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Subramanian Mariappan, Wieslaw Bogdanowicz, Hanumanthan Raghuram, Ganapathy Marimuthu, Koilmani Emmanuvel Rajan
We conducted a set of playback experiments aimed at understanding whether distress-call structure in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx is specific in encoding information relating to stress that attracts conspecifics. We tested the specificity by playing their distress call and its modified version at a foraging site for free-ranging bats, as well as under captive conditions involving either a small group or individuals. In a separate playback experiment, bats showed a significantly greater response when the natural call as opposed to a modified call was played back to captive as well as free-ranging bats at the foraging site...
January 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Yafeng Yang, Teng Ma, Jun Ge, Xin Quan, Le Yang, Shu Zhu, Liangliang Huang, Zhongyang Liu, Liang Liu, Dan Geng, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Neuron-like cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been considered one of the most promising cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus far, extensive efforts have been made to facilitate neuronal differentiation of ADSCs, but limited progress has been achieved. In the present study, we tested the possibility of using a combination of electrical stimulation (ES) with Nurr-1 gene transduction to promote neuronal differentiation of ADSCs...
2016: Cell Transplantation
Pierre Leblanc, Minho Moon, Woori Kim, Inhye Jeong, Chun-Hyung Kim, Kwang-Soo Kim
The nuclear receptor subfamily 4 (NR4A) is composed of 3 related proteins sharing a DNA binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). The nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1 or NR4A2) plays a key role in the maintenance of the dopaminergic system. Dopamine dysfunctions associated with the Nurr1 gene include Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and manic depression among others. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that Nurr1 is also expressed in other brain areas such as the hippocampus and plays critical roles for learning and memory...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Madhumita Patel, Hyo Jung Moon, Bo Kyung Jung, Byeongmoon Jeong
Neuronal differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) is investigated in a 3D hybrid system. The hybrid system is prepared by increasing the temperature of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-alanine) aqueous solution to 37 °C through the heat-induced sol-to-gel transition, in which TMSCs and growth factor releasing microspheres are suspended. The in situ formed gel exhibits a modulus of 800 Pa at 37 °C, similar to that of brain tissue, and it is robust enough to hold the microspheres and cells during the 3D culture of TMSCs...
July 15, 2015: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Sayinthen Vivekanantham, Savan Shah, Rizwan Dewji, Abbas Dewji, Chetan Khatri, Rele Ologunde
Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease [PD] is a process that occurs alongside the loss of dopaminergic neurons, and is associated with alterations to many cell types, most notably microglia. This review examines the key evidence contributing to our understanding of the role of inflammation-mediated degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) nigrostriatal pathway in PD. It will consider the potential role inflammation plays in tissue repair within the brain, inflammation linked gene products that are associated with sporadic Parkinsonian phenotypes (alpha-synuclein, Parkin and Nurr 1), and developing anti-inflammatory drug treatments in PD...
2015: International Journal of Neuroscience
Yutaka Watanuki, Kazunori Kageyama, Shinobu Takayasu, Yasushi Matsuzaki, Yasumasa Iwasaki, Makoto Daimon
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation stimulates cutaneous melanin pigmentation. The melanosomal enzyme tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) is involved in the modulation of pigment production in response to this stressor. Recent molecular and biochemical analyses have revealed the presence of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin 1 (Ucn1), together with their corresponding receptors, in mammalian skin. Although CRF and Ucn1 are thought to have potent effects on the skin system, their possible roles and regulations have yet to be determined fully...
November 2014: Peptides
Akram Mokhtarzadeh Khanghahi, Bahman Zeynali, Azimeh Akhlaghpoor, Azita Parvaneh Tafreshi, Kerstin Krieglstein
So far there is increasing evidence for the involvement of transforming growth factor beta TGFβ (transforming growth factor) in differentiation and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Considering that USSCs (unrestricted somatic stem cells) have the potentials to differentiate into neuron-like cells and even dopaminergic neurons and that no evidence available on the role of TGFβ signaling in dopaminergic differentiation of these cells, we investigated the presence of TGFβ signaling components in USSCs and their involvement on USSCs differentiation into early dopaminergic neurons...
November 7, 2014: Neuroscience Letters
Xuejun H Parsons
To date, the lack of a clinically-suitable source of engraftable human stem/progenitor cells with adequate neurogenic potential has been the major setback in developing safe and effective cell-based therapies for regenerating the damaged or lost CNS structure and circuitry in a wide range of neurological disorders. Similarly, the lack of a clinically-suitable human cardiomyocyte source with adequate myocardium regenerative potential has been the major setback in regenerating the damaged human heart. Given the limited capacity of the CNS and heart for self-repair, there is a large unmet healthcare need to develop stem cell therapies to provide optimal regeneration and reconstruction treatment options to restore normal tissues and function...
October 1, 2013: British Biotechnology Journal
Yu-Wei Lee, Ewa K Stachowiak, Barbara Birkaya, Christopher Terranova, Mariolina Capacchietti, Peter Claus, John M Aletta, Michal K Stachowiak
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the founding member of the polypeptide neurotrophin family responsible for neuronal differentiation. To determine whether the effects of NGF rely upon novel Integrative Nuclear FGF Receptor-1 (FGFR1) Signaling (INFS) we utilized the PC12 clonal cell line, a long-standing benchmark model of sympathetic neuronal differentiation. We demonstrate that NGF increases expression of the fgfr1 gene and promotes trafficking of FGFR1 protein from cytoplasm to nucleus by inhibiting FGFR1 nuclear export...
2013: PloS One
Simon R W Stott, Emmanouil Metzakopian, Wei Lin, Klaus H Kaestner, Rene Hen, Siew-Lan Ang
The maintained expression of transcription factors throughout the development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons suggests multiple roles at various stages in development. Two members of the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor family, Foxa1 and Foxa2, have been recently shown to have an important influence in the early development of mDA neurons. Here we present data demonstrating that these genes are also involved in the later maintenance of the mDA system. We conditionally removed both genes in postmitotic mDA neurons using the dopamine transporter-cre mouse...
May 1, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yutaka Watanuki, Shinobu Takayasu, Kazunori Kageyama, Yasumasa Iwasaki, Satoru Sakihara, Ken Terui, Takeshi Nigawara, Toshihiro Suda
Recent molecular and biochemical analyses have revealed the presence of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin (Ucn), together with their corresponding receptors in mammalian skin. The melanosomal enzyme tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) is involved in modulation of pigment production in response to stressors. Although CRF and Ucn are thought to have potent effects on the skin system, their possible roles and regulation have yet to be fully determined. This study aimed to explore the effects of CRF and Ucn on TRP1 gene expression using human melanoma HMV-II cells...
May 6, 2013: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Kalina Duszka, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss, Hubert Hackl, Dietmar Rieder, Claudia Neuhold, Andreas Prokesch, Zlatko Trajanoski, Anne-M Krogsdam
Expression of the nuclear receptor gene, Nur77 (Nr4a1), is induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation and fasting. Recently, Nur77 has been shown to play a gene regulatory role in the fasting response of several other major metabolic tissues. Here we investigated the effects of Nur77 on the WAT transcriptome after fasting. For this purpose, we performed gene expression profiling of WAT from wild-type and Nur77(-/-) mice submitted to prolonged fasting. Results revealed Nur77-dependent changes in expression profiles of 135 transcripts, many involved in insulin signaling, lipid and fatty acid metabolism, and glucose metabolism...
January 2013: Molecular Endocrinology
Mary Tomek, Toru Akiyama, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: Bcl-2 is a protein that inhibits apoptosis, leading to cell survival. The Bcl-2 family has six different anti-apoptotic proteins, three pro-apoptotic proteins that are similar in structure, and other integrating proteins that function as promotors or inhibitors in the progression of apoptosis. In this discussion paper, we provide an overview of apoptosis, the role of Bcl-2 in normal cellular and molecular processes, and the role of Bcl-2 in tumour cell survival. It focuses primarily on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, its activation in cancer, the manner in which it regulates the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of apoptosis, and its broad molecular interactions with other critical proteins in the cell...
December 2012: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Michael J Keogh, Laura Bennet, Paul P Drury, Lindsea C Booth, Sam Mathai, Andrew S Naylor, Mhoyra Fraser, Alistair J Gunn
Exposure to chorioamnionitis is strongly associated with neurodevelopmental disability after premature birth; however, it remains unclear whether subclinical infection affects functional EEG maturation. Chronically instrumented 103-104-day-old (0.7 gestational age: term 147 days) fetal sheep in utero were randomized to receive either gram-negative LPS by continuous low-dose infusion (100 ng iv over 24 h, followed by 250 ng/24 h for 4 days; n = 6) or the same volume of normal saline (n = 9). Arterial plasma cortisol, ACTH, and IL-6 were measured...
August 1, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Zhiying Zhang, Arshak R Alexanian
A number of recent studies have examined the ability of stem cells derived from different sources to differentiate into dopamine-producing cells and ameliorate behavioural deficits in Parkinsonian models. Recently, using the approach of cell reprogramming by small cell-permeable biological active compounds that involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and function, and interfere with specific cell signalling pathways that promote neural differentiation we have been able to generate neural-like cells from human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs (hMSCs)...
November 2012: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Deeann Wallis, Denise S Hill, Ian A Mendez, Louise C Abbott, Richard H Finnell, Paul J Wellman, Barry Setlow
The LPHN3 gene has been associated with both attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction, suggesting that it may play a role in the etiology of these disorders. Unfortunately, almost nothing is known about the normal functions of this gene, which has hampered understanding of its potential pathogenic role. To begin to characterize such normal functions, we utilized a gene-trap embryonic stem cell line to generate mice mutant for the Lphn3 gene. We evaluated differential gene expression in whole mouse brain between mutant and wild type male littermates at postnatal day 0 using TaqMan gene expression assays...
June 29, 2012: Brain Research
Yu-Wei Lee, Christopher Terranova, Barbara Birkaya, Sridhar Narla, Daniel Kehoe, Abhirath Parikh, Shuo Dong, Andreas Ratzka, Hella Brinkmann, John M Aletta, Emmanuel S Tzanakakis, Ewa K Stachowiak, Peter Claus, Michal K Stachowiak
FGF Receptor-1 (FGFR1), a membrane-targeted protein, is also involved in independent direct nuclear signaling. We show that nuclear accumulation of FGFR1 is a common response to retinoic acid (RA) in pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) and neural progenitors and is both necessary and sufficient for neuronal-like differentiation and accompanying neuritic outgrowth. Dominant negative nuclear FGFR1, which lacks the tyrosine kinase domain, prevents RA-induced differentiation while full-length nuclear FGFR1 elicits differentiation in the absence of RA...
September 2012: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Branden J Cord, Jie Li, Melissa Works, Susan K McConnell, Theo Palmer, Mary A Hynes
Dopaminergic neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells will be useful in future transplantation studies of Parkinson's disease patients. As newly generated neurons must integrate and reconnect with host cells, the ability of hESC-derived neurons to respond to axon guidance cues will be critical. Both Netrin-1 and Slit-2 guide rodent embryonic dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo, but very little is known about the response of hESC-derived DA neurons to any axonal guidance cues. Here we examined the ability of Netrin-1 and Slit-2 to affect human ESC DA axons in vitro...
December 2010: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Shinobu Takayasu, Yasumasa Iwasaki, Takeshi Nigawara, Masato Asai, Masanori Yoshida, Kazunori Kageyama, Toshihiro Suda
OBJECTIVE: The precise mechanism whereby proinflammatory cytokines activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is still unclear. We examined whether transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and Nurr-1 are involved in the cytokine-induced proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression. METHODS: The mouse corticotropinoma cell line AtT20 was treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Real-time PCR, luciferase assay and Western blotting were conducted to assess the gene expression, promoter activity and protein expression in various conditions...
2010: Neuroimmunomodulation
Roger G Tremblay, Marianna Sikorska, Jagdeep K Sandhu, Patricia Lanthier, Maria Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, Mahmud Bani-Yaghoub
Neuro 2A (N2a) is a mouse neural crest-derived cell line that has been extensively used to study neuronal differentiation, axonal growth and signaling pathways. A convenient characteristic of these cells is their ability to differentiate into neurons within a few days. However, most differentiation methods reported for N2a cells do not provide information about the neuronal types obtained after each treatment. In this study, we evaluated the generation of N2a dopamine neurons following treatment with a number of factors known to induce neuronal differentiation...
January 30, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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