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Granul cell precursors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#1
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#2
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749658/contemporary-understanding-of-the-secretory-granules-in-human-eosinophils
#3
REVIEW
Rossana C N Melo, Peter F Weller
Eosinophil secretory (specific) granules have a unique morphology and are both a morphologic hallmark of eosinophils and fundamental to eosinophil-mediated responses. Eosinophil mediators with multiple functional activities are presynthesized and stored within these granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. The structural organization and changes of eosinophil specific granules are revealing in demonstrating the complex and diverse secretory activities of this cell. Here, we review our current knowledge on the architecture, composition, and function of eosinophil specific granules as highly elaborated organelles able to produce vesiculotubular carriers and to interplay with the intracellular vesicular trafficking...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744290/identification-of-small-molecule-elastase-inhibitors-as-antagonists-of-il-36-cytokine-activation
#4
Graeme P Sullivan, Pavel B Davidovich, Sylvia Sura-Trueba, Ekaterina Belotcerkovskaya, Conor M Henry, Danielle M Clancy, Anna Zinoveva, Tazhir Mametnabiev, Alexander V Garabadzhiu, Seamus J Martin
IL-1 family cytokines act as apical initiators of inflammation in many settings and can promote the production of a battery of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators in diverse cell types. IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ, which belong to the extended IL-1 family, have been implicated as key initiators of skin inflammation in psoriasis. IL-36γ is highly upregulated in lesional skin from psoriatic individuals, and heritable mutations in the natural IL-36 receptor antagonist result in a severe form of psoriasis...
May 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731305/disumo-like-interacts-with-rna-binding-proteins-and-affects-cell-cycle-progression-during-maize-embryogenesis
#5
Junyi Chen, Kamila Kalinowska, Benedikt Müller, Julia Mergner, Rainer Deutzmann, Claus Schwechheimer, Ulrich Z Hammes, Thomas Dresselhaus
Embryogenesis in flowering plants is initiated by an asymmetric zygote division, generating two daughter cells that are the precursors of different cell lineages. Little is known about the molecular players regulating activation and progression of zygote development, establishment of asymmetry, and the plant-specific process of cell-plate formation. Here, we report the function of the ubiquitin-like modifier DiSUMO-LIKE (DSUL) for early embryo development in maize. Introducing a DSUL-RNAi construct by sperm cells affects cytokinesis generating non-separated zygotic daughter nuclei or multinucleate embryonic cells lacking cell plates...
April 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702083/%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-5-integrin-mediates-the-effect-of-vitronectin-on-the-initial-stage-of-differentiation-in-mouse-cerebellar-granule-cell-precursors
#6
Ayaka Abe, Kei Hashimoto, Ayumi Akiyama, Momoe Iida, Natsumi Ikeda, Ayana Hamano, Riho Watanabe, Yokichi Hayashi, Yasunori Miyamoto
Vitronectin (VN), one of the extracellular matrix proteins, controls the maturation of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) through the promotion of the initial differentiation stage progress. However, the receptors of VN in the initial differentiation stage of CGC precursors (CGCPs) have not been clarified. In this study, we characterized the receptor candidates for VN in CGCPs. First, we confirmed that αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, which are receptor candidates for VN, were co-localized with VN in the developing cerebellum and primary cultured CGCPs...
April 24, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687476/peptidylarginine-deiminase-is-involved-in-maintaining-the-cornified-oral-mucosa-of-rats
#7
S Arita, M Hatta, K Uchida, T Kita, K Okamura, T Ryu, H Murakami, R Sakagami, J Yamazaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epithelial cells derived from different regions exhibit marked differences in their differentiation capacity, allowing them to provide a suitable protective barrier. We aimed to clarify the role of peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) in modifying the key epidermal proteins filaggrin (FLG) and keratin 1 (K1) during stratification of the rat palate and buccal mucosa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, PAD activity assays and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and developed an organotypic culture model...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670152/improvement-of-cerebellar-ataxic-gait-by-injecting-cbln1-into-the-cerebellum-of-cbln1-null-mice
#8
Eri Takeuchi, Aya Ito-Ishida, Michisuke Yuzaki, Dai Yanagihara
Patients and rodents with cerebellar damage display ataxic gaits characterized by impaired coordination of limb movements. Here, gait ataxia in mice with a null mutation of the gene for the cerebellin 1 precursor protein (cbln1-null mice) was investigated by kinematic analysis of hindlimb movements during locomotion. The Cbln1 protein is predominately produced and secreted from cerebellar granule cells. The cerebellum of cbln1-null mice is characterized by an 80% reduction in the number of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses compared with wild-type mice...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597117/native-and-myeloperoxidase-oxidized-low-density-lipoproteins-act-in-synergy-to-induce-release-of-resolvin-d1-from-endothelial-cells
#9
Damien Dufour, Alia Khalil, Vincent Nuyens, Alexandre Rousseau, Cédric Delporte, Caroline Noyon, Melissa Cortese, Florence Reyé, Valérie Pireaux, Jean Nève, Luc Vanhamme, Bernard Robaye, Christophe Lelubre, Jean-Marc Desmet, Martine Raes, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Pierre Van Antwerpen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxidation of native low-density lipoproteins (LDLs-nat) plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. A major player in LDL-nat oxidation is myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme enzyme present in azurophil granules of neutrophils and monocytes. MPO produces oxidized LDLs called Mox-LDLs, which cause a pro-inflammatory response in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), monocyte/macrophage activation and formation of foam cells. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a compound derived from the metabolism of the polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA, which promotes resolution of inflammation at the ng/ml level...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578408/differential-3-processing-of-specific-transcripts-expands-regulatory-and-protein-diversity-across-neuronal-cell-types
#10
Saša Jereb, Hun-Way Hwang, Eric Van Otterloo, Eve-Ellen Govek, John J Fak, Yuan Yuan, Mary E Hatten, Robert B Darnell
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) regulates mRNA translation, stability, and protein localization. However, it is unclear to what extent APA regulates these processes uniquely in specific cell types. Using a new technique, cTag-PAPERCLIP, we discovered significant differences in APA between the principal types of mouse cerebellar neurons, the Purkinje and granule cells, as well as between proliferating and differentiated granule cells. Transcripts that differed in APA in these comparisons were enriched in key neuronal functions and many differed in coding sequence in addition to 3'UTR length...
March 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555564/neurogenesis-in-the-postnatal-cerebellum-after-injury
#11
REVIEW
Julia P Andreotti, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Luiz A V Magno, Marco A Romano-Silva, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
The cerebellum plays major role in motor coordination and learning. It contains half of the neurons in the brain. Thus, deciphering the mechanisms by which cerebellar neurons are generated is essential to understand the cerebellar functions and the pathologies associated with it. In a recent study, Wojcinski et al. (2017) by using in vivo Cre/loxP technologies reveal that Nestin-expressing progenitors repopulated the external granular cell layer after injury. Depletion of postnatal external granular cell layer is not sufficient to induce motor behavior defects in adults, as the cerebellum recovers these neurons...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538458/tis21-gene-therapy-inhibits-medulloblastoma-growth-in-a-murine-allograft-model
#12
Dario Presutti, Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Giuliana Papoff, Simonetta Santini, Simone Samperna, Cristiana Lalli, Lorena Zentilin, Giovina Ruberti, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), the tumor of the cerebellum, is the most frequent brain cancer in childhood and a major cause of pediatric mortality. Based on gene profiling, four MB subgroups have been identified, i.e., Wnt or Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) types, and subgroup 3 or 4. The Shh-type MB has been shown to arise from the cerebellar precursors of granule neurons (GCPs), where a hyperactivation of the Shh pathway leads to their neoplastic transformation. We have previously shown that the gene Tis21 (PC3/Btg2) inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation and migration of GCPs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532158/tryptase-as-a-polyfunctional-component-of-mast-cells
#13
REVIEW
Dmitri Atiakshin, Igor Buchwalow, Vera Samoilova, Markus Tiemann
Mast cells are haematopoietic cells that arise from pluripotent precursors of the bone marrow. They play immunomodulatory roles in both health and disease. When appropriately activated, mast cells undergo degranulation, and preformed granule compounds are rapidly released into the surroundings. In many cases, the effects that mast cells have on various inflammatory settings are closely associated with the enzymatic characteristics of tryptase, the main granule compound of mast cells. Tryptase degranulation is often linked with the development of an immune response, allergy, inflammation, and remodelling of tissue architecture...
March 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531057/lateral-cerebellum-is-preferentially-sensitive-to-high-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-and-medulloblastoma-formation
#14
I-Li Tan, Alexandre Wojcinski, Harikrishna Rallapalli, Zhimin Lao, Reeti M Sanghrajka, Daniel Stephen, Eugenia Volkova, Andrey Korshunov, Marc Remke, Michael D Taylor, Daniel H Turnbull, Alexandra L Joyner
The main cell of origin of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of medulloblastoma (MB) is granule cell precursors (GCPs), a SHH-dependent transient amplifying population in the developing cerebellum. SHH-MBs can be further subdivided based on molecular and clinical parameters, as well as location because SHH-MBs occur preferentially in the lateral cerebellum (hemispheres). Our analysis of adult patient data suggests that tumors with Smoothened ( SMO ) mutations form more specifically in the hemispheres than those with Patched 1 ( PTCH1 ) mutations...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515113/suppressing-il-36-driven-inflammation-using-peptide-pseudosubstrates-for-neutrophil-proteases
#15
Graeme P Sullivan, Conor M Henry, Danielle M Clancy, Tazhir Mametnabiev, Ekaterina Belotcerkovskaya, Pavel Davidovich, Sylvia Sura-Trueba, Alexander V Garabadzhiu, Seamus J Martin
Sterile inflammation is initiated by molecules released from necrotic cells, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Members of the extended IL-1 cytokine family are important DAMPs, are typically only released through necrosis, and require limited proteolytic processing for activation. The IL-1 family cytokines, IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ, are expressed as inactive precursors and have been implicated as key initiators of psoriatic-type skin inflammation. We have recently found that IL-36 family cytokines are proteolytically processed and activated by the neutrophil granule-derived proteases, elastase, and cathepsin G...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422234/an-overview-of-type-2-diabetes-and-importance-of-vitamin-d3-vitamin-d-receptor-interaction-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#16
REVIEW
Abraham Neelankal John, Fang-Xu Jiang
One significant health issue that plagues contemporary society is that of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease is characterised by higher-than-average blood glucose levels as a result of a combination of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretions from the β-cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Previous developmental research into the pancreas has identified how early precursor genes of pancreatic β-cells, such as Cpal, Ngn3, NeuroD, Ptf1a, and cMyc, play an essential role in the differentiation of these cells...
April 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402896/clathrin-heavy-chain-22-contributes-to-the-control-of-neuropeptide-degradation-and-secretion-during-neuronal-development
#17
Michael S Nahorski, Georg H H Borner, Samiha S Shaikh, Alexandra K Davies, Lihadh Al-Gazali, Robin Antrobus, C Geoffrey Woods
The repertoire of cell types in the human nervous system arises through a highly orchestrated process, the complexity of which is still being discovered. Here, we present evidence that CHC22 has a non-redundant role in an early stage of neural precursor differentiation, providing a potential explanation of why CHC22 deficient patients are unable to feel touch or pain. We show the CHC22 effect on neural differentiation is independent of the more common clathrin heavy chain CHC17, and that CHC22-dependent differentiation is mediated through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#18
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that ZEB2 (aka, SIP1 or ZFHX1B), a Mowat-Wilson syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317485/meis1-coordinates-cerebellar-granule-cell-development-by-regulating-pax6-transcription-bmp-signaling-and-atoh1-degradation
#19
Tomoo Owa, Shinichiro Taya, Satoshi Miyashita, Mariko Yamashita, Toma Adachi, Koyo Yamada, Miwa Yokoyama, Shogo Aida, Tomoki Nishioka, Yukiko U Inoue, Ryo Goitsuka, Takuro Nakamura, Takayoshi Inoue, Kozo Kaibuchi, Mikio Hoshino
Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and granule cells (GCs) represent good models to study neuronal development. Here, we report that the transcription factor myeloid ectopic viral integration site 1 homolog (Meis1) plays pivotal roles in the regulation of mouse GC development. We found that Meis1 is expressed in GC lineage cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum during development. Targeted disruption of the Meis1 gene specifically in the GC lineage resulted in smaller cerebella with disorganized lobules...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281094/impaired-processing-of-prohormones-in-secretogranin-iii-null-mice-causes-maladaptation-to-an-inadequate-diet-and-stress
#20
Yoshinori Maeda, Saki Kudo, Ken Tsushima, Eri Sato, Chisato Kubota, Aika Kayamori, Hiroki Bochimoto, Daisuke Koga, Seiji Torii, Hiroshi Gomi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Masahiro Hosaka
Secretogranin III (SgIII), a member of the granin family, binds both to another granin, chromogranin A (CgA), and to a cholesterol-rich membrane that is destined for secretory granules (SGs). The knockdown of SgIII in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing AtT-20 cells largely impairs the regulated secretion of CgA and ACTH. To clarify the physiological roles of SgIII in vivo, we analyzed hormone secretion and SG biogenesis in newly established SgIII-knockout (KO) mice. Although the SgIII-KO mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no overt abnormalities under ordinary rearing conditions, a high-fat/high-sucrose diet caused pronounced obesity in the mice...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
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