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Anais Fradet, Mathilde Bouchet, Carine Delliaux, Manon Gervais, Casina Kan, Claire Benetollo, Francesco Pantano, Geoffrey Vargas, Lamia Bouazza, Martine Croset, Yohann Bala, Xavier Leroy, Thomas J Rosol, Jennifer Rieusset, Akeila Bellahcène, Vincent Castronovo, Jane E Aubin, Philippe Clézardin, Martine Duterque-Coquillaud, Edith Bonnelye
Bone metastases are one of the main complications of prostate cancer and they are incurable. We investigated whether and how estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is involved in bone tumor progression associated with advanced prostate cancer. By meta-analysis, we first found that ERRα expression is correlated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), the hallmark of progressive disease. We then analyzed tumor cell progression and the associated signaling pathways in gain-of-function/loss-of-function CRPC models in vivo and in vitro...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Zoi Giavri, Elisabeth A Wilde, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, George Velonakis, Panagiotis Toulas, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Loukia Poulou, Georgios Argyropoulos, Athanasios Athanasakos, Thomas Zambelis, Harvey S Levin, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
We aimed to investigate structural changes in vivo in memory-related white matter tracts (i.e., perforant pathway zone [PPZ]; uncinate fasciculus [UF]; fornix) using diffusion tensor tractography and evaluate possible associations with memory performance in nondemented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-two ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3T MR scanner, followed by tractography of PPZ, UF, and fornix and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (Dr)...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Zhe Wang, Fuwu Zhang, Zhantong Wang, Xiao Fu, Albert Jin, Bryant C Yung, Jing Fan, Xiangyu Yang, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Molecular design of biomaterials with unique features reca-pitulating nature's niche to influence biological activities has been a prolific area of investigation in chemistry and material science. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a wealth of bioactive molecules in supporting cell proliferation, migra-tion and differentiation. The well-patterned fibril and inter-twining architecture of the ECM profoundly influences cell behavior and development. Inspired by those features from the ECM, we attempted to integrate essential biological fac-tors from the ECM to design bioactive molecules to construct artificial self-supportive ECM mimics to advance stem cell culture...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Li Wang, Yakui Mou, Deping Meng, Yan Sun, Xiumei Chen, Xin Yang, Chuanliang Jia, Xicheng Song, Xuezhong Li
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs play an important role in regulating hypopharyngeal cancer development. miR-203 has been previously shown to possess anti-tumor capabilities in many cancers, but not in hypopharyngeal cancer. DESIGN: Using human normal and hypopharyngeal cancer specimens, we explored the expression levels of miR-203 in the two groups, and further correlated them with different stages of cancer and lymph node metastasis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Applying human pharynx FaDu cancer cells and lentiviral transduction technique, we investigated the effects of miR-203 on cancer cell viability, migration and invasion...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
P Dhakal, V R Bhatt
Diagnosis and management of hematopoietic cell transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) are very complex and controversial, given multiple ongoing issues and comorbidities in sick transplant recipients. Complement activation via classic and alternative pathways is emerging as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in the development of TA-TMA. Complement-centric diagnostic strategy using functional and genetic tests may possibly support diagnosis, enhance molecular understanding and direct drug development...
October 24, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Qifan Zhou, Hai Zhang, Zahra Lari, Zhenbo Liu, Naser El-Sheimy
Wearable electronic devices have experienced increasing development with the advances in the semiconductor industry and have received more attention during the last decades. This paper presents the development and implementation of a novel inertial sensor-based foot-mounted wearable electronic device for a brand new application: game playing. The main objective of the introduced system is to monitor and identify the human foot stepping direction in real time, and coordinate these motions to control the player operation in games...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
Marta Franceschi, Lucia Seminara, Strahinja Dosen, Matjia Strbac, Maurizio Valle, Dario Farina
Myoelectric prostheses are successfully controlled using muscle electrical activity, thereby restoring lost motor functions. However, the somatosensory feedback from the prosthesis to the user is still missing. The sensory substitution methods described in the literature comprise mostly simple position and force sensors combined with discrete stimulation units. The present study describes a novel system for sophisticated electrotactile feedback integrating advanced distributed sensing (electronic skin) and stimulation (matrix electrodes)...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Christian Helbing, Robert Stößel, Dominik A Hering, Matthias Michael Lothar Arras, Jörg Bossert, Klaus D Jandt
Nanostructured surfaces have the potential to influence the assembly as well as the orientation of adsorbed proteins and may, thus, strongly influence the biomaterials performance. For the class of polymeric (bio)materials a reproducible and well characterized nanostructure is the ordered chain folded surface of a polyethylene single crystal (PE-SC). We tested the hypothesis that the trinodal-rod shaped protein human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) adsorbs on the (001) surface of PE-SCs along specific crystallographic directions...
October 24, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bharathkumar Inturi, Gurubasavaraj V Pujar, Madhusudhan N Purohit
Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-ACP reductase (InhA) has been validated as a promising target for antitubercular agents. Isoniazid (INH), the most prescribed drug to treat tuberculosis (TB), inhibits a NADH-dependent InhA that provides precursors of mycolic acids, which are components of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is a pro-drug that needs activation to form the inhibitory INH-NAD adduct by KatG coding for catalase-peroxidase. The INH resistance of M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in KatG, which may lead to multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)...
October 24, 2016: Archiv der Pharmazie
Takao Matsumoto, Yeong-Gi So, Yuji Kohno, Hidetaka Sawada, Ryo Ishikawa, Yuichi Ikuhara, Naoya Shibata
The interactions between magnetic skyrmions and structural defects, such as edges, dislocations, and grain boundaries (GBs), which are all considered as topological defects, will be important issues when magnetic skyrmions are utilized for future memory device applications. To investigate such interactions, simultaneous visualization of magnetic skyrmions and structural defects at high spatial resolution, which is not feasible by conventional techniques, is essential. Here, taking advantages of aberration-corrected differential phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy, we investigate the interaction of magnetic skyrmions with a small-angle GB in a thin film of FeGe1-xSix...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
K B Skowron, S P Pitroda, J P Namm, O Balogun, M A Beckett, M L Zenner, O Fayanju, X Huang, C Fernandez, W Zheng, G Qiao, R Chin, S J Kron, N N Khodarev, M C Posner, G D Steinberg, R R Weichselbaum
Strategies to identify tumors at highest risk for treatment failure are currently under investigation for patients with bladder cancer. We demonstrate that flow cytometric detection of poorly differentiated basal tumor cells (BTCs), as defined by the co-expression of CD90, CD44 and CD49f, directly from patients with early stage tumors (T1-T2 and N0) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) engraftment in locally advanced tumors (T3-T4 or N+) predict poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of bladder tumor cells isolated from PDXs indicates unique patterns of gene expression during bladder tumor cell differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
María Luján Cuestas
Since the British scientist Michael Houghton along with George Kuo, Qui-Lim Choo (Chiron Corporation Emeryville), and Daniel W. Bradley (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) co-discovered the causative agent of hepatitis C in 1989, so much progress has been made for the screening of blood donors and management of this chronic liver disease. In this regard, direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have emerged as the potential "cure" of this slowly progressing and devastating disease. However, improvements are still clearly required since the anti-hepatitis C drugs currently available in the market are so extremely expensive (i...
October 19, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Rui-Qin Zhang, Yan-Ling Zhao, Fei Qi, Klaus Hermann, Michel A Van Hove
Rotation-inducing torque is ubiquitous in many molecular systems. We present a straightforward theoretical method based on forces acting on atoms and obtained from atomistic quantum mechanics calculations to quickly and qualitatively determine whether a molecule or sub-unit thereof has a tendency to rotate and, if so, around which axis and in which sense: clockwise or counterclockwise. The method also indicates which atoms, if any, are predominant in causing the rotation. Our computational approach can in general efficiently provide insights into the internal rotational degrees of freedom of all molecules and help to theoretically screen or modify them in advance of experiments or to efficiently guide a detailed analysis of their rotational behavior with more extensive computations...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jong Chul Park, Noah M Hahn
Tremendous advances in our understanding of the tumor immunology and molecular biology of urothelial carcinoma (UC) have led to the recent approval of immunotherapy as a novel option for patients with UC with advanced disease. Despite the promising data of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors, only a small subset of patients with UC achieves durable remissions. Because an optimal antitumor response requires coordination of multiple immune, tumor, and microenvironment effector cells, novel approaches targeting distinct mechanisms of action likely in combination are needed...
October 20, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Dan Zhang, Peng Shi, Qing-Guo Wang, Li Yu
A networked control system (NCS) is a control system which involves a communication network. In NCSs, the continuous-time measurement is usually sampled and quantized before transmission. Then, the measurement is transmitted to the remote controller via the communication channel, during which the signal may be delayed, lost or even sometimes not allowed for transmission due to the communication or energy constraints. In recent years, the modeling, analysis and synthesis of networked control systems (NCSs) have received great attention, which leads to a large number of publications...
October 20, 2016: ISA Transactions
Shrikant S Maktedar, Gopal Avashthi, Man Singh
The new sonochemical approach for simultaneous reduction and direct functionalization of graphene oxide (GrO) has been developed. The GrO was functionalized with 2-Aminobenzoxazole (2-ABOZ) in twenty min with complete deletion of hazardous steps. The significance of ultrasound was exemplified with the comparative conventional methods. The newly prepared f-(2-ABOZ)GrO was extensively characterized with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, (13)C solid state NMR, XPS, XRD, HRTEM, SAED, AFM, Raman, UV-vis, FTIR and TGA...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Shrikant S Maktedar, Shantilal S Mehetre, Gopal Avashthi, Man Singh
The rapid, robust, scalable and non-hazardous sonochemical approach for in situ reduction and direct functionalization of graphene oxide has been developed for non-toxic biomedical applications. The graphene oxide (GrO) was directly functionalized with tryptamine (TA) without using any hazardous acylating and coupling reagents. The reaction was completed within 20min. An impact of ultrasound was inferred for a direct functionalization with other conventional methods. The evolved electronic states were confirmed with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS)...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Maria Paula Henao, Timothy J Craig
Alpha-1-antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) is an orphan disease that predisposes individuals to COPD and liver disease. The following is a comprehensive review of AATD from epidemiology to treatment for physicians who treat COPD or asthma. Areas Covered: In this comprehensive review of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, we describe the historical perspective, genetics, epidemiology, clinical presentation and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, and treatments of the condition. Expert Commentary: The two most important directions for advancing the understanding of AATD involve improving detection of the condition, especially in asymptomatic patients, and advancing knowledge of treatments directed specifically at AATD-related conditions...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Susanne J van Veluw, Hugo J Kuijf, Andreas Charidimou, Anand Viswanathan, Geert Jan Biessels, Annemieke J M Rozemuller, Matthew P Frosch, Steven M Greenberg
Microhemorrhages are strongly associated with advanced cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Although it has been frequently proposed that the deposition of Aβ in the walls of cortical vessels directly causes microhemorrhages, this has not been studied in great detail, mainly because the ruptured vessels are often missed on routine histopathologic examination. Here, we examined histopathological data from studies targeting microhemorrhages with high-resolution ex vivo 7 T MRI in nine cases with moderate-to-severe CAA, and assessed the presence of Aβ in the walls of involved vessels...
October 22, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Joachim Mikkelsen, Steen Henrik Matzen
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a recognized risk factor of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as it induces a prothrombotic state through various mechanisms of activation of coagulation. Recognizing occult cancer as a risk factor is equally important. In patients with no known thromboembolic risk factors, utilizing PET/CT as a screening tool may be considered in order to reveal occult malignancy associated with otherwise unexplainable VTE. METHODS: This case report has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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