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Synthetic colloid

Jugal Kishore Sahoo, Michael A VandenBerg, Matthew J Webber
Self-assembly is a powerful tool to create functional materials. A specific application for which self-assembled materials are ideally suited is in creating injectable biomaterials. Contrasting with traditional biomaterials that are implanted through surgical means, injecting biomaterials through the skin offers numerous advantages, expanding the scope and impact for biomaterials in medicine. In particular, self-assembled biomaterials prepared from molecular or colloidal interactions have been frequently explored...
November 8, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Ziwei Deng, Bin Shang, Bo Peng
Polydopamine is a synthetic analogue of natural melanin (eumelanin) produced from oxidative polymerization of dopamine. Owing to its strong adhesion ability, versatile chemical reactivity, biocompatibility and biodegradation, polydopamine is commonly applied as a versatile linker to synthesize colloidal materials with diverse structures, unique physicochemical properties and tunable functions, which allow for a broad scope of applications including biomedicine, sensing, catalysis, environment and energy. In this personal account, we discuss first about the different synthetic approaches of polydopamine, as well as its polymerization mechanism, and then with a comprehensive overview of recent progress in the synthesis and applications of polydopamine-based colloidal materials...
November 10, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Shikuan Yang, Nan Sun, Birgitt Boschitsch Stogin, Jing Wang, Yu Huang, Tak-Sing Wong
Since the early discovery of the antireflection properties of insect compound eyes, new examples of natural antireflective coatings have been rare. Here, we report the fabrication and optical characterization of a biologically inspired antireflective surface that emulates the intricate surface architectures of leafhopper-produced brochosomes-soccer ball-like microscale granules with nanoscale indentations. Our method utilizes double-layer colloidal crystal templates in conjunction with site-specific electrochemical growth to create these structures, and is compatible with various materials including metals, metal oxides, and conductive polymers...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
Juan Ruben Gomez-Solano, Sela Samin, Celia Lozano, Pablo Ruedas-Batuecas, René van Roij, Clemens Bechinger
Microorganisms are able to overcome the thermal randomness of their surroundings by harvesting energy to navigate in viscous fluid environments. In a similar manner, synthetic colloidal microswimmers are capable of mimicking complex biolocomotion by means of simple self-propulsion mechanisms. Although experimentally the speed of active particles can be controlled by e.g. self-generated chemical and thermal gradients, an in-situ change of swimming direction remains a challenge. In this work, we study self-propulsion of half-coated spherical colloids in critical binary mixtures and show that the coupling of local body forces, induced by laser illumination, and the wetting properties of the colloid, can be used to finely tune both the colloid's swimming speed and its directionality...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jianhai Zhou, Meiyi Zhu, Renyang Meng, Haiyan Qin, Xiaogang Peng
This work explored possibilities to obtain colloidal quantum dots (QDs) with ideal photoluminescence (PL) properties, i.e., monoexponential PL decay dynamics, unity PL quantum yield, ensemble PL spectrum identical to that at the single-dot level, single-dot PL nonblinking, and antibleaching. Using CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs as the model system, shell-epitaxy, ligand exchange, and shape conversion of the core/shell QDs were studied systematically to establish a strategy for reproducibly synthesizing QDs with the targeted properties...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Michael E Winters, Robert Sherwin, Gary M Vilke, Gabriel Wardi
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock recommend crystalloids as the initial fluid solution of choice in the resuscitation of these patients. In recent years, there have been numerous studies published on the type of fluid used in the resuscitation of patients with sepsis. The primary goal of this article is to determine the preferred intravenous fluid for the resuscitation of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. METHODS: A MEDLINE literature review was completed to identify studies that investigated the type of resuscitation fluid in the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Oleksandr Voznyy, Larissa Levina, Feng-Jia Fan, Grant Walters, James Z Fan, Amirreza Kiani, Alexander H Ip, Susanna M Thon, Andrew Proppe, Mengxia Liu, Edward H Sargent
Stokes shift, an energy difference between the excitonic absorption and emission, is a property of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) typically ascribed to splitting between dark and bright excitons. In some materials, e.g., PbS, CuInS2, CdHgTe, a Stokes shift of up to 200 meV is observed, substantially larger than the estimates of dark-bright state splitting or vibronic relaxations. The shift origin remains highly debated, as contradictory signatures of both surface and bulk character were reported for the Stokes-shifted electronic state...
October 27, 2017: Nano Letters
Laura-Jayne A Ellis, Mohammed Baalousha, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Jamie R Lead
Understanding the environmental behaviour of nanoparticles (NPs) after release into aquatic systems is essential to predict the environmental implications of nanotechnology. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent a major class of engineered NPs with a significant potential for environmental impact. Therefore, investigating their transformations in natural waters will help predict their long term environmental fate and behaviour. AgNPs were characterized in natural lake water collected seasonally from the same freshwater source, using column microcosms to assess their behaviour and transport at different depths...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
Hui Zhang, Gurpreet S Selopal, Yufeng Zhou, Xin Tong, Daniele Benetti, Lei Jin, Fabiola Navarro-Pardo, Zhiming Wang, Shuhui Sun, Haiguang Zhao, Federico Rosei
We designed a facile approach for the synthesis of PbS quantum dots (QDs) using thiourea and lead acetate as sources of sulfur and lead, respectively. The sizes of the PbS QDs could be systematically controlled by simply adjusting the reaction parameters. Cd post-treatment via a cation exchange method was performed to increase the stability of QDs. As a proof of concept, colloidal PbS QDs synthesized by using air-stable thiourea were employed as light harvesters for both (i) solar driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation and (ii) QDs sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs)...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale
Tuğçe Ayvalı, Pier-Francesco Fazzini, Pierre Lecante, Alvaro Mayoral, Karine Philippot, Bruno Chaudret
The choice of suitable organometallic precursors, [Re2(C3H5)4] and [Ru(Me-Allyl)2COD] or [Ru(COD)(COT)], allows us to synthesize polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized bimetallic RuRe nanoparticles of ca. 1.3 nm with narrow size dispersity, displaying the hcp crystal structure and to control their chemical order: an alloy or Re rich surface. The structural features of these NPs were determined using complementary characterization techniques (TEM, HRTEM, STEM-HAADF, EDX, WAXS, FT-IR, MAS-NMR and ICP). In particular, surface state investigation based on CO adsorption and oxidation reactions provided useful information of the chemical order in these nanoparticles...
November 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Qamruzzaman Qamruzzaman, Abu Nasar
Bispyribac sodium (BS) is one of the most commonly used herbicides used to kill selectively unwanted herbs particularly in rice plantation. However, the increasing use of herbicides in agricultural field is associated with a potential risk to water resources and aquatic system. Thus the treatment of such pesticides, after fulfillment of their herbicidal activity is of quite interest to minimize the contamination of water. The degradation kinetics of BS from synthetic contaminated water by water soluble colloidal MnO2 in acidic medium (HClO4) has been studied spectrophotometrically in the absence and presence of different surfactants...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Technology
Zhan Yuin Ong, Shu Chen, Elham Nabavi, Anna Regoutz, David J Payne, Daniel S Elson, David T Dexter, Iain E Dunlop, Alexandra E Porter
Because of the critical role of the large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) in promoting tumor growth and proliferation, it is fast emerging as a highly attractive biomarker for the imaging and treatment of human malignancies, including breast cancer. While multibranched gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have emerged as a promising modality in the photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancers, some of the key challenges limiting their clinical translation lie in the need to develop reproducible and cost-effective synthetic methods as well as the selective accumulation of sufficient AuNPs at tumor sites...
November 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Francesca Ridi, Monica Tonelli, Emiliano Fratini, Sow-Hsin Chen, Piero Baglioni
Cement is produced by mixing mineral phases based on calcium silicates and aluminates with water. The hydration reaction of the mixture leads to a synthetic material with outstanding properties that can be used as a binder for construction applications. Despite the importance of cement in society, for a long time, the chemical reactions involved in its hydration remained poorly understood due to the complexity of hydration processes, nanostructure and transport phenomena. This feature article reviews the recently obtained results using water as "a probe" to detail the essential features in the setting process...
October 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sérgio M F Vilela, Pablo Salcedo-Abraira, Isabelle Colinet, Fabrice Salles, Martijn C de Koning, Marloes J A Joosen, Christian Serre, Patricia Horcajada
The three-dimensional (3D) microporous titanium aminoterephthalate MIL-125-NH₂ (MIL: Material of Institut Lavoisier) was successfully isolated as monodispersed nanoparticles, which are compatible with intravenous administration, by using a simple, safe and low-cost synthetic approach (100 °C/32 h under atmospheric pressure) so that for the first time it could be considered for encapsulation and the release of drugs. The nerve agent antidote 2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium chloride (2-PAM or pralidoxime) was effectively encapsulated into the pores of MIL-125-NH₂ as a result of the interactions between 2-PAM and the pore walls being mediated by π-stacking and hydrogen bonds, as deduced from infrared spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation studies...
October 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
Reza Sahraei, Ehsan Soheyli, Zahra Faraji, Mohammad Soleiman-Beigi
We report here a one pot, mild and low cost aqueous-based synthetic route for preparation of colloidally stable and highly luminescent dual-doped Ag,Ni:ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). The pure dopant emission of the Ni-doped core/shell quantum dots was found to be highly effected at the presence of second dopant ion (Ag+). Results showed that the PL emission intensity increases while its peak position experiences an obvious blue shift with increasing the content of Ag+ ions. Regarding the optical observations, we simply provide a scheme for absorption-recombination processes of the carriers through impurity centers...
October 11, 2017: Nanotechnology
Florian D Ott, Andreas Riedinger, David R Ochsenbein, Philippe N Knüsel, Steven C Erwin, Marco Mazzotti, David J Norris
Ostwald ripening describes how the size distribution of colloidal particles evolves with time due to thermodynamic driving forces. Typically, small particles shrink and provide material to larger particles, which leads to size defocusing. Semiconductor nanoplatelets, thin quasi-two-dimensional (2D) particles with thicknesses of only a few atomic layers but larger lateral dimensions, offer a unique system to investigate this phenomenon. Experiments show that the distribution of nanoplatelet thicknesses does not defocus during ripening, but instead jumps sequentially from m to (m + 1) monolayers, allowing precise thickness control...
October 17, 2017: Nano Letters
Xingfu Yang, Ning Wu
As demonstrated in biological systems, breaking the symmetry of surrounding hydrodynamic flow is the key to achieve autonomous locomotion of microscopic objects. In recent years, a variety of synthetic motors have been developed based on different propulsion mechanisms. Most work, however, focuses on the propulsion of individual motors. Here, we study the collective behaviors of colloidal dimers actuated by a perpendicularly applied AC electric field, which controls the electrohydrodynamic flow at subparticle levels...
October 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Cynthia M Friend, Tanya Shirman, Judith Lattimer, Mathilde Luneau, Elijah Shirman, Christian Reece, Michael Aizenberg, Robert Madix, Joanna Aizenberg
A highly modular synthesis of designed catalysts with controlled bimetallic nanoparticle size and composition and a well-defined structural hierarchy is demonstrated. We show that these new catalysts architectures are significantly better than nanoporous dilute AgAu alloy catalysts (np Ag0.03Au0.97) while retaining a clear predictive relationship between their surface reactivity with that of single crystal Au surfaces. This paves the way for broadening the range of new catalyst architectures required for translating the designed principles developed under controlled conditions to designed catalysts under operating conditions for highly selective coupling of alcohols to form esters...
September 28, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anton S Zadorin, Yannick Rondelez, Guillaume Gines, Vadim Dilhas, Georg Urtel, Adrian Zambrano, Jean-Christophe Galas, André Estevez-Torres
During embryo development, patterns of protein concentration appear in response to morphogen gradients. These patterns provide spatial and chemical information that directs the fate of the underlying cells. Here, we emulate this process within non-living matter and demonstrate the autonomous structuration of a synthetic material. First, we use DNA-based reaction networks to synthesize a French flag, an archetypal pattern composed of three chemically distinct zones with sharp borders whose synthetic analogue has remained elusive...
October 2017: Nature Chemistry
Ivayla D Yozova, Judith Howard, Nadja E Sigrist, Katja-Nicole Adamik
The use of synthetic colloids (SCs), particularly hydroxyethyl starch (HES), in people has changed in recent years following new evidence raising concerns about their efficacy and safety. Although fluid therapy guidelines for small animals are often extrapolated from human medicine, little information exists on current practice in veterinary medicine. The objective of the present study was to investigate current fluid selection, use of plasma volume expanders including SCs, and recent changes in their use in small animal practice...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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