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Granul cell precursors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045461/antidepressant-responsiveness-in-adulthood-is-permanently-impaired-after-neonatal-destruction-of-the-neurogenic-pool
#1
S Yu, I Zutshi, R Stoffel, J Zhang, A P Ventura-Silva, N Sousa, P S Costa, F Holsboer, A Patchev, O F X Almeida
The dynamic turnover of hippocampal neurons is implicated in the regulation of cognitive and affective behavior. Extending our previous demonstration that administration of dexamethasone (ND) to neonatal rats depletes the resident population of neural precursor cells (NPC) and restrains the size of the neurogenic regions, we now show that the adverse effects of ND persist into adulthood. Specifically, ND impairs repletion of the neurogenic pool and neurogenesis; ND also compromises cognitive performance, the ability to actively adapt to an acute stressor and, the efficacy of glucocorticoid (GC) negative feedback...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018222/suppression-of-medulloblastoma-lesions-by-forced-migration-of-preneoplastic-precursor-cells-with-intracerebellar-administration-of-the-chemokine-cxcl3
#2
Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood. We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB (Ptch1(+/-)/Tis21(-/-)), that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs) correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966978/quantitative-global-proteomics-of-yeast-pbp1-deletion-mutants-and-their-stress-responses-identifies-glucose-metabolism-mitochondrial-and-stress-granule-changes
#3
Gunnar Seidel, David Meierhofer, Nesli-Ece Şen, Anika Guenther, Sylvia Krobitsch, Georg Auburger
The yeast protein PBP1 is implicated in very diverse pathways. Intriguingly, its deletion mitigates the toxicity of human neurodegeneration factors. Here, we performed label-free quantitative global proteomics to identify crucial downstream factors, either without stress or under cell stress conditions (heat and NaN3). Compared to the wildtype BY4741 strain, PBP1 deletion always triggered downregulation of the key bioenergetics enzyme KGD2 and the prion protein RNQ1 as well as upregulation of the leucine biosynthesis enzyme LEU1...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965576/functional-genomics-identifies-tis21-dependent-mechanisms-and-putative-cancer-drug-targets-underlying-medulloblastoma-shh-type-development
#4
Giulia Gentile, Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Felice Tirone, Sebastiano Cavallaro
We have recently generated a novel medulloblastoma (MB) mouse model with activation of the Shh pathway and lacking the MB suppressor Tis21 (Patched1(+/-)/Tis21(KO) ). Its main phenotype is a defect of migration of the cerebellar granule precursor cells (GCPs). By genomic analysis of GCPs in vivo, we identified as drug target and major responsible of this defect the down-regulation of the promigratory chemokine Cxcl3. Consequently, the GCPs remain longer in the cerebellum proliferative area, and the MB frequency is enhanced...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965537/region-specific-differences-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-expression-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#5
Domenico Del Turco, Mandy H Paul, Jessica Schlaudraff, Meike Hick, Kristina Endres, Ulrike C Müller, Thomas Deller
The physiological role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively investigated in the rodent hippocampus. Evidence suggests that APP plays a role in synaptic plasticity, dendritic and spine morphogenesis, neuroprotection and-at the behavioral level-hippocampus-dependent forms of learning and memory. Intriguingly, however, studies focusing on the role of APP in synaptic plasticity have reported diverging results and considerable differences in effect size between the dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA1 of the mouse hippocampus...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932459/basophil-specific-protease-mmcp-8-provokes-an-inflammatory-response-in-the-skin-with-microvascular-hyperpermeability-and-leukocyte-infiltration
#6
Hidemitsu Tsutsui, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Hiromi Ohtsuka, Shingo Sato, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Hajime Karasuyama
Basophils have often been considered erroneously as minor relatives or blood-circulating precursors of tissue-resident mast cells, because of some phenotypic similarity between them, including basophilic secretory granules in the cytoplasm. However, recent studies revealed that the repertoire of serine proteases stored in secretory granules is distinct between them. Particularly, mouse mast cell protease 8 (mMCP-8) is specifically expressed by basophils but not mast cells in spite of its name. Therefore, mMCP-8 is commonly used as a basophil-specific marker while its functional property remains uncertain...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914933/differential-synthesis-and-release-of-il-18-and-il-18-binding-protein-from-human-platelets-and-their-implications-for-hiv-infection
#7
Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cecile Tremblay, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family and is produced in the body from macrophages, epithelial and dendritic cells, keratinocytes, adrenal cortex etc. The cytokine is produced as an inactive precursor that is cleaved inside cells into its mature form by activated caspase 1, which exists as an inactive precursor in human cells and requires assembly of an inflammasomes for its activation. We show here for the first time that human platelets contain transcripts for the IL-18 gene. They synthesize the cytokine de novo, process and release it upon activation...
December 1, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879339/mct8-deficiency-in-purkinje-cells-disrupts-embryonic-chicken-cerebellar-development
#8
Joke Delbaere, Pieter Vancamp, Stijn L J Van Herck, Nele M A Bourgeois, Mary J Green, Richard J T Wingate, Veerle M Darras
Inactivating mutations in the human SLC16A2 gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) result in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome accompanied by severe locomotor deficits. The underlying mechanisms of the associated cerebellar maldevelopment were studied using the chicken as a model. Electroporation of an MCT8-RNAi vector into the cerebellar anlage of a 3-day-old embryo allowed knockdown of MCT8 in Purkinje cell precursors. This resulted in the downregulation of the thyroid hormone-responsive gene RORα and the Purkinje cell-specific differentiation marker LHX1/5 at day 6...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871413/b2a-polypeptide-in-foot-and-ankle-fusion
#9
REVIEW
Mark Glazebrook, Diana S Young
Foot and ankle fusion procedures often incorporate autogenous bone graft to help achieve bony union. Pain and morbidity associated with graft harvest have resulted in decreased autograft use as alternative bone graft substitutes have become available. Recently B2A peptide-coated ceramic granules have been developed and investigated. B2A, a bioactive synthetic multi-domain peptide acting on bone morphogenetic protein receptors of osteoblast precursor cells, amplifies the cell response to bone morphogenetic proteins...
December 2016: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830160/usp9x-deletion-elevates-the-density-of-oligodendrocytes-within-the-postnatal-dentate-gyrus
#10
Sabrina Oishi, Oressia Zalucki, Susitha Premarathne, Stephen A Wood, Michael Piper
Neural stem cells (NSCs) within the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus reside in the subgranular zone (SGZ). A dynamic network of signaling mechanisms controls the balance between the maintenance of NSC identity, and their subsequent differentiation into dentate granule neurons. Recently, the ubiquitin-specific protease 9 X-linked (USP9X) was shown to be important for hippocampal morphogenesis, as mice lacking this gene exhibited a higher proportion of proliferating NSCs, yet a decrease in neuronal numbers, within the postnatal dentate gyrus...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802424/dual-role-of-the-integrated-stress-response-in-medulloblastoma-tumorigenesis
#11
Sarrabeth Stone, Yeung Ho, Xiting Li, Stephanie Jamison, Heather P Harding, David Ron, Wensheng Lin
In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, activation of pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) coordinates an adaptive program known as the integrated stress response (ISR) by phosphorylating translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). Phosphorylated eIF2α is quickly dephosphorylated by the protein phosphatase 1 and growth arrest and DNA damage 34 (GADD34) complex. Data indicate that the ISR can either promote or suppress tumor development. Our previous studies showed that the ISR is activated in medulloblastoma in both human patients and animal models, and that the decreased ISR via PERK heterozygous deficiency attenuates medulloblastoma formation in Patched1 heterozygous deficient (Ptch1+/-) mice by enhancing apoptosis of pre-malignant granule cell precursors (GCPs) during cell transformation...
September 6, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796004/ultrastructural-studies-on-oocyte-development-and-vitellogenesis-associated-with-follicle-cells-in-female-scapharca-subcrenata-pelecypoda-arcidae-in-western-korea
#12
Sung Han Kim
Ultrastructural studies on oocyte development and vitellogenesis in oocytes, and the functions of follicle cells during oogenesis and oocyte degeneration were investigated to clarifyb the reproductive mechanism on vitellogenesis of Scapharca subcrenata using electron microscope observations. In this study, vitellogenesis during oogenesis in the oocytes occured by way of autosynthesis and heterosynthesis. Of two processes of vitellogenesis during oogenesis, the process of endogenous autosynthesis involved the combined activity of the Golgi complex, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790794/p27kip1-is-required-for-functionally-relevant-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-mice
#13
Henrik Hörster, Alexander Garthe, Tara L Walker, Muhammad Ichwan, Barbara Steiner, Muhammad Amir Khan, Dieter Chichung Lie, Zeina Nicola, Gerardo Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerd Kempermann
We asked whether cell-cycle associated protein p27kip1 might be involved in the transition of precursor cells to postmitotic maturation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. p27kip1 was expressed throughout the dentate gyrus with a strong nuclear expression in early postmitotic, calretinin-positive neurons and neuronally determined progenitor cells (type-3 and some type-2b), lower or absent expression in radial glia-like precursor cells (type-1) and type-2a cells and essentially no expression in granule cells...
October 28, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789713/role-of-fast-kinase-domains-3-fastkd3-in-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression
#14
Erik Boehm, María Zornoza, Alexis A Jourdain, Aitor Delmiro Magdalena, Inés García-Consuegra, Rebeca Torres Merino, Antonio Orduña, Miguel A Martín, Jean-Claude Martinou, Miguel A De la Fuente, María Simarro
The Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FASTK) family of proteins has recently emerged as a central regulator of mitochondrial gene expression through the function of an unusual RNA-binding domain named RAP (for RNA-binding domain abundant in Apicomplexans), shared by all six members of the family. Here we describe the role of one of the less characterized members, FASTKD3, in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. First, we show that, in contrast to FASTK, FASTKD2, and FASTKD5, FASTKD3 does not localize in mitochondrial RNA granules, which are sites of processing and maturation of mtRNAs and ribosome biogenesis...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781303/long-term-effects-of-autoimmune-cns-inflammation-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#15
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, George A Lyras, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Aging and chronic degenerative disorders have been shown to impair hippocampal neurogenesis, but the consequence of chronic inflammation remains controversial. In this study the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis was used to investigate the long-term effects of T cell-mediated central nervous system inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled subpopulations of hippocampal cells in EAE and control mice (coexpressing GFAP, doublecortin, NeuN, calretinin, and S100) were quantified at the recovery phase, 21 days after BrdU administration, to estimate alterations on the rate and differentiation pattern of the neurogenesis process...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775720/a-neuronal-pi-3-4-5-p3-dependent-program-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-recruitment-and-myelination
#16
Sandra Goebbels, Georg L Wieser, Alexander Pieper, Sonia Spitzer, Bettina Weege, Kuo Yan, Julia M Edgar, Oleksandr Yagensky, Sven P Wichert, Amit Agarwal, Khalad Karram, Nicolas Renier, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Moritz J Rossner, Ragnhildur Thóra Káradóttir, Klaus-Armin Nave
The molecular trigger of CNS myelination is unknown. By targeting Pten in cerebellar granule cells and activating the AKT1-mTOR pathway, we increased the caliber of normally unmyelinated axons and the expression of numerous genes encoding regulatory proteins. This led to the expansion of genetically wild-type oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, oligodendrocyte differentiation and de novo myelination of parallel fibers. Thus, a neuronal program dependent on the phosphoinositide PI(3,4,5)P3 is sufficient to trigger all steps of myelination...
January 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734996/stem-progenitor-cells-in-the-developing-human-cerebellum-an-immunohistochemical-study
#17
V Pibiri, A Ravarino, C Gerosa, M C Pintus, V Fanos, G Faa
The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727273/zfp423-regulates-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-via-primary-cilium-function
#18
Chen-Jei Hong, Bruce A Hamilton
Zfp423 encodes a 30-zinc finger transcription factor that intersects several canonical signaling pathways. Zfp423 mutations result in ciliopathy-related phenotypes, including agenesis of the cerebellar vermis in mice and Joubert syndrome (JBTS19) and nephronophthisis (NPHP14) in humans. Unlike most ciliopathy genes, Zfp423 encodes a nuclear protein and its developmental expression is complex, leading to alternative proposals for cellular mechanisms. Here we show that Zfp423 is expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors, that loss of Zfp423 in these precursors leads to cell-intrinsic reduction in proliferation, loss of response to Shh, and primary cilia abnormalities that include diminished frequency of both Smoothened and IFT88 localization...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677933/proteasome-dynamics-between-proliferation-and-quiescence-stages-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Ravikiran S Yedidi, Amatullah K Fatehi, Cordula Enenkel
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a critical role in cellular protein homeostasis and is required for the turnover of short-lived and unwanted proteins, which are targeted by poly-ubiquitination for degradation. Proteasome is the key protease of UPS and consists of multiple subunits, which are organized into a catalytic core particle (CP) and a regulatory particle (RP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteasome holo-enzymes are engaged in degrading poly-ubiquitinated substrates and are mostly localized in the nucleus during cell proliferation...
September 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664851/amyloid-%C3%AE-precursor-protein-regulates-neuron-survival-and-maturation-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#20
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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