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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445601/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-2-treatment-monitoring-and-prognosis
#1
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To discuss current anticonvulsant drug options and advances in treatment of status epilepticus (SE) and to review the prognosis associated with SE. TREATMENT: When treating a patient with SE, the main goals are to halt seizure activity, prevent further seizures, identify the cause of the seizures, and manage any complications. The veterinary literature indicates that benzodiazepines are the most common class of drugs used for the initial treatment of SE...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445585/c-type-starches-and-their-derivatives-structure-and-function
#2
REVIEW
Zebin Guo, Xiangze Jia, Beibei Zhao, Shaoxiao Zeng, Jianbo Xiao, Baodong Zheng
The C-type starches are widely distributed in seeds or rhizomes of various legumes, medicinal plants, and crops. These carbohydrate polymers directly affect the application of starchy plant resources. The structural and crystal properties of starches are crucial parameters of starch granules, which significantly influence their physicochemical and mechanical properties. The unique crystal structure consisting of both A- and B-type polymorphs endows C-type starches with specific crystal adjustability. Furthermore, large proportions of resistant starches and slowly digestible starches are C-type starches, which contribute to benign glycemic response and proliferation of gut microflora...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445399/advances-in-psychiatric-diagnosis-past-present-and-future
#3
EDITORIAL
Carol S North, Alina M Surís
This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy associated with it. The articles in this issue examine the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and accompanying research literature addressing the criteria...
April 26, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444998/large-population-cell-characterization-using-quantitative-phase-cytometer
#4
Di Jin, Yongjin Sung, Niyom Lue, Yang-Hyo Kim, Peter T C So, Zahid Yaqoob
A major challenge in cellular analysis is the phenotypic characterization of large cell populations within a short period of time. Among various parameters for cell characterization, the cell dry mass is often used to describe cell size but is difficult to be measured directly with traditional techniques. Here, we propose an interferometric approach based on line-focused beam illumination for high-content precision dry mass measurements of adherent cells in a non-invasive fashion-we call it quantitative phase cytometry (QPC)...
April 26, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444973/in-depth-comparative-phenotyping-of-blood-innate-myeloid-leukocytes-from-healthy-humans-and-macaques-using-mass-cytometry
#5
Jamila Elhmouzi-Younes, Jean-Louis Palgen, Nicolas Tchitchek, Simon Delandre, Inana Namet, Caroline L Bodinham, Kathleen Pizzoferro, David J M Lewis, Roger Le Grand, Antonio Cosma, Anne-Sophie Beignon
Comparative immune-profiling of innate responses in humans and non-human primates is important to understand the pathogenesis of infectious and chronic inflammatory diseases as well as for the preclinical development of vaccines and immune therapies. However, direct comparisons of the two species are rare and were never performed using mass cytometry. Here, whole-blood-derived leukocytes from healthy humans and cynomolgus macaques were analyzed with mass cytometry. Two similar panels of around 30 monoclonal antibodies targeting human markers associated with innate myeloid cells to stain fixed human and macaque leukocytes were constructed...
April 26, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444828/labeling-and-defining-severe-and-enduring-anorexia-nervosa-a-systematic-review-and-critical-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Catherine Broomfield, Kristin Stedal, Stephen Touyz, Paul Rhodes
OBJECTIVE: With anorexia nervosa (AN) having various presentations, attention has been directed towards particularly durable forms of the condition in both research and clinical contexts. A major hindrance in terms of advancing the field is the inconsistent labeling and defining of this subgroup. This has two implications; first, the inconsistent recruitment of participants when researching this sample, and second, the misdiagnosing of patients who may or may not have a durable course of the disease...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444823/dissociable-corticostriatal-circuits-underlie-goal-directed-versus-cue-elicited-habitual-food-seeking-after-satiation-evidence-from-a-multimodal-mri-study
#7
Henk van Steenbergen, Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Sanne de Wit
The present multimodal MRI study advances our understanding of the corticostriatal circuits underlying goal-directed versus cue-driven, habitual food seeking. To this end, we employed a computerized Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm. During the test phase, participants were free to perform learnt instrumental responses (left and right key presses) for popcorn and Smarties outcomes. Importantly, prior to this test half of the participants had been sated on popcorn and the other half on Smarties - resulting in a reduced desirability of those outcomes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444647/-partial-fasciectomy-and-options-of-reconstruction-using-local-flaps-in-cases-of-dupuytren-s-disease
#8
N Spindler, C Josten, S Langer
Aim: Partial fasciectomy in cases of grade III-IV Dupuytren's contracture and coverage of the defect with local flaps. Indication: Dupuytren's contracture is a progressive disease of the hand associated with the formation of fascial cords, which may result in flexion and adduction contractures of the fingers leading up to complete dysfunction of the hands. Method: If several fingers are affected, partial fasciectomy is the gold standard in the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture. Ideally, the fingers reach the neutral position after the fibres causing the contracture are resected and arthrolysis is performed as needed...
April 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444624/targeting-ntrk-fusion-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-rationale-and-clinical-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Biagio Ricciuti, Marta Brambilla, Giulio Metro, Sara Baglivo, Roberta Matocci, Matteo Pirro, Rita Chiari
In the era of personalized medicine, the identification of targetable genetic alterations represented a major step forward in anticancer therapy. NTRK rearrangements represent the molecular driver of a subset of solid tumors, including 3% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Preliminary data indicate that molecularly selected NSCLC patients harboring NTRK fusions derive an unprecedented clinical benefit from Trk-directed targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to describe the molecular biology of NTRK signaling pathway and to summarize the preclinical data on novel Trk inhibitors, touching upon the clinical development of these inhibitors for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, which have already shown encouraging anticancer activity and acceptable safety profile in early phase I clinical trials...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444557/overview-on-the-current-status-of-zika-virus-pathogenesis-and-animal-related-research
#10
REVIEW
Shashank S Pawitwar, Supurna Dhar, Sneham Tiwari, Chet Raj Ojha, Jessica Lapierre, Kyle Martins, Alexandra Rodzinski, Tiyash Parira, Iru Paudel, Jiaojiao Li, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Monica R Silva, Ajeet Kaushik, Nazira El-Hage
There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is linked with activation of Guillan-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults infected with the virus and microcephaly in infants following maternal infection. With the recent outpour in publications by numerous research labs, the association between microcephaly in newborns and ZIKV has become very apparent in which large numbers of viral particles were found in the central nervous tissue of an electively aborted microcephalic ZIKV-infected fetus. However, the underlying related mechanisms remain poorly understood...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444396/circadian-impairment-of-distal-skin-temperature-rhythm-in-patients-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-the-effect-of-cpap
#11
Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Marc Guaita, Joan Santamaría, Josep M Montserrat, María Ángeles Rol, Juan Antonio Madrid
Study objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the circadian rhythm of distal skin temperature (DST) in Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB), its relation to excessive daytime sleepiness and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on DST. Methods: Eighty SDB patients (53.1±1.2 years old, 27.6% women) and 67 healthy subjects (52.3±1.6 years old, 26.9% women) wore a temperature data logger for one week. On the last day of that week, SDB patients underwent a polysomnography followed by a Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) protocol to objectively quantify daytime sleepiness...
April 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443560/advances-in-nutrition-of-the-newborn-infant
#12
REVIEW
Jane E Harding, Barbara E Cormack, Tanith Alexander, Jane M Alsweiler, Frank H Bloomfield
Nutrition of newborn infants, particularly of those born preterm, has advanced substantially in recent years. Extremely preterm infants have high nutrient demands that are challenging to meet, such that growth faltering is common. Inadequate growth is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and although improved early growth is associated with better cognitive outcomes, there might be a trade-off in terms of worse metabolic outcomes, although the contribution of early nutrition to these associations is not established...
April 22, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443559/the-evolution-of-modern-respiratory-care-for-preterm-infants
#13
REVIEW
Louise S Owen, Brett J Manley, Peter G Davis, Lex W Doyle
Preterm birth rates are rising, and many preterm infants have breathing difficulty after birth. Treatments for infants with prolonged breathing difficulty include oxygen therapy, exogenous surfactant, various modes of respiratory support, and postnatal corticosteroids. In this Series paper, we review the history of neonatal respiratory care and its effect on long-term outcomes, and we outline the future direction of the research field. The delivery and monitoring of oxygen therapy remains controversial, despite being in use for more than 50 years...
April 22, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443125/viral-vectors-for-plant-genome-engineering
#14
REVIEW
Syed Shan-E-Ali Zaidi, Shahid Mansoor
Recent advances in genome engineering (GE) has made it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in plant cells, providing specifically engineered plants with traits of interest. Gene targeting efficiency depends on the delivery-method of both sequence-specific nucleases and repair templates, to plant cells. Typically, this is achieved using Agrobacterium mediated transformation or particle bombardment, both of which transform only a subset of cells in treated tissues. The alternate in planta approaches, stably integrating nuclease-encoding cassettes and repair templates into the plant genome, are time consuming, expensive and require extra regulations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442990/spatiotemporal-and-long-lasting-modulation-of-11-key-nogo-signaling-genes-in-response-to-strong-neuroexcitation
#15
Tobias E Karlsson, Katrin Wellfelt, Lars Olson
Inhibition of nerve growth and plasticity in the CNS is to a large part mediated by Nogo-like signaling, now encompassing a plethora of ligands, receptors, co-receptors and modulators. Here we describe the distribution and levels of mRNA encoding 11 key genes involved in Nogo-like signaling (Nogo-A, Oligodendrocyte-Myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1), NgR2, NgR3, Lingo-1, TNF receptor orphan Y (Troy), Olfactomedin, Lateral olfactory tract usher substance (Lotus) and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MT3-MPP)), as well as BDNF and GAPDH...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442281/determinants-of-knowledge-and-attitudes-regarding-pain-among-nurses-in-a-university-hospital-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Elfa Gretarsdottir, Sigridur Zoëga, Gunnar Tomasson, Herdis Sveinsdottir, Sigridur Gunnarsdottir
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the primary determinants of knowledge and attitudes regarding pain among nurses in a hospital setting. All registered nurses employed at participating units at a university hospital were invited to participate. Information on work experience, education, and hospital unit was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain instrument was used to assess knowledge on pain management. The difference in knowledge between nurses with different levels of education was assessed with analysis of variance...
April 23, 2017: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441973/treatment-limiting-decisions-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-norwegian-regional-trauma-center
#17
Annette Robertsen, Reidun Førde, Nils Oddvar Skaga, Eirik Helseth
BACKGROUND: Treatment-limiting decisions (TLD) for severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) have been sparsely studied. This study determine prevalence, main reason for, categories and timing of TLDs in a Norwegian regional trauma setting. METHODS: A retrospective study of a 2-year cohort of 579 sTBI patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital (OUH). Prospectively collected data in the OUH Trauma Registry were combined with retrospective data from a chart review regarding TLDs...
April 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441772/structural-and-biochemical-properties-of-novel-self-cleaving-ribozymes
#18
REVIEW
Ki-Young Lee, Bong-Jin Lee
Fourteen well-defined ribozyme classes have been identified to date, among which nine are site-specific self-cleaving ribozymes. Very recently, small self-cleaving ribozymes have attracted renewed interest in their structure, biochemistry, and biological function since the discovery, during the last three years, of four novel ribozymes, termed twister, twister sister, pistol, and hatchet. In this review, we mainly address the structure, biochemistry, and catalytic mechanism of the novel ribozymes. They are characterized by distinct active site architectures and divergent, but similar, biochemical properties...
April 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441633/a-health-intervention-or-a-kitchen-appliance-household-costs-and-benefits-of-a-cleaner-burning-biomass-fuelled-cookstove-in-malawi
#19
Katie Cundale, Ranjeeta Thomas, Jullita Kenala Malava, Deborah Havens, Kevin Mortimer, Lesong Conteh
Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality for children under five years in sub-Saharan Africa. Household air pollution has been found to increase risk of pneumonia, especially due to exposure from dirty burning biomass fuels. It has been suggested that advanced stoves, which burn fuel more efficiently and reduce smoke emissions, may help to reduce household air pollution in poor, rural settings. This qualitative study aims to provide an insight into the household costs and perceived benefits from use of the stove in Malawi...
April 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441484/fully-quantum-description-of-the-zundel-ion-combining-variational-quantum-monte-carlo-with-path-integral-langevin-dynamics
#20
Félix Mouhat, Sandro Sorella, Rodolphe Vuilleumier, Antonino Marco Saitta, Michele Casula
We introduce a novel approach for a fully quantum description of coupled electron-ion systems from first principles. It combines the variational quantum Monte Carlo solution of the electronic part with the path integral formalism for the quantum nuclear dynamics. On the one hand, the path integral molecular dynamics includes nuclear quantum effects by adding a set of fictitious classical particles (beads) aimed at reproducing nuclear quantum fluctuations via a harmonic kinetic term. On the other hand, variational quantum Monte Carlo can provide Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces with a precision comparable to the most advanced post Hartree-Fock approaches, and with a favorable scaling with the system size...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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