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Granul cell precursors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914933/differential-synthesis-and-release-of-il-18-and-il-18-binding-protein-from-human-platelets-and-their-implications-for-hiv-infection
#1
Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cecile Tremblay, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family and is produced in the body from macrophages, epithelial and dendritic cells, keratinocytes, adrenal cortex etc. The cytokine is produced as an inactive precursor that is cleaved inside cells into its mature form by activated caspase 1, which exists as an inactive precursor in human cells and requires assembly of an inflammasomes for its activation. We show here for the first time that human platelets contain transcripts for the IL-18 gene. They synthesize the cytokine de novo, process and release it upon activation...
December 1, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879339/mct8-deficiency-in-purkinje-cells-disrupts-embryonic-chicken-cerebellar-development
#2
Joke Delbaere, Pieter Vancamp, Stijn L J Van Herck, Nele M A Bourgeois, Mary J Green, Richard J T Wingate, Veerle M Darras
Inactivating mutations in the human SLC16A2 gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) result in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome accompanied by severe locomotor deficits. The underlying mechanisms of the associated cerebellar maldevelopment were studied using the chicken as a model. Electroporation of an MCT8-RNAi vector into the cerebellar anlage of a 3-day-old embryo allowed knockdown of MCT8 in Purkinje cell precursors. This resulted in downregulation of the thyroid hormone responsive gene RORα and the Purkinje cell specific differentiation marker LHX1/5 at day 6...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871413/b2a-polypeptide-in-foot-and-ankle-fusion
#3
REVIEW
Mark Glazebrook, Diana S Young
Foot and ankle fusion procedures often incorporate autogenous bone graft to help achieve bony union. Pain and morbidity associated with graft harvest have resulted in decreased autograft use as alternative bone graft substitutes have become available. Recently B2A peptide-coated ceramic granules have been developed and investigated. B2A, a bioactive synthetic multi-domain peptide acting on bone morphogenetic protein receptors of osteoblast precursor cells, amplifies the cell response to bone morphogenetic proteins...
December 2016: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830160/usp9x-deletion-elevates-the-density-of-oligodendrocytes-within-the-postnatal-dentate-gyrus
#4
Sabrina Oishi, Oressia Zalucki, Susitha Premarathne, Stephen A Wood, Michael Piper
Neural stem cells (NSCs) within the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus reside in the subgranular zone (SGZ). A dynamic network of signaling mechanisms controls the balance between the maintenance of NSC identity, and their subsequent differentiation into dentate granule neurons. Recently, the ubiquitin-specific protease 9 X-linked (USP9X) was shown to be important for hippocampal morphogenesis, as mice lacking this gene exhibited a higher proportion of proliferating NSCs, yet a decrease in neuronal numbers, within the postnatal dentate gyrus...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802424/dual-role-of-the-integrated-stress-response-in-medulloblastoma-tumorigenesis
#5
Sarrabeth Stone, Yeung Ho, Xiting Li, Stephanie Jamison, Heather P Harding, David Ron, Wensheng Lin
In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, activation of pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) coordinates an adaptive program known as the integrated stress response (ISR) by phosphorylating translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). Phosphorylated eIF2α is quickly dephosphorylated by the protein phosphatase 1 and growth arrest and DNA damage 34 (GADD34) complex. Data indicate that the ISR can either promote or suppress tumor development. Our previous studies showed that the ISR is activated in medulloblastoma in both human patients and animal models, and that the decreased ISR via PERK heterozygous deficiency attenuates medulloblastoma formation in Patched1 heterozygous deficient (Ptch1+/-) mice by enhancing apoptosis of pre-malignant granule cell precursors (GCPs) during cell transformation...
September 6, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796004/ultrastructural-studies-on-oocyte-development-and-vitellogenesis-associated-with-follicle-cells-in-female-scapharca-subcrenata-pelecypoda-arcidae-in-western-korea
#6
Sung Han Kim
Ultrastructural studies on oocyte development and vitellogenesis in oocytes, and the functions of follicle cells during oogenesis and oocyte degeneration were investigated to clarifyb the reproductive mechanism on vitellogenesis of Scapharca subcrenata using electron microscope observations. In this study, vitellogenesis during oogenesis in the oocytes occured by way of autosynthesis and heterosynthesis. Of two processes of vitellogenesis during oogenesis, the process of endogenous autosynthesis involved the combined activity of the Golgi complex, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790794/p27kip1-is-required-for-functionally-relevant-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-mice
#7
Henrik Hörster, Alexander Garthe, Tara L Walker, Muhammad Ichwan, Barbara Steiner, M Amir Khan, D Chichung Lie, Zeina Nicola, Gerardo Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerd Kempermann
We asked whether cell-cycle associated protein p27kip1 might be involved in the transition of precursor cells to postmitotic maturation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. p27kip1 was expressed throughout the dentate gyrus with a strong nuclear expression in early postmitotic, calretinin-positive neurons and neuronally determined progenitor cells (type-3 and some type-2b), lower or absent expression in radial glia-like precursor cells (type-1) and type-2a cells and essentially no expression in granule cells...
October 28, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789713/role-of-fast-kinase-domains-3-fastkd3-in-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression
#8
Erik Boehm, Maria Zornoza, Alexis A Jourdain, Aitor Delmiro Magdalena, Ines Garcia-Consuegra, Rebeca Torres Merino, Antonio Orduna, Miguel Angel Martin, Jean-Claude Martinou, Miguel Angel DE LA Fuente, Maria Simarro
The FASTK family of proteins has recently emerged as a central regulator of mitochondrial gene expression through the function of an unusual RNA-binding domains named RAP, shared by all six members of the family. Here we describe the role of one of the less characterized members, FASTKD3, in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. First, we show that, in contrast to FASTK, FASTKD2 and FASTKD5, FASTKD3 does not localize in mitochondrial RNA granules, which are sites of processing and maturation of mtRNAs and ribosome biogenesis...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781303/long-term-effects-of-autoimmune-cns-inflammation-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#9
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, George A Lyras, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Aging and chronic degenerative disorders have been shown to impair hippocampal neurogenesis, but the consequence of chronic inflammation remains controversial. In this study the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis was used to investigate the long-term effects of T cell-mediated central nervous system inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled subpopulations of hippocampal cells in EAE and control mice (coexpressing GFAP, doublecortin, NeuN, calretinin, and S100) were quantified at the recovery phase, 21 days after BrdU administration, to estimate alterations on the rate and differentiation pattern of the neurogenesis process...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775720/a-neuronal-pi-3-4-5-p3-dependent-program-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-recruitment-and-myelination
#10
Sandra Goebbels, Georg L Wieser, Alexander Pieper, Sonia Spitzer, Bettina Weege, Kuo Yan, Julia M Edgar, Oleksandr Yagensky, Sven P Wichert, Amit Agarwal, Khalad Karram, Nicolas Renier, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Moritz J Rossner, Ragnhildur Thóra Káradóttir, Klaus-Armin Nave
The molecular trigger of CNS myelination is unknown. By targeting Pten in cerebellar granule cells and activating the AKT1-mTOR pathway, we increased the caliber of normally unmyelinated axons and the expression of numerous genes encoding regulatory proteins. This led to the expansion of genetically wild-type oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, oligodendrocyte differentiation and de novo myelination of parallel fibers. Thus, a neuronal program dependent on the phosphoinositide PI(3,4,5)P3 is sufficient to trigger all steps of myelination...
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734996/stem-progenitor-cells-in-the-developing-human-cerebellum-an-immunohistochemical-study
#11
V Pibiri, A Ravarino, C Gerosa, M C Pintus, V Fanos, G Faa
The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727273/zfp423-regulates-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-via-primary-cilium-function
#12
Chen-Jei Hong, Bruce A Hamilton
Zfp423 encodes a 30-zinc finger transcription factor that intersects several canonical signaling pathways. Zfp423 mutations result in ciliopathy-related phenotypes, including agenesis of the cerebellar vermis in mice and Joubert syndrome (JBTS19) and nephronophthisis (NPHP14) in humans. Unlike most ciliopathy genes, Zfp423 encodes a nuclear protein and its developmental expression is complex, leading to alternative proposals for cellular mechanisms. Here we show that Zfp423 is expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors, that loss of Zfp423 in these precursors leads to cell-intrinsic reduction in proliferation, loss of response to Shh, and primary cilia abnormalities that include diminished frequency of both Smoothened and IFT88 localization...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677933/proteasome-dynamics-between-proliferation-and-quiescence-stages-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Ravikiran S Yedidi, Amatullah K Fatehi, Cordula Enenkel
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a critical role in cellular protein homeostasis and is required for the turnover of short-lived and unwanted proteins, which are targeted by poly-ubiquitination for degradation. Proteasome is the key protease of UPS and consists of multiple subunits, which are organized into a catalytic core particle (CP) and a regulatory particle (RP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteasome holo-enzymes are engaged in degrading poly-ubiquitinated substrates and are mostly localized in the nucleus during cell proliferation...
September 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664851/amyloid-%C3%AE-precursor-protein-regulates-neuron-survival-and-maturation-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#14
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621701/maternal-forced-swimming-reduces-cell-proliferation-in-the-postnatal-dentate-gyrus-of-mouse-offspring
#15
Frederick Wasinski, Gabriel R Estrela, Aline M Arakaki, Michael Bader, Natalia Alenina, Friederike Klempin, Ronaldo C Araújo
Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612590/novel-microrna-revealed-by-systematic-analysis-of-the-microrna-transcriptome-in-dentate-gyrus-granule-cells
#16
Brigid Ryan, Joanna M Williams
Post-transcriptional control of gene expression by microRNAs provides an important regulatory system within neurons, allowing co-ordinate and fine-tuned expression of plasticity-related proteins. Indeed, specific microRNAs have been shown to be regulated by synaptic activity in the dentate gyrus, and contribute to the regulated gene expression that underlies the persistence of long-term potentiation (LTP), a model of memory. To fully explore the contribution of microRNAs in synaptic plasticity, it is important to characterize the complete microRNA transcriptome in regions such as the dentate gyrus...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600805/dicer1-ablation-impairs-responsiveness-of-cerebellar-granule-neuron-precursors-to-sonic-hedgehog-and-disrupts-expression-of-distinct-cell-cycle-regulator-genes
#17
Qian Liu, Mei Jiang, Yi Kuang, Xiaoqiong Shu, Jun Li, Matthew W Li, Hedong Li
Granule neuron precursors (GNPs) proliferate under the influence of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) that is secreted by Purkinje neurons during early postnatal cerebellar development. To investigate microRNA (miRNA) function in this developmental process, we conditionally deleted the Dicer1 gene under the activity of human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP) promoter. We report that Dicer1-ablated GNPs display decreased proliferation and survival at early postnatal stages and that the proliferation defect of mutant GNPs cannot be rescued by treatment of an Shh agonist in vitro as assayed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse labeling and Shh target gene expression detection...
September 6, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586038/developmental-delay-in-motor-skill-acquisition-in-niemann-pick-c1-mice-reveals-abnormal-cerebellar-morphogenesis
#18
Paola Caporali, Francesco Bruno, Giampiero Palladino, Jessica Dragotto, Laura Petrosini, Franco Mangia, Robert P Erickson, Sonia Canterini, Maria Teresa Fiorenza
Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by defective intracellular trafficking of exogenous cholesterol. Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration is the main sign of cerebellar dysfunction in both NPC1 patients and animal models. It has been recently shown that a significant decrease in Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression reduces the proliferative potential of granule neuron precursors in the developing cerebellum of Npc1 (-/-) mice. Pursuing the hypothesis that this developmental defect translates into functional impairments, we have assayed Npc1-deficient pups belonging to the milder mutant mouse strain Npc1 (nmf164) for sensorimotor development from postnatal day (PN) 3 to PN21...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573234/morphogenetic-and-molecular-analyses-of-cyst-wall-components-in-the-ciliated-protozoan-colpoda-cucullus-nag-1
#19
Ryoji Funadani, Yoichiro Sogame, Katsuhiko Kojima, Toshikazu Takeshita, Keisuke Yamamoto, Tomoya Tsujizono, Futoshi Suizu, Seiji Miyata, Ken-Ichi Yagyu, Tomohiko Suzuki, Mikihiko Arikawa, Tatsuomi Matsuoka
The cyst wall of the resting cyst of the ciliated protozoan Colpoda cucullus (Nag-1 strain) is composed of several layers of endocyst, a single layer of ectocyst associated with a mucous layer and lepidosomes composed of a fibrous or crystal-like structure. SDS-PAGE showed that the ectocyst associated with lepidosomes and mucous materials contained proteins corresponding to 27 kDa, 31 kDa, 45 kDa and smear bands ranging from 50 to 60 kDa. LC-MS/MS of these proteins revealed that the 45-kDa protein (p45) was elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu)...
August 28, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564589/stox1-as-a-novel-transcriptional-suppressor-of-math1-during-cerebellar-granule-neurogenesis-and-medulloblastoma-formation
#20
Chenlu Zhang, Zhongzhong Ji, Minglei Wang, Weiwei Zhang, Rong Yang, Huanping An, Ru Yang, Daan van Abel, Marie van Dijk, Xiaohang Yang, Guangshuo Ou, Helen He Zhu, Wei-Qiang Gao
Cerebellar granule neuronal progenitors (GNPs) are the precursors of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and are believed to be the cell of origin for medulloblastoma (MB), yet the molecular mechanisms governing GNP neurogenesis are poorly elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that storkhead box 1 (Stox1), a forkhead transcriptional factor, has a pivotal role in cerebellar granule neurogenesis and MB suppression. Expression of Stox1 is upregulated along with GNP differentiation and repressed by activation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling...
December 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
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