate-rich protein (SH3BGR)...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534508/utx-promotes-hormonally-responsive-breast-carcinogenesis-through-feed-forward-transcription-regulation-with-estrogen-receptor
#12
G Xie, X Liu, Y Zhang, W Li, S Liu, Z Chen, B Xu, J Yang, L He, Z Zhang, T Jin, X Yi, L Sun, Y Shang, J Liang
UTX is implicated in embryonic development and lineage specification. However, how this X-linked histone demethylase contributes to the occurrence and progression of breast cancer remains to be clarified. Here we report that UTX is physically associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and functions in ER-regulated transcription. We showed that UTX coordinates with JHDM1D and CBP to direct H3K27 methylation-acetylation transition and to create a permissive chromatin state on ER targets. Genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional targets of UTX by ChIP-seq identified a set of genes such as chemokine receptor CXCR4 that are intimately involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534506/lsd1-demethylates-hif1%C3%AE-to-inhibit-hydroxylation-and-ubiquitin-mediated-degradation-in-tumor-angiogenesis
#13
J-Y Lee, J-H Park, H-J Choi, H-Y Won, H-S Joo, D-H Shin, M K Park, B Han, K P Kim, T J Lee, C M Croce, G Kong
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), which has been considered as a potential therapeutic target in human cancer, has been known to regulate many biological functions through its non-histone substrates. Although LSD1-induced hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF1α) demethylation has recently been proposed, the effect of LSD1 on the relationship between HIF1α post-translational modifications (PTMs) and HIF1α-induced tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. Here, we identify a new methylation site of the HIF1α protein antagonized by LSD1 and the interplay between HIF1α protein methylation and other PTMs in regulating tumor angiogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534251/sequencing-of-alk-inhibitors-in-alk-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Shirish M Gadgeel
Major therapeutic advances have occurred over the last several years in the management of advanced ALK+ NSCLC patients. Crizotinib was the first agent approved for the management of ALK+ NSCLC patients after it demonstrated significantly greater clinical benefit compared to chemotherapy. Several next generation ALK inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefit in patients with crizotinib refractory NSCLC patients including in the CNS. Based on available data, therapy with a next generation ALK inhibitor can be initiated following therapy with crizotinib without any assessment of the molecular mechanisms of resistance...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533770/from-vineyard-soil-to-wine-fermentation-microbiome-approximations-to-explain-the-terroir-concept
#15
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Iratxe Zarraonaindia, Matthew Perisin, Antonio Palacios, Alberto Acedo
Wine originally emerged as a serendipitous mix of chemistry and biology, where microorganisms played a decisive role. From these ancient fermentations to the current monitored industrial processes, winegrowers and winemakers have been continuously changing their practices according to scientific knowledge and advances. A new enology direction is emerging and aiming to blend the complexity of spontaneous fermentations with industrial safety of monitored fermentations. In this context, wines with distinctive autochthonous peculiarities have a great acceptance among consumers, causing important economic returns...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533517/vortioxetine-reduces-bold-signal-during-performance-of-the-n-back-working-memory-task-a-randomised-neuroimaging-trial-in-remitted-depressed-patients-and-healthy-controls
#16
J Smith, M Browning, S Conen, R Smallman, J Buchbjerg, K G Larsen, C K Olsen, S R Christensen, G R Dawson, J F Deakin, P Hawkins, R Morris, G Goodwin, C J Harmer
Cognitive dysfunction is common in depression during both acute episodes and remission. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that has improved cognitive function including executive function in depressed patients in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, it is unclear whether vortioxetine is able to target directly the neural circuitry implicated in the cognitive deficits in depression. Remitted depressed (n=48) and healthy volunteers (n=48) were randomised to receive 14 days treatment with 20 mg vortioxetine or placebo in a double-blind design...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533463/signal-function-drives-phenotypic-and-genetic-diversity-the-effects-of-signalling-individual-identity-quality-or-behavioural-strategy
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Tibbetts, Sean P Mullen, James Dale
Animal coloration is influenced by selection pressures associated with communication. During communication, signallers display traits that inform receivers and modify receiver behaviour in ways that benefit signallers. Here, we discuss how selection on signallers to convey different kinds of information influences animal phenotypes and genotypes. Specifically, we address the phenotypic and genetic consequences of communicating three different kinds of information: individual identity, behavioural strategy and quality...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533456/colour-vision-and-coevolution-in-avian-brood-parasitism
#18
REVIEW
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Mark E Hauber
The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533311/converting-lymphoma-cells-into-potent-antigen-presenting-cells-for-interferon-induced-tumor-regression
#19
Jing Liao, Yan Luan, Zhenhua Ren, Xiaojuan Liu, Diyuan Xue, Hairong Xu, Zhichen Sun, Kaiting Yang, Hua Peng, Yang-Xin Fu
Anti-hCD20 is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is clinically used to treat B-cell lymphoma. Some lymphomas are resistant to anti-hCD20; others relapse after treatment with anti-hCD20. Using a syngeneic immunocompetent mouse model, we observed that targeting lymphoma with interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) abolished resistance of B-cell lymphoma to anti-CD20 while limiting interferon (IFN)-associated systemic toxicity in the host. Control of tumors by a fusion of anti-CD20 and IFNalpha (anti-CD20-IFNalpha) depended on existing tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells...
May 22, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533187/host-directed-therapies-offer-novel-opportunities-for-the-fight-against-tuberculosis
#20
REVIEW
Arnaud Machelart, Ok-Ryul Song, Eik Hoffmann, Priscille Brodin
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading global health problem that is exacerbated by the emergence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Control of the disease requires novel therapeutic strategies. Modulating host homeostasis appears to be a promising approach, and recent studies have identified novel potential host targets and compounds that could be investigated for host-directed therapies (HDTs). Moreover, the recent development of intracellular high-throughput phenotypic assays makes it possible to screen large libraries of compounds to identify more rapidly new effectors for mycobacterial elimination...
May 19, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
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