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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779130/the-present-and-the-future-of-genetic-testing-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-opportunities-and-caveats
#1
REVIEW
Amanda J Hooper, John R Burnett, Damon A Bell, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize recent advances in the understanding of genetic testing in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the use of expanded FH next-generation sequencing panels, and directions for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: The uptake of massively parallel sequencing in research and diagnostic laboratories has enabled expanded testing for FH and its phenocopies, with the added advantage that copy number variants can be detected. However, increasing the number of genes tested increases the number of variants detected, which may or may not be pathogenic...
May 19, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779083/identifying-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-advanced-fibrosis-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#2
Yuval A Patel, Elizabeth J Gifford, Lisa M Glass, Marsha J Turner, Byungjoo Han, Cynthia A Moylan, Steve Choi, Ayako Suzuki, Dawn Provenzale, Christine M Hunt
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Severe NAFLD with advanced fibrosis results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Associated with metabolic syndrome, NAFLD is often initially clinically silent, yet intensive lifestyle intervention with 7% or greater weight loss can improve or resolve NAFLD. Using a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) liver biopsy cohort, we evaluated simple noninvasive fibrosis scoring systems to identify NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (or severe disease) to assist providers...
May 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779065/digital-technologies-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-recent-innovations-and-future-directions
#3
REVIEW
Joseph Firth, John Torous, Rebekah Carney, Jill Newby, Theodore D Cosco, Helen Christensen, Jerome Sarris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on "first-generation" e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778978/tough-love-accommodating-intracellular-bacteria-through-directed-secretion-of-antimicrobial-peptides-during-the-nitrogen-fixing-symbiosis
#4
REVIEW
Christina Stonoha-Arther, Dong Wang
The symbiosis formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria with plant hosts mainly in the legume family involves a very intimate interaction. Within the symbiotic organ (the nodule) the bacteria are fully internalized by the host cell to become an intracellular organelle surrounded by a host-derived membrane. This arrangement is probably necessary for the efficient provision of energy and the sequestration of free oxygen molecules, two conditions required for sustained nitrogen fixation. Recent advances made in model legume species, such as Medicago truncatula, are beginning to uncover the genetic components allowing rhizobia to access the host cytoplasm and establish chronic intracellular infections without overt detrimental effects...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778895/therapeutic-antibody-directed-osteogenic-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-mscs
#5
Qingqing Wu, Bo Yang, Cong Cao, Kevin Hu, Ping Wang, Yi Man
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are regarded as a new cell source for regenerative medicine. Recent advances in tissue engineering have brought to light the therapeutic application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in bone defect repair. However, a safe and efficient way to differentiate iPSCs into osteogenic lineage remains to be a major challenge. Here we describe an approach using anti-BMP2 antibodies (Abs) to mediate osteogenic differentiation of iPSC-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (iMSCs)...
May 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778754/exosome-mediated-mir-222-transferring-an-insight-into-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-breast-cancer-metastasis
#6
Jiaji Ding, Zhi Xu, Yanyan Zhang, Chunli Tan, Weizi Hu, Mei Wang, Yong Xu, Jinhai Tang
The subtypes of distant-organ metastasis led to treatment failure and poor prognosis are major obstacles in the management of patients with advanced breast cancer (BCa). Emerging evidences demonstrated that exosomes act as mediators for intercellular communication between various types of cells in the local tumor microenvironment. The present study aims to investigate whether BCa-derived exosomes are capable of cell-cell transferring miR-222 for BCa metastatic progression. Results showed that exosomal miR-222 is highly expressed in BCa patients with lymphatic metastasis...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778545/a-descriptive-model-for-a-multidisciplinary-unit-for-colorectal-and-pelvic-malformations
#7
Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Devin R Halleran, Carlos A Reck-Burneo, Alessandra C Gasior, Laura Weaver, Meghan Fisher, Andrea Wagner, Onnalisa Nash, Kristina Booth, Kaleigh Peters, Charae Williams, Sarah Mayer Brown, Peter Lu, Molly Fuchs, Karen Diefenbach, Jeffrey R Leonard, Geri Hewitt, Kate McCracken, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Richard J Wood, Marc A Levitt
INTRODUCTION: Patients with anorectal malformations (ARM), Hirschsprung disease (HD), and colonic motility disorders often require care from specialists across a variety of fields, including colorectal surgery, urology, gynecology, and GI motility. We sought to describe the process of creating a collaborative process for the care of these complex patients. METHODS: We developed a model of a devoted center for these conditions that includes physicians, psychologists, social workers, nurses, and advanced practice nurses...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778422/sp1-induced-upregulation-of-lncrna-pandar-predicts-adverse-phenotypes-in-retinoblastoma-and-regulates-cell-growth-and-apoptosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Lijie Sheng, Jing Wu, Xuewu Gong, Duo Dong, Xiaoxue Sun
Retinoblastoma (RB) is an intraocular malignancy for children and has a high mortality rate. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as gene regulators and biomarkers in various malignancies. PANDAR is a novel cancer-related lncRNA that dysregulated in several types of cancers. However, its clinical value and potential effects on RB remains unclear. RT-qPCR was used to assess the relative expression of PANDAR in RB tissues and cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays were performed to investigate whether SP1 could bind to the promoter region of PANDAR and activate its transcription...
May 17, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778266/estimation-of-hepatitis-c-disease-burden-and-budget-impact-of-treatment-using-health-economic-modeling
#9
REVIEW
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Qiushi Chen, Rakesh Aggarwal
Oral direct-acting antiviral agents have revolutionized treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Nonetheless, barriers exist to elimination of HCV as a public health threat including low uptake of treatment, limited budget allocations for HCV treatment, and low awareness rates of HCV status among infected people. Mathematical modeling provides a systematic framework to analyze and compare potential solutions and elimination strategies by simulating the HCV epidemic under different conditions. Such models evaluate impact of interventions in advance of implementation...
June 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778222/exploring-dinoflagellate-biology-with-high-throughput-proteomics
#10
REVIEW
David Morse, Sirius P K Tse, Samuel C L Lo
Dinoflagellates are notorious for their ability to form the harmful algal blooms known as "red tides," yet the mechanisms underlying bloom formation remain poorly understood. Despite recent advances in nucleic acid sequencing, which have generated transcriptomes from a wide range of species exposed to a variety of different conditions, measuring changes in RNA levels have not generally produced great insight into dinoflagellate cell biology or environmental physiology, nor do we have a thorough grasp on the molecular events underpinning bloom formation...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778002/plasmonic-colorimetric-sensors-based-on-etching-and-growth-of-noble-metal-nanoparticles-strategies-and-applications
#11
REVIEW
Zhiyang Zhang, Han Wang, Zhaopeng Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Jaebum Choo, Lingxin Chen
Plasmonic colorimetric sensors have emerged as a powerful tool in chemical and biological sensing applications due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction in the visible range. Among the plasmonic sensors, the most famous sensing mode is the "aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor which is based on plasmon coupling due to nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, this review focuses on the newly-developing plasmonic colorimetric sensing mode - the etching or the growth of metal nanoparticles induces plasmon changes, namely, "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor...
May 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777828/mutual-connectivity-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-mri-data-with-local-models
#12
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Udaysankar Chockanathan, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
Functional connectivity analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) can represent brain networks and reveal insights into interactions amongst different brain regions. However, most connectivity analysis approaches adopted in practice are linear and non-directional. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantage of a data-driven, directed connectivity analysis approach called Mutual Connectivity Analysis using Local Models (MCA-LM) that approximates connectivity by modeling nonlinear dependencies of signal interaction, over more conventionally used approaches, such as Pearson's and partial correlation, Patel's conditional dependence measures, etcetera...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777596/morphological-analysis-of-pore-size-and-connectivity-in-a-thick-mixed-culture-biofilm
#13
Alex F Rosenthal, James S Griffin, Michael Wagner, Aaron I Packman, Oluwaseyi Balogun, George F Wells
Morphological parameters are commonly used to predict transport and metabolic kinetics in biofilms. Yet, quantification of biofilm morphology remains challenging due to imaging technology limitations and lack of robust analytical approaches. We present a novel set of imaging and image analysis techniques to estimate internal porosity, pore size distributions, and pore network connectivity to a depth of 1 mm at a resolution of 10 µm in a biofilm exhibiting both heterotrophic and nitrifying activity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans revealed an extensive pore network with diameters as large as 110 µm directly connected to the biofilm surface and surrounding fluid...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777398/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#14
REVIEW
Brittany N Lasseigne, James D Brooks
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer and includes several molecular and histological subtypes with different clinical characteristics. While survival rates are high if RCC is diagnosed when still confined to the kidney and treated definitively, there are no specific diagnostic screening tests available and symptoms are rare in early stages of the disease. Management of advanced RCC has changed significantly with the advent of targeted therapies, yet survival is usually increased by months due to acquired resistance to these therapies...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777009/feasibility-of-cxcr4-directed-radioligand-therapy-in-advanced-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#15
Constantin Lapa, Heribert Hänscheid, Malte Kircher, Andreas Schirbel, Gerd Wunderlich, Rudolf Werner, Samuel Samnick, Jörg Kotzerke, Hermann Einsele, Andreas Buck, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Götz Ulrich Grigoleit
We have recently reported on our experience with C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 4- (CXCR4-) directed radioligand therapy (RLT) in multiple myeloma and acute leukemia. Methods: Six patients with heavily pre-treated relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (3 males, 3 females; aged, 54±8 years) underwent CXCR4-directed RLT in combination with conditioning chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). In 2 patients, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) targeting CD20 or CD66 was added to enhance anti-lymphoma activity...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776701/nonstandard-advance-directives-in-emergency-medicine-what-should-we-do
#16
Kenneth V Iserson
BACKGROUND: Critically ill or injured emergency department or prehospital patients who lack decision-making capacity sometimes present with a non-standard advance directive, such as a "Do Not Resuscitate" tattoo or medallion. Emergency clinicians must immediately address the question of whether to withhold treatment based on what may or may not be a valid patient directive. DISCUSSION: Advance directives have been standardized for a good reason. Emergency department or prehospital healthcare providers must be able to immediately interpret and act on them without needing a legal interpretation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775819/facile-synthesis-of-yolk-shell-structured-monodisperse-mesoporous-organosilica-nanoparticles-by-a-mild-alkalescent-etching-approach
#17
Jun Tao, Meng Dang, Xiaodan Su, Qing Hao, Junjie Zhang, Xiaobo Ma, Guangming Lu, Yunlei Zhang, Ying Tian, Lixing Weng, Zhaogang Teng, Lianhui Wang
In the work, yolk-shell structured mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (YSMONs) are successfully prepared by a mild alkalescent etching approach. The method is very convenient, in which mesostructured organosilica nanospheres are directly transformed into yolk-shell structures after etching with mild alkalescent solution (e.g. sodium carbonate solution). The prepared YSMONs have ethane-bridged frameworks, a monodisperse diameter (320 nm), a large pore volume (1.0 cm3  g-1 ), a uniform mesopore (2.4 nm) and a high surface area (1327 m2  g-1 )...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775542/exercise-and-circulating-bdnf-mechanisms-of-release-and-implications-for-the-design-of-exercise-interventions
#18
Jeremy James Walsh, Michael E Tschakovsky
Engagement in regular bouts of exercise confers numerous positive effects on brain health across the lifespan. Acute bouts of exercise transiently improve cognitive function, while long-term exercise training stimulates brain plasticity, improves brain function, and helps to stave off neurological disease. The action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a candidate mechanism underlying these exercise-induced benefits and is the subject of considerable attention in the exercise-brain health literature...
May 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775362/highly-efficient-coherent-optical-memory-based-on-electromagnetically-induced-transparency
#19
Ya-Fen Hsiao, Pin-Ju Tsai, Hung-Shiue Chen, Sheng-Xiang Lin, Chih-Chiao Hung, Chih-Hsi Lee, Yi-Hsin Chen, Yong-Fan Chen, Ite A Yu, Ying-Cheng Chen
Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774915/donor-acceptor-type-supramolecular-polymers-on-the-basis-of-preorganized-molecular-tweezers-guest-complexation
#20
Yifei Han, Yukui Tian, Zijian Li, Feng Wang
The bottom-up self-assembly of donor-acceptor (D-A) units has received tremendous attention in recent years. Charge-transfer interactions, which are inherently embedded in D-A pairs, have suffered from some disadvantages such as erratic arrangements and weak binding affinity, thus hampering the precise arrangement of D-A units into long-range-ordered supramolecular polymers. To address this issue, a feasible protocol is to incorporate D-A units into molecular tweezers/guest recognition motifs, which concurrently feature high complexation directionality, strong binding affinity and stimuli-responsiveness...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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