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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823106/mitochondrial-outer-membrane-permeabilization-a-focus-on-the-role-of-mitochondrial-membrane-structural-organization
#1
REVIEW
Siti Haji Suhaili, Hamed Karimian, Matthew Stellato, Tzong-Hsien Lee, Marie-Isabel Aguilar
Apoptosis is important in regulating cell death turnover and is mediated by the intrinsic and death receptor-based extrinsic pathways which converge at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) leading to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MOMP results in the release of apoptotic proteins that further activate the downstream pathway of apoptosis. Thus, tight regulation of MOMP is crucial in controlling apoptosis, and a lack of control may lead to tissue and organ malformation and the development of cancers...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823046/organochlorine-contaminants-in-wild-mink-from-the-lower-great-lakes-basin-canada-1998-2006
#2
Pamela A Martin, Tana V McDaniel, Kimberley D Hughes, Bruce Hunter
Organochlorine contaminants were measured in livers of wild mink (Neovison vison) trapped in the lower Great Lakes basin from 1998 to 2006. To assess exposure and potential risk in mink feeding on Great Lakes biota, concentrations of contaminants were compared in mink trapped within 7.8 km of the shoreline as well as at inland sites (i.e., 8-40 km). Overall, significant spatial variation in mean hepatic concentrations of sum PCBs and seven other organochlorines was found in mink from 13 Great Lakes sites, many of which are within the Great Lakes Areas of Concern...
August 19, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823025/nanomedicine-associated-with-photodynamic-therapy-for-glioblastoma-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Leonardo B de Paula, Fernando L Primo, Antonio C Tedesco
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most recurrent and malignant astrocytic glioma found in adults. Biologically, GBMs are highly aggressive tumors that often show diffuse infiltration of the brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection difficult. GBM is not curable with surgery alone because tumor cells typically invade the surrounding brain, rendering complete resection unsafe. Consequently, present-day therapy for malignant glioma remains a great challenge. The location of the invasive tumor cells presents several barriers to therapeutic delivery...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823021/control-by-low-levels-of-calcium-of-mammalian-cell-membrane-electropermeabilization
#4
Ciobanu Florin, Golzio Muriel, Kovacs Eugenia, Teissié Justin
Electric pulses, when applied to a cell suspension, induce a reversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane. This permeabilized state is a long-lived process (minutes). The biophysical molecular mechanisms supporting the membrane reorganization associated to its permeabilization remain poorly understood. Modeling the transmembrane structures as toroidal lipidic pores cannot explain why they are long-lived and why their resealing is under the control of the ATP level. Our results describe the effect of the level of free Calcium ions...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822973/pai-1-levels-are-related-to-insulin-resistance-and-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-subjects-with-familial-combined-hyperlipidemia
#5
Arturo Carratala, Sergio Martinez-Hervas, Enrique Rodriguez-Borja, Esther Benito, José T Real, Guillermo T Saez, Rafael Carmena, Juan F Ascaso
Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a primary atherogenic dyslipidemia with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity are associated with proinflammatory and atherothrombotic risk. Our aim was to study the role played by PAI-1 and MPO activity in the carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in FCH subjects. 36 FCH unrelated subjects (17 women) were matched by age and body weight with 36 healthy normolipidemic subjects (19 female)...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822960/loss-of-perilipin-2-in-cultured-myotubes-enhances-lipolysis-and-redirects-the-metabolic-energy-balance-from-glucose-oxidation-towards-fatty-acid-oxidation
#6
Yuan Z Feng, Jenny Lund, Yuchuan Li, Irlin K Knabenes, Siril S Bakke, Eili Tranheim Kase, Yun K Lee, Alan R Kimmel, G Hege Thoresen, Arild Christian Rustan, Knut Tomas Dalen
Lipid droplet (LD) coating proteins are essential for the formation and stability of intracellular LDs. Plin2 is an abundant LD coating protein in skeletal muscle, but its importance for muscle function is unclear. We show that myotubes established from Plin2-/- mice contain reduced content of LDs and accumulate less oleic acid in triacylglycerol (TAG), due to elevated LD hydrolysis compared to Plin2+/+ myotubes. The reduced ability to store TAG in LDs in Plin2-/- myotubes is accompanied by a shift in energy metabolism...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822891/comparative-toxicity-of-the-plasticizer-dibutyl-phthalate-to-two-freshwater-algae
#7
Shurui Gu, Hao Zheng, Qingqing Xu, Cuizhu Sun, Mei Shi, Zhenyu Wang, Fengmin Li
Phthalate esters (PAEs), a family of emerging environmental contaminants, have been frequently detected in soils and water. However, intensive studies on the toxicity of PAEs have focused on growth response of terrestrial and aquatic animals, while only limited attention has been paid to aquatic plants, especially phytoplankton, the primary producer in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the acute toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at different concentrations (0-20mgL(-1)) on two typical freshwater algae (Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were investigated...
August 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822856/antigen-presenting-dendritic-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#8
Jesus Gil-Pulido, Alma Zernecke
Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation of the arterial wall, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses. Accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages is a key event in atherosclerosis. However, also other immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and T cells, are found within lesions. DCs are classified as a separate lineage of mononuclear phagocytes that arise from progenitors distinct from precursors of monocytes/macrophages. Although a clear attribution of the effects of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to monocytes/macrophages and DCs is hampered by the use of promiscuous surface markers, recent research has approached to resolve the contribution of bona fide cDCs and their subsets and of plasmacytoid-DCs (pDCs) to atherosclerosis...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822815/enrichment-of-highly-settleable-microalgal-consortia-in-mixed-cultures-for-effluent-polishing-and-low-cost-biomass-production
#9
Yuansheng Hu, Xiaodi Hao, Mark van Loosdrecht, Huiqin Chen
Microalgae cultivation is a promising technology for integrated effluent polishing and biofuel production, but poor separability of microalgal cells hinders its industrial application. This study intended to selectively enrich settleable microalgal consortia in mixed culture by applying "wash-out" pressure, which was realized by controlling settling time (ST) and volume exchange ratio (VER) in photo-SBRs. The results demonstrated that highly settleable microalgal consortia (settling efficiency>97%; SVI = 17-50 mL/g) could be enriched from indigenous algal cultures developed in WWTP's effluent...
August 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822794/lipidomics-informatics-for-life-science
#10
D Schwudke, A Shevchenko, N Hoffmann, R Ahrends
Lipidomics encompasses analytical approaches that aim to identify and quantify the complete set of lipids, defined as lipidome in a given cell, tissue or organism as well as their interactions with other molecules. The majority of lipidomics workflows is based on mass spectrometry and has been proven as a powerful tool in system biology in concert with other Omics disciplines. Unfortunately, bioinformatics infrastructures for this relatively young discipline are limited only to some specialists. Search engines, quantification algorithms, visualization tools and databases developed by the 'Lipidomics Informatics for Life-Science' (LIFS) partners will be restructured and standardized to provide broad access to these specialized bioinformatics pipelines...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822752/comprehensive-analysis-of-tissue-wide-gene-expression-and-phenotype-data-reveals-tissues-affected-in-rare-genetic-disorders
#11
Ariel Feiglin, Bryce K Allen, Isaac S Kohane, Sek Won Kong
Linking putatively pathogenic variants to the tissues they affect is necessary for determining the correct diagnostic workup and therapeutic regime in undiagnosed patients. Here, we explored how gene expression across healthy tissues can be used to infer this link. We integrated 6,665 tissue-wide transcriptomes with genetic disorder knowledge bases covering 3,397 diseases. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis using expression levels in each tissue and across tissues indicated significant but modest associations between elevated expression and phenotype for most tissues (maximum area under ROC curve = 0...
August 14, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822749/dominance-of-layer-specific-microvessel-dilation-in-contrast-enhanced-high-resolution-fmri-comparison-between-hemodynamic-spread-and-vascular-architecture-with-clarity
#12
REVIEW
Alexander John Poplawsky, Mitsuhiro Fukuda, Bok-Man Kang, Jae Hwan Kim, Minah Suh, Seong-Gi Kim
Contrast-enhanced cerebral blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI response peaks are specific to the layer of evoked synaptic activity (Poplawsky et al., 2015), but the spatial resolution limit of CBVw fMRI is unknown. In this study, we measured the laminar spread of the CBVw fMRI evoked response in the external plexiform layer (EPL, 265 ± 65 μm anatomical thickness, mean ± SD, n = 30 locations from 5 rats) of the rat olfactory bulb during electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract and examined its potential vascular source...
August 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822714/cardiovascular-disease-leads-to-a-new-algorithm-for-diabetes-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Valentina Rodriguez, Matthew C Weiss, Howard Weintraub, Ira J Goldberg, Arthur Schwartzbard
Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure (HF). This increase occurs despite optimal lipid-lowering therapies. We reviewed clinical trials of diabetes treatments and their effects on circulating plasma lipoproteins and CVD. Several earlier studies failed to demonstrate clear CVD benefit from diabetes therapies. In addition, triglyceride-reducing agents did not reduce overall CVD in large clinical trials although these trials were not conducted in cohorts selected as hypertriglyceridemic...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822686/the-role-of-human-monoacylglycerol-lipase-hmagl-binding-pocket-in-breakup-of-unsaturated-phospholipid-membranes
#14
Ioannis Karageorgos, Vitalii I Silin, Nikolai Zvonok, John Marino, David R Janero, Alexandros Makriyannis
Human monoacylglycerol lipase (hMAGL) plays a key role in homeostatic tuning of the endocannabinoid signaling system and supports aggressive tumorogenesis, making this enzyme a promising therapeutic target. hMAGL features a membrane-associated lid domain that regulates entry of endocannabinoid lipid substrates into the hydrophobic channel accessing the active site, likely from the membrane bilayer. The present work applied simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to show that, in absence of the substrate, hMAGL can remove phospholipid molecules from the membrane and, thereby, disintegrate pre-formed, intact, tethered phospholipid bilayer membrane mimetics (tBLMs) composed of unsaturated phosphatidylcholines...
August 16, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822685/28-homocastasterone-down-regulates-blood-glucose-cholesterol-triglycerides-srebp1c-and-activates-lxr-expression-in-normal-diabetic-male-rat
#15
Velan Athithan, Kotteazeth Srikumar
Plant steroids are being recognized as influential secondary bio factors, assimilating in animal tissues through diet and affecting their cellular metabolic function to varying degree. They modulate catalytic and signaling functions in mammalian cells, affecting cellular homeostasis. The effect of phyto brassinosteroid ketoisoform 28-homocastasterone (28-HC), was assessed for its influence on blood glucose, plasma lipid and selective signal marker levels in normal and diabetic male wistar rat models. A 15 day oral feed regimen employing the experimental rat, noted that circulating blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride level in diabetic rat were markedly reduced by this compound...
August 16, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822539/polymers-and-surfactants-at-fluid-interfaces-studied-with-specular-neutron-reflectometry
#16
REVIEW
Larissa Braun, Martin Uhlig, Regine von Klitzing, Richard A Campbell
This review addresses the advances made with specular neutron reflectometry in studies of aqueous mixtures of polymers and surfactants at fluid interfaces during the last decade (or so). The increase in neutron flux due to improvements in instrumentation has led to routine measurements at the air/water interface that are faster and involve samples with lower isotopic contrast than in previous experiments. One can now resolve the surface excess of a single deuterated component on the second time scale and the composition of a mixture on the minute time scale, and information about adsorption processes and dynamic rheology can also be accessed...
July 12, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822518/clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-who-underwent-ffr-evaluation-of-intermediate-coronary-lesions-coffrs-study
#17
Srinivasa Prasad, S Harikrishnan, G Sanjay, S P Abhilash, S Bijulal, M Krishna Kumar, Jaganmohan Tharakan, V K Ajit Kumar
BACKGROUND: We undertook this study to validate the impact of FFR-guided coronary interventions among Indian patients, which is not readily available as of date. Our patients differ from their western counterparts, both in terms of risk profile (younger, more metabolic syndrome, lipid rich diet) as well as their coronary size. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 282 patients with intermediate stenosis in their coronary arteries, who underwent FFR to assess the functional severity of the lesion...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822512/implications-of-the-2013-acc-aha-cholesterol-guidelines-on-contemporary-clinical-practice-for-patients-with-atherosclerotic-coronary-and-peripheral-arterial-disease
#18
Prasad Gunasekaran, Vinodh Jeevanantham, Suresh Sharma, Rashmi Thapa, Kamal Gupta
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol management guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA-2013) recommend fixed statin dosing (dose depends on age ≤ or >75years) compared to the earlier adult treatment panel III (ATPIII) guidelines which recommended specific low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. Clinical implications of this recommendation are not known. METHODS: We retrospectively compared cholesterol levels and statin utilization across cohorts with coronary artery disease (CAD) (n=9563), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (n=596) and CAD+PAD (n=975) by applying both guidelines...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822509/prevalence-and-control-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-stable-coronary-artery-outpatients-in-india-compared-with-the-rest-of-the-world-an-analysis-from-international-clarify-registry
#19
Upendra KauL, Subramaniam Natrajan, Jamshed Dalal, Ram Kirti Saran
OBJECTIVES: We describe the clinical characteristics, prevalence and control of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors of the Indian cohort enrolled in the CLARIFY registry and compare them with data from rest of the world (ROW). METHODS: CLARIFY is an international, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study in stable CAD outpatients. The baseline data of Indian cohort (n=709) were compared to ROW (n=31994). RESULTS: The CLARIFY India patients were significantly younger than the ROW (59...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822345/assessment-of-oxidative-stress-and-bioaccumulation-of-the-metals-cu-fe-zn-pb-cd-in-the-polychaete-perinereis-gualpensis-from-estuaries-of-central-chile
#20
Hernán Gaete, Manuel Álvarez, Gabriela Lobos, Eulogio Soto, Carlos Jara-Gutiérrez
The estuaries of the Aconcagua and Maipo Rivers of central Chile are receptors of residues that contain metals from anthropic activities including agriculture, mining and smelters, which have different levels in the two basins. This study postulates that the exposition to metals is different in the two estuaries and that their sediments contain bioavailable chemical agents that produce oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of estuarine sediments on the polychaete Perinereis gualpensis using oxidative stress biomarkers and to determine the metal concentrations in sediments and their accumulation in P...
August 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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