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Synthetic colloid

Danijela Gregurec, Susana Velasco-Lozano, Sergio E Moya, Luis Vázquez, Fernando López-Gallego
Optimal immobilization of enzymes on porous microbeads enables the fabrication of highly active and stable heterogeneous biocatalysts to implement biocatalysis in synthetic and analytical chemistry. However, empirical procedures for enzyme immobilization still prevail over rational ones because there is an unmet need for more comprehensive characterization techniques that aid to understand and trace the immobilization process. Here, we present the use of atomic force spectroscopy (AFS) as an innovative solution to indirectly characterize immobilized proteins on porous materials and monitor the immobilization process in real time...
October 6, 2016: Soft Matter
Meghan B Teunis, Katie N Lawrence, Poulami Dutta, Amanda P Siegel, Rajesh Sardar
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, direct band-gap semiconductors, have shown tremendous promise for optoelectronic device fabrication. We report the first colloidal synthetic approach to prepare ultrasmall (∼1.5 nm diameter), white-light emitting, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters. The nearly pure white-light emitting ultrasmall nanoclusters were obtained by selectively manipulating the surface chemistry (passivating ligands and surface trap-states) and controlled substitution of halide ions...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Kallayi Nabeela, Reny Thankam Thomas, Jyothi B Nair, Kaustabh Kumar Maiti, Krishna Gopa Kumar Warrier, Saju Pillai
Synthesis of shape-tuned silver (Ag) nanostructures with high plasmon characteristics has drawn significant importance in in-vitro diagnostic applications. Herein, we report a simple aqueous synthetic route using TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose fibers (T-NCF) and trisodium citrate (TSC) that results in anisotropically grown flower-like Ag nanoconstruct (AgNF). A detailed investigation of the concentration and sequence of the addition of reactants on the formation of these anisotropic Ag structure is presented...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
John Joseph Keating, Joseph Imbrogno, Georges Belfort
The fundamentals and applications of polymer brush modified membranes are reviewed. This new class of synthetic membranes is explored with an emphasis on tuning the membrane performance through polymer brush grafting. This work highlights the intriguing performance characteristics of polymer brush modified membranes in a variety of separations. Polymer brushes are a versatile and effective means in designing membranes for applications in protein adsorption and purification, colloid stabilization, sensors, water purification, pervaporation of organic compounds, gas separations, and as stimuli responsive materials...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Abebe Balcha, Om Prakash Yadav, Tania Dey
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods. The aim of this study was to understand how different synthetic methods can affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite sizes of 30 and 28 nm, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Danilo Antonini Alves, Daisy Machado, Adriana Melo, Rafaella Fabiana Carneiro Pereira, Patrícia Severino, Luciana Maria de Hollanda, Daniele Ribeiro Araújo, Marcelo Lancellotti
Levofloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for oral or intravenous administration. Chemically, levofloxacin is the levorotatory isomer (L-isomer) of racemate ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. Quinolone derivatives rapidly and specifically inhibit the synthesis of bacterial DNA. Levofloxacin has in vitro activity against a broad range of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, formulation of combined poloxamers thermoregulated (as Pluronic® F127) and levofloxacin for use in multiresistant bacterial treatment were poorly described in the current literature...
2016: BioMed Research International
Hitomi Shirahama, Supriya K Kumar, Won-Yong Jeon, Myung Hee Kim, Jae Ho Lee, Soon Seng Ng, Seyed R Tabaei, Nam-Joon Cho
The ability to maintain hepatocyte function in vitro, for the purpose of testing xenobiotics' cytotoxicity, studying virus infection and developing drugs targeted at the liver, requires a platform in which cells receive proper biochemical and mechanical cues. Recent liver tissue engineering systems have employed three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds composed of synthetic or natural hydrogels, given their high water retention and their ability to provide the mechanical stimuli needed by the cells. There has been growing interest in the inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) scaffold, a recent development, which allows high spatial organization, homotypic and heterotypic cell interaction, as well as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Vera Meester, Daniela J Kraft
Surface morphology is a tool to tune physical properties of colloidal suspensions such as the wettability, viscoelasticity, and depletion attractions. Existing synthesis methods to obtain colloids with a rough surface morphology often result in colloids with nontunable surface properties. Here, we developed a synthetic approach to obtain both spherical and shape-anisotropic hybrid colloids with tunable surface morphology. With our approach, monodisperse linear polystyrene colloids, obtained in large quantities using a dispersion polymerization method, are swollen and cross-linked with styrene and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TPM) in the presence of the polymerization inhibitor hydroquinone...
October 5, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ajay Ram Srimath Kandada, Stefanie Neutzner, Valerio D'Innocenzo, Francesco Tassone, Marina Gandini, Quinten A Akkerman, Mirko Prato, Liberato Manna, Annamaria Petrozza, Guglielmo Lanzani
The simple solution processability at room temperature exposes lead halide perovskite semiconductors to a non-negligible level of unintentional structural and chemical defects. Ascertained that their primary optoelectronic properties meet the requirement for high efficiency optoelectronic technologies, a lack of knowledge about the nature of defects and their role in the device operation currently is a major challenge for their market-scale application due to the issues with stability and reliability. Here, we use excitation correlation photoluminescence (ECPL) spectroscopy to investigate the recombination dynamics of the photogenerated carriers in lead bromide perovskites and quantitatively describe the carrier trapping dynamics within a generalization of the Shockley-Read-Hall formalism...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
K Giannousi, E Hatzivassiliou, S Mourdikoudis, G Vourlias, A Pantazaki, C Dendrinou-Samara
There is a growing field of research into the physicochemical properties of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and their potential use against tumor formation, development and progression. Coated NPs with biocompatible surfactants can be incorporated into the natural metabolic pathway of the body and specifically favor delivery to the targeted cancerous cells versus normal cells. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an FDA approved, biocompatible synthetic polymer and PEGylated NPs are regarded as "stealth" nanoparticles, which are not recognized by the immune system...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Benjamin Ziegler, Christoph Hirche, Johannes Horter, Jurij Kiefer, Paul Alfred Grützner, Thomas Kremer, Ulrich Kneser, Matthias Münzberg
INTRODUCTION: Initial therapy of severe burns in specialized burn trauma centers is a challenging task faced by the treating multi-professional and interdisciplinary team. A lack of consistent operating procedures and varying structural conditions was recently demonstrated in preliminary data of our group. These results raised the question on how specific treatment measures in acute burn care are met in the absence of standardized guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A specific questionnaire containing 57 multiple-choice questions was sent to all 22 major burn centers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland...
September 21, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
C Dispenza, G Spadaro, M Jonsson
Nanogels combine the favourable properties of hydrogels with those of colloids. They can be soft and conformable, stimuli-responsive and highly permeable, and can expose a large surface with functional groups for conjugation to small and large molecules, and even macromolecules. They are among the very few systems that can be generated and used as aqueous dispersions. Nanogels are emerging materials for targeted drug delivery and bio-imaging, but they have also shown potential for water purification and in catalysis...
October 2016: Top Curr Chem (J)
Fenghe Wang, Erwin Peng, Feng Liu, Pingjing Li, Sam Fong Yau Li, Jun Min Xue
To obtain suitable T 1 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) application, aqueous Gd2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) with high longitudinal relativity (r 1) are demanded. High quality Gd2O3 NPs are usually synthesized through a non-hydrolytic route which requires post-synthetic modification to render the NPs water soluble. The current challenge is to obtain aqueous Gd2O3 NPs with high colloidal stability and enhanced r 1 relaxivity. To overcome this challenge, fluorescence-tagged amphiphilic brush copolymer (AFCP) encapsulated Gd2O3 NPs were proposed as suitable T 1 contrast agents...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
Elena C Montoto, Gavvalapalli Nagarjuna, Jingshu Hui, Mark Burgess, Nina M Sekerak, Kenneth Hernández-Burgos, Teng-Sing Wei, Marissa Kneer, Joshua Grolman, Kevin J Cheng, Jennifer A Lewis, Jeffrey S Moore, Joaquín Rodríguez-López
Versatile and readily available battery materials compatible with a range of electrode configurations and cell designs are desirable for renewable energy storage. Here we report a promising class of materials based on redox active colloids (RACs) that are inherently modular in their design and overcome challenges faced by small-molecule organic materials for battery applications, such as crossover and chemical/morphological stability. RACs are cross-linked polymer spheres, synthesized with uniform diameters between 80 and 800 nm, and exhibit reversible redox activity as single particles, as monolayer films, and in the form of flowable dispersions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Svetlana Neretina, Robert A Hughes, Kyle D Gilroy, Maryam Hajfathalian
Modern technologically driven societies could not exist in their current form if it were not for a great many synthetic achievements reliant on solution-based chemistry and substrate-based processing techniques. It is, hence, not surprising that these same materials preparation techniques have given rise to an impressive list of functional nanomaterials including those derived from noble metals, a class of materials renowned for their extraordinary optical and catalytic properties. Acting as the foundation for substrate-based processing is a collection of techniques such as physical and chemical vapor deposition, epitaxy, self- and directed assembly, and a host of lithographic methods...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Carmelo Puglia, Maria Rosaria Lauro, Giorgia Giusy Tirendi, Giuseppina Emanuela Fassari, Claudia Carbone, Francesco Bonina, Giovanni Puglisi
INTRODUCTION: Colloidal drug delivery systems (CDDS) are innovative carriers that have been studied in pharmaceutical field from many years to overcome unfavorable physical and chemical features of synthetic drugs. Recently the use of CDDS as carriers for phytochemicals has seen an exponential increase which, in some cases, has led to the rediscovery of ancient and forgotten natural molecules. AREA COVERED: This article focuses on the main features of CDDS, particularly micro- and nanoemulsions, vesicular carriers and micro- and nanoparticles, loaded with natural active compounds...
September 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Pradip Chakraborty, Yu Jin, Charles J Barrows, Scott T Dunham, Daniel R Gamelin
Ion exchange, in which an in-diffusing ion replaces a lattice ion, has been widely exploited as a synthetic tool for semiconductor doping and solid-to-solid chemical transformations, both in bulk and at the nanoscale. Here, we present a systematic investigation of cation-exchange reactions that involve the displacement of Mn(2+) from CdSe nanocrystals by Cd(2+) or In(3+). For both incoming cations, Mn(2+) displacement is spontaneous but thermally activated, following Arrhenius behavior over a broad experimental temperature range...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kirsten Cleemann Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhage follows surgical intervention, but also fluid substitution may affect the blood loss. Here influence of colloids and lactated Ringer's solution (LR) on coagulation competence and haemorrhage is evaluated during cystectomy. METHODS: A meta-analysis, a prospective observational study and three randomized controlled trials were conducted - 17 patients received HES 130/0.4, 19 patients Dextran 70, 19 patients human albumin, and 54 patients LR - with blinded evaluation of blood loss and outcome while coagulation competence was evaluated by thromboelastography (TEG) and plasma coagulation analyses...
September 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Carlos Moreno-Castilla
Carbon spheres (CSs) have recently attracted major interest due to their new applications, mainly in energy storage and conversion but also in hard-templating, sorption/catalysis processes, and drug delivery systems. This is attributable to their physico-chemical properties, including their tunable morphology (solid, hollow and core-shell), size, surface area/porosity, good electrical conductivity, low external surface-to-volume ratio, high packing density, enhanced mass transport, robust mechanical stability, low cytotoxicity, and excellent biocompatibility...
October 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Cai Zhang, Li Zhou, Jing Zhang, Yan-Yan Fu, Xuejun Zhang, Chunshui Yu, Shao-Kai Sun, Xiu-Ping Yan
Traditional targeting nanoprobes suffer from the risks of partial loss of targeting activity and nanoparticle aggregation induced by post-synthetic modifications, ambiguous toxicity, tedious synthesis procedures and environmentally hazardous processes. Herein, we report a green and facile strategy to fabricate transferrin-indocyanine green nanoparticles as a smart theranostic agent with intrinsic biosafety and active targeting abilities for near-infrared fluorescent imaging and photothermal therapy of tumors...
September 28, 2016: Nanoscale
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