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Granul cell precursors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#1
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630282/desumoylation-of-gli1-by-senp1-attenuates-sonic-hedgehog-signaling
#2
Huaize Liu, Sen Yan, Jie Ding, Ting-Ting Yu, Steven Y Cheng
Transcriptional output of the Sonic hedgehog morphogenic pathway is orchestrated by three Krüppel family transcription factors, Gli1-3, which undergo extensive post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination and SUMOylation. Here, we report that sentrin-specific peptidase SENP1 is the specific de-SUMOylation enzyme for Gli1. We show that SUMOylation stabilizes Gli1 by competing with ubiquitination at conserved lysine residues, and SUMOylated Gli1 is enriched in the nucleus, suggesting that SUMOylation is a nuclear localization signal for Gli1...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627017/functional-expression-of-calcium-permeable-canonical-transient-receptor-potential-4-containing-channels-promotes-migration-of-medulloblastoma-cells
#3
Wei-Chun Wei, Wan-Chen Huang, Yu-Ping Lin, Esther B E Becker, Olaf Ansorge, Veit Flockerzi, Daniele Conti, Giovanna Cenacchi, Maike D Glitsch
Aberrant intracellular Ca(2+) signalling contributes to the formation and progression of a range of distinct pathologies including cancers. Rises in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration occur in response to Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane channels and Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which can be mobilised in response to activation of cell surface receptors. OGR1 (Ovarian cancer G protein coupled Receptor 1, aka GPR68) is a proton-sensing Gq -coupled receptor that is most highly expressed in cerebellum...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552674/enrichment-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-independent-of-blood-monocyte-derived-microglia-presence-following-high-dose-total-body-irradiation
#4
Marc J Ruitenberg, Julia Wells, Perry F Bartlett, Alan R Harvey, Jana Vukovic
Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to at least 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche...
May 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547531/neonatal-hyperoxia-perturbs-neuronal-development-in-the-cerebellum
#5
Till Scheuer, Yuliya Sharkovska, Victor Tarabykin, Katharina Marggraf, Vivien Brockmöller, Christoph Bührer, Stefanie Endesfelder, Thomas Schmitz
Impaired postnatal brain development of preterm infants often results in neurological deficits. Besides pathologies of the forebrain, maldeveolopment of the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to contribute to psychomotor impairments of many former preterm infants. However, causes are poorly defined. We used a hyperoxia model to define neonatal damage in cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and in Purkinje cells (PCs) known to be essential for interaction with GCPs during development. We exposed newborn rats to 24 h 80% O2 from age P6 to P7 to identify postnatal and long-term damage in cerebellar GCPs at age P7 after hyperoxia and also after recovery in room air thereafter until P11 and P30...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513774/hippocampal-overexpression-of-down-syndrome-cell-adhesion-molecule-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#6
Y L Jia, Z X Fu, B H Zhang, Y J Jia
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) is located within the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. DSCAM is a broadly expressed neurodevelopmental protein involved in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and axon guidance. We previously demonstrated DSCAM overexpression in the cortex of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, suggesting possible regulatory interactions between APP and DSCAM. APP mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In this preliminary study, we examined age-related changes in DSCAM expression within the hippocampus in 16 APP transgenic mice (1, 3, 6 and 12 months old)...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455716/macrophage-differentiation-in-normal-and-accelerated-wound-healing
#7
Girish J Kotwal, Sufan Chien
Chronic wounds pose considerable public health challenges and burden. Wound healing is known to require the participation of macrophages, but mechanisms remain unclear. The M1 phenotype macrophages have a known scavenger function, but they also play multiple roles in tissue repair and regeneration when they transition to an M2 phenotype. Macrophage precursors (mononuclear cells/monocytes) follow the influx of PMN neutrophils into a wound during the natural wound-healing process, to become the major cells in the wound...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379564/shortened-primary-cilium-length-and-dysregulated-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-niemann-pick-c1-disease
#9
Sonia Canterini, Jessica Dragotto, Andrea Dardis, Stefania Zampieri, Maria Egle De Stefano, Franco Mangia, Robert P Erickson, Maria Teresa Fiorenza
The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder due to mutations in the NPC1 gene, encoding a transmembrane protein related to the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor, Patched, and involved in intracellular trafficking of cholesterol. We have recently found that the proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors is significantly reduced in Npc1-/- mice due to the downregulation of Shh expression. This finding prompted us to analyze the formation of the primary cilium, a non-motile organelle that is specialized for Shh signal transduction and responsible, when defective, for several human genetic disorders...
June 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371026/interaction-and-developmental-activation-of-two-neuroendocrine-systems-that-regulate-light-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#10
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Yi N Song, Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Jung-Lynn J Yang, Sarah McFarlane
Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion...
July 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359846/long-term-effect-of-neonatal-inhibition-of-app-gamma-secretase-on-hippocampal-development-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#11
Fiorenza Stagni, Alessandra Raspanti, Andrea Giacomini, Sandra Guidi, Marco Emili, Elisabetta Ciani, Alessandro Giuliani, Andrea Bighinati, Laura Calzà, Jacopo Magistretti, Renata Bartesaghi
Neurogenesis impairment is considered a major determinant of the intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition caused by triplication of chromosome 21. Previous evidence obtained in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS showed that the triplicated gene APP (amyloid precursor protein) is critically involved in neurogenesis alterations. In particular, excessive levels of AICD (amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain) resulting from APP cleavage by gamma-secretase increase the transcription of Ptch1, a Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptor that keeps the mitogenic Shh pathway repressed...
July 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335020/znhit3-is-defective-in-peho-syndrome-a-severe-encephalopathy-with-cerebellar-granule-neuron-loss
#12
Anna-Kaisa Anttonen, Anni Laari, Maria Kousi, Yawei J Yang, Tiina Jääskeläinen, Mirja Somer, Eija Siintola, Eveliina Jakkula, Mikko Muona, Saara Tegelberg, Tuula Lönnqvist, Helena Pihko, Leena Valanne, Anders Paetau, Melody P Lun, Johanna Hästbacka, Outi Kopra, Tarja Joensuu, Nicholas Katsanis, Maria K Lehtinen, Jorma J Palvimo, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki
Progressive encephalopathy with oedema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy (PEHO) syndrome is an early childhood onset, severe autosomal recessive encephalopathy characterized by extreme cerebellar atrophy due to almost total granule neuron loss. By combining homozygosity mapping in Finnish families with Sanger sequencing of positional candidate genes and with exome sequencing a homozygous missense substitution of leucine for serine at codon 31 in ZNHIT3 was identified as the primary cause of PEHO syndrome. ZNHIT3 encodes a nuclear zinc finger protein previously implicated in transcriptional regulation and in small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle assembly and thus possibly to pre-ribosomal RNA processing...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296382/human-%C3%AE-defensin-6-a-small-peptide-that-self-assembles-and-protects-the-host-by-entangling-microbes
#13
Phoom Chairatana, Elizabeth M Nolan
Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich peptide that contributes to innate immunity by protecting the host at mucosal sites. This peptide is produced in small intestinal Paneth cells, stored as an 81-residue precursor peptide named proHD6 in granules, and released into the lumen. One unusual feature of HD6 is that it lacks the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity observed for other human α-defensins, including the Paneth cell peptide human α-defensin 5 (HD5). HD6 exhibits unprecedented self-assembly properties, which confer an unusual host-defense function...
March 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230278/deletion-of-psychiatric-risk-gene-cacna1c-impairs-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-cell-autonomous-fashion
#14
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
Ca(2+) is a universal signal transducer which fulfills essential functions in cell development and differentiation. CACNA1C, the gene encoding the alpha-1C subunit (i.e., Cav 1.2) of the voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel (LTCC), has been implicated as a risk gene in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. To parse the role of Cav 1.2 channels located on astrocyte-like stem cells and their descendants in the development of new granule neurons, we created Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1c(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice, a transgenic tool that allows cell-type-specific inducible deletion of Cacna1c...
February 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188823/hepatic-stellate-cell-interferes-with-nk-cell-regulation-of-fibrogenesis-via-curcumin-induced-senescence-of-hepatic-stellate-cell
#15
Huanhuan Jin, Yan Jia, Zhen Yao, Jingjing Huang, Meng Hao, Shunyu Yao, Naqi Lian, Feng Zhang, Chenxi Zhang, Xingran Chen, Mianli Bian, Jiangjuan Shao, Li Wu, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Hepatic fibrosis, a common scarring response to various forms of chronic liver injury, is a precursor to cirrhosis and liver cancer. During liver fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) initially activate and proliferate, which are responsible for the secretion of extracellular matrix components. However, these cells eventually senesce and are cleared by natural killer (NK) cells. Our previous researches have shown that the natural product curcumin could promote the senescence of activated HSC. In this study, we investigated how NK cells target senescent HSC and assessed the effect of this process on liver fibrosis...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174113/involvement-of-glun2b-subunit-containing-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptors-in-mediating-the-acute-and-chronic-synaptotoxic-effects-of-oligomeric-amyloid-beta-a%C3%AE-in-murine-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#16
Gerhard Rammes, Corinna Mattusch, Matthias Wulff, Franziska Seeser, Matthias Kreuzer, Kaichuan Zhu, Jan M Deussing, Jochen Herms, Chris G Parsons
To elucidate whether a permanent reduction of the GluN2B subunit affects the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we cross-bred mice heterozygous for GluN2B receptors in the forebrain (hetGluN2B) with a mouse model for AD carrying a mutated amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and Arctic mutation (mAPP) resulting in a hetGluN2B/mAPP transgenic. By means of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in the di-synaptic hippocampal pathway and the recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), hippocampal slices of all genotypes (WT, hetGluN2B, mAPP and hetGluN2B/mAPP, age 9-18 months) were tested for spatiotemporal activity propagation and long-term potentiation (LTP) induction...
February 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152379/selective-transduction-of-astrocytic-and-neuronal-cns-subpopulations-by-lentiviral-vectors-pseudotyped-with-chikungunya-virus-envelope
#17
Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Michael Dieringer, Xuan Ying Poh, Julia Sanchez-Garrido, Yunan Gao, Argyro Sgourou, Laura E Simmons, Nicholas D Mazarakis
Lentiviral vectors are gene delivery vehicles that integrate into the host genome of dividing and non-dividing mammalian cells facilitating long-term transgene expression. Lentiviral vector versatility is greatly increased by incorporating heterologous viral envelope proteins onto the vector particles instead of the native envelope, conferring on these pseudotyped vectors a modified tropism and host range specificity. We investigated the pseudotyping efficiency of HIV-1 based lentiviral vectors with alphaviral envelope proteins from the Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV-G) and Sindbis Virus (SINV-G)...
January 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122547/amyloid-like-aggregation-of-provasopressin-in-diabetes-insipidus-and-secretory-granule-sorting
#18
Nicole Beuret, Franziska Hasler, Cristina Prescianotto-Baschong, Julia Birk, Jonas Rutishauser, Martin Spiess
BACKGROUND: Aggregation of peptide hormone precursors in the trans-Golgi network is an essential process in the biogenesis of secretory granules in endocrine cells. It has recently been proposed that this aggregation corresponds to the formation of functional amyloids. Our previous finding that dominant mutations in provasopressin, which cause cell degeneration and diabetes insipidus, prevent native folding and produce fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) might thus reflect mislocalized amyloid formation by sequences that evolved to mediate granule sorting...
January 26, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108848/glucagon-like-peptide-1-is-co-localized-with-neurotensin-in-the-chicken-ileum
#19
Kei Nishimura, Kohzy Hiramatsu, Takafumi Watanabe, Kazumi Kita
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and neurotensin (NT) are distributed throughout the chicken ileum. Here, we attempt to determine if GLP-1 and NT co-localize in the chicken ileum by using immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Three types of enteroendocrine cells, GLP-1(+)/NT(+), GLP-1(+)/NT(-) and GLP-1(-)/NT(+) cells, were detected in the mucosal epithelium by the double immunofluorescence method. The ratio of GLP-1(+)/NT(+) cells at the crypts in the distal ileum was significantly higher than that in the proximal ileum...
January 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045461/antidepressant-responsiveness-in-adulthood-is-permanently-impaired-after-neonatal-destruction-of-the-neurogenic-pool
#20
S Yu, I Zutshi, R Stoffel, J Zhang, A P Ventura-Silva, N Sousa, P S Costa, F Holsboer, A Patchev, O F X Almeida
The dynamic turnover of hippocampal neurons is implicated in the regulation of cognitive and affective behavior. Extending our previous demonstration that administration of dexamethasone (ND) to neonatal rats depletes the resident population of neural precursor cells (NPC) and restrains the size of the neurogenic regions, we now show that the adverse effects of ND persist into adulthood. Specifically, ND impairs repletion of the neurogenic pool and neurogenesis; ND also compromises cognitive performance, the ability to actively adapt to an acute stressor and, the efficacy of glucocorticoid (GC) negative feedback...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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