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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405662/assembly-of-hard-spheres-in-a-cylinder-a-computational-and-experimental-study
#1
Lin Fu, Ce Bian, C Wyatt Shields, Daniela F Cruz, Gabriel P López, Patrick Charbonneau
Hard spheres are an important benchmark of our understanding of natural and synthetic systems. In this work, colloidal experiments and Monte Carlo simulations examine the equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium assembly of hard spheres of diameter σ within cylinders of diameter σ ≤ D ≤ 2.82σ. Although phase transitions formally do not exist in such systems, marked structural crossovers can nonetheless be observed. Over this range of D, we find in simulations that structural crossovers echo the structural changes in the sequence of densest packings...
April 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403228/refining-particle-positions-using-circular-symmetry
#2
Alvaro Rodriguez, Hanqing Zhang, Krister Wiklund, Tomas Brodin, Jonatan Klaminder, Patrik Andersson, Magnus Andersson
Particle and object tracking is gaining attention in industrial applications and is commonly applied in: colloidal, biophysical, ecological, and micro-fluidic research. Reliable tracking information is heavily dependent on the system under study and algorithms that correctly determine particle position between images. However, in a real environmental context with the presence of noise including particular or dissolved matter in water, and low and fluctuating light conditions, many algorithms fail to obtain reliable information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388062/general-potential-for-anisotropic-colloid-surface-interactions
#3
Isaac Torres-Díaz, Michael A Bevan
A general closed-form, analytical potential is developed for the interaction of planar surfaces with superellipsoidal particles (which includes shapes such as spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, polygons, superspheres, etc.). The Derjaguin approximation is used with DLVO half-space interactions (e.g., electrostatics and van der Waals) to yield potentials for arbitrary particle-wall separation and orientation. The resulting potential is a function of the minimum distance between surfaces and the particle's local Gaussian curvature at the minimum distance position...
April 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382454/current-state-and-prospects-of-the-phytosynthesized-colloidal-gold-nanoparticles-and-their-applications-in-cancer-theranostics
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Ovais, Abida Raza, Shagufta Naz, Nazar Ul Islam, Ali Talha Khalil, Shaukat Ali, Muhammad Adeeb Khan, Zabta Khan Shinwari
The design, development, and biomedical applications of phytochemical-based green synthesis of biocompatible colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are becoming an emerging field due to several advantages (safer, eco-friendly, simple, fast, energy efficient, low-cost, and less toxic) over conventional chemical synthetic procedures. Biosynthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles are remarkably attractive in several biomedical applications including cancer theranostics due to small size, unusual physico-chemical properties, facile surface modification, high biocompatibility, and numerous other advantages...
April 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379708/cyclotron-splittings-in-the-plasmon-resonances-of-electronically-doped-semiconductor-nanocrystals-probed-by-magnetic-circular-dichroism-spectroscopy
#5
Kimberly H Hartstein, Alina M Schimpf, Michael Salvador, Daniel R Gamelin
A fundamental understanding of the rich electronic structures of electronically doped semiconductor nanocrystals is vital for assessing the utility of these materials for future applications from solar cells to redox catalysis. Here, we examine the use of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy to probe the infrared localized surface plasmon resonances of p-Cu2-xSe, n-ZnO, and tin-doped In2O3 (n-ITO) nanocrystals. We demonstrate that the MCD spectra of these nanocrystals can be analyzed by invoking classical cyclotron motions of their excess charge carriers, with experimental MCD signs conveying the carrier types (n or p) and experimental MCD intensities conveying the cyclotron splitting magnitudes...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374467/changes-from-2012-to-2015-in-intravenous-fluid-solutions-issued-to-hospital-departments
#6
A B Jonsson, A Perner
BACKGROUND: In recent years, large trials have increased the level of evidence for intravenous (IV) fluid therapy, at least in the intensive care setting. It is less clear whether this change in the evidence base has been associated with changes in IV fluid use in different hospital departments. METHODS: We obtained details from the regional pharmacy regarding IV fluids issued to hospital departments in the Danish Capitol Region from January 2012 to May 2015. We used paired Wilcoxon's signed-rank test to analyse changes in the issuing in different departments...
May 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352873/molecular-control-over-colloidal-assembly
#7
M Gerth, I K Voets
Contemporary chemical and material engineering often takes inspiration from nature, targeting for example strong yet light materials and materials composed of highly ordered domains at multiple different lengthscales for fundamental science and applications in e.g. sensing, catalysis, coating technology, and delivery. The preparation of such hierarchically structured functional materials through guided bottom-up assembly of synthetic building blocks requires a high level of control over their synthesis, interactions and assembly pathways...
March 29, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352865/effects-of-synthetic-iron-and-aluminium-oxide-surface-charge-and-hydrophobicity-on-the-formation-of-bacterial-biofilm
#8
Hamid M Pouran, Steve A Banwart, Maria Romero-Gonzalez
In this research, bacterial cell attachments to hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide were investigated. The aim was to study the effects of these minerals' hydrophobicity and pH-dependent surface charge on the extent of biofilm formation using six genetically diverse bacterial strains: Rhodococcus spp. (RC92 & RC291), Pseudomonas spp. (Pse1 & Pse2) and Sphingomonas spp. (Sph1 & Sph2), which had been previously isolated from contaminated environments. The surfaces were prepared in a way that was compatible with the naturally occurring coating process in aquifers: deposition of colloidal particles from the aqueous phase...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346828/chemical-transformation-of-colloidal-nanostructures-with-morphological-preservation-by-surface-protection-with-capping-ligands
#9
Wenjing Xu, Mingsheng Wang, Zhiwei Li, Xiaojing Wang, Yongqiang Wang, Mingyang Xing, Yadong Yin
When nanocrystals are made to undergo chemical transformations, there are often accompanying large mechanical deformations and changes to overall particle morphology. These effects can constrain development of multistep synthetic methods through loss of well-defined particle morphology and functionality. Here, we demonstrate a surface protection strategy for solution phase chemical conversion of colloidal nanostructures that allows for preservation of overall particle morphology despite large volume changes...
March 28, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335985/aqueous-phase-synthesis-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-and-composites-for-cancer-diagnosis-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Jingchao Li, Shige Wang, Xiangyang Shi, Mingwu Shen
The design and development of multifunctional nanoplatforms for biomedical applications still remains to be challenging. This review reports the recent advances in aqueous-phase synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and their composites for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer. Water dispersible and colloidally stable Fe3O4 NPs synthesized via controlled coprecipitation route, hydrothermal route and mild reduction route are introduced. Some of key strategies to improve the r2 relaxivity of Fe3O4 NPs and to enhance their uptake by cancer cells are discussed in detail...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327735/reverse-micelle-based-water-soluble-nanoparticles-for-simultaneous-bioimaging-and-drug-delivery
#11
Ying Chen, Yong Liu, Yongchao Yao, Shiyong Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
With special confined water pools, reverse micelles (RMs) have shown potential for a wide range of applications. However, the inherent water-insolubility of RMs hinders their further application prospects, especially for applications related to biology. We recently reported the first successful transfer of RMs from organic media to an aqueous phase without changing the smart water pools by the hydrolysis of an arm-cleavable interfacial cross-linked reverse micelles. Herein, we employed another elaborate amphiphile 1 to construct new acrylamide-based cross-linked water-soluble nanoparticles (ACW-NPs) under much gentler conditions...
April 11, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326227/uptake-of-the-proteins-htra1-and-htra2-by-cells-mediated-by-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles
#12
Olga Rotan, Katharina N Severin, Simon Pöpsel, Alexander Peetsch, Melisa Merdanovic, Michael Ehrmann, Matthias Epple
The efficient intracellular delivery of (bio)molecules into living cells remains a challenge in biomedicine. Many biomolecules and synthetic drugs are not able to cross the cell membrane, which is a problem if an intracellular mode of action is desired, for example, with a nuclear receptor. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles can serve as carriers for small and large biomolecules as well as for synthetic compounds. The nanoparticles were prepared and colloidally stabilized with either polyethyleneimine (PEI; cationic nanoparticles) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; anionic nanoparticles) and loaded with defined amounts of the fluorescently labelled proteins HTRA1, HTRA2, and BSA...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321128/continuous-wave-lasing-in-colloidal-quantum-dot-solids-enabled-by-facet-selective-epitaxy
#13
Fengjia Fan, Oleksandr Voznyy, Randy P Sabatini, Kristopher T Bicanic, Michael M Adachi, James R McBride, Kemar R Reid, Young-Shin Park, Xiyan Li, Ankit Jain, Rafael Quintero-Bermudez, Mayuran Saravanapavanantham, Min Liu, Marek Korkusinski, Pawel Hawrylak, Victor I Klimov, Sandra J Rosenthal, Sjoerd Hoogland, Edward H Sargent
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) feature a low degeneracy of electronic states at the band edges compared with the corresponding bulk material, as well as a narrow emission linewidth. Unfortunately for potential laser applications, this degeneracy is incompletely lifted in the valence band, spreading the hole population among several states at room temperature. This leads to increased optical gain thresholds, demanding high photoexcitation levels to achieve population inversion (more electrons in excited states than in ground states-the condition for optical gain)...
March 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302346/postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-and-blood-product-transfusion-after-synthetic-colloid-use-during-cardiac-surgery
#14
Rajika Tobey, Hao Cheng, Mei Gao, Zhongmin Li, J Nilas Young, W Douglas Boyd, Fuhai Ji, Hong Liu
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of 2 types of hydroxyethyl starches (HES) on renal integrity and blood transfusion in cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: Retrospective investigation. SETTING: Patients from a single tertiary medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria included coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve surgery that included cardiopulmonary bypass with aortic cross-clamping. INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative HES and blood product administration...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282044/predatory-behaviour-in-synthetic-protocell-communities
#15
Yan Qiao, Mei Li, Richard Booth, Stephen Mann
Recent progress in the chemical construction of colloidal objects comprising integrated biomimetic functions is paving the way towards rudimentary forms of artificial cell-like entities (protocells). Although several new types of protocells are currently available, the design of synthetic protocell communities and investigation of their collective behaviour has received little attention. Here we demonstrate an artificial form of predatory behaviour in a community of protease-containing coacervate microdroplets and protein-polymer microcapsules (proteinosomes) that interact via electrostatic binding...
February 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260380/highly-emissive-divalent-ion-doped-colloidal-cspb1-xmxbr3-perovskite-nanocrystals-through-cation-exchange
#16
Ward van der Stam, Jaco J Geuchies, Thomas Altantzis, Karel H W van den Bos, Johannes D Meeldijk, Sandra Van Aert, Sara Bals, Daniel Vanmaekelbergh, Celso de Mello Donega
Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb(2+) is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1-xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+); 0 < x ≤ 0...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256635/insights-into-the-sonochemical-synthesis-and-properties-of-salt-free-intrinsic-plutonium-colloids
#17
Elodie Dalodière, Matthieu Virot, Vincent Morosini, Tony Chave, Thomas Dumas, Christoph Hennig, Thierry Wiss, Oliver Dieste Blanco, David K Shuh, Tolek Tyliszcak, Laurent Venault, Philippe Moisy, Sergey I Nikitenko
Fundamental knowledge on intrinsic plutonium colloids is important for the prediction of plutonium behaviour in the geosphere and in engineered systems. The first synthetic route to obtain salt-free intrinsic plutonium colloids by ultrasonic treatment of PuO2 suspensions in pure water is reported. Kinetics showed that both chemical and mechanical effects of ultrasound contribute to the mechanism of Pu colloid formation. In the first stage, fragmentation of initial PuO2 particles provides larger surface contact between cavitation bubbles and solids...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246633/flocking-ferromagnetic-colloids
#18
Andreas Kaiser, Alexey Snezhko, Igor S Aranson
Assemblages of microscopic colloidal particles exhibit fascinating collective motion when energized by electric or magnetic fields. The behaviors range from coherent vortical motion to phase separation and dynamic self-assembly. Although colloidal systems are relatively simple, understanding their collective response, especially under out-of-equilibrium conditions, remains elusive. We report on the emergence of flocking and global rotation in the system of rolling ferromagnetic microparticles energized by a vertical alternating magnetic field...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245014/colloidal-metal-oxide-nanocrystals-as-charge-transporting-layers-for-solution-processed-light-emitting-diodes-and-solar-cells
#19
REVIEW
Xiaoyong Liang, Sai Bai, Xin Wang, Xingliang Dai, Feng Gao, Baoquan Sun, Zhijun Ning, Zhizhen Ye, Yizheng Jin
Colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals offer a unique combination of excellent low-temperature solution processability, rich and tuneable optoelectronic properties and intrinsic stability, which makes them an ideal class of materials as charge transporting layers in solution-processed light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Developing new material chemistry and custom-tailoring processing and properties of charge transporting layers based on oxide nanocrystals hold the key to boosting the efficiency and lifetime of all-solution-processed light-emitting diodes and solar cells, and thereby realizing an unprecedented generation of high-performance, low-cost, large-area and flexible optoelectronic devices...
February 28, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236692/synthesis-and-characterization-of-folate-decorated-albumin-bio-conjugate-nanoparticles-loaded-with-a-synthetic-curcumin-difluorinated-analogue
#20
Kaustubh A Gawde, Prashant Kesharwani, Samaresh Sau, Fazlul H Sarkar, Subhash Padhye, Sushil K Kashaw, Arun K Iyer
Albumin-bound paclitaxel colloidal nanoparticle (Abraxane®) is an FDA approved anticancer formulation available in the market. It is a suspension which is currently used therapeutically for treating cancers of the breast, lung, and pancreas among others. CDF is a novel new and potent synthetic curcumin analogue that is widely used for breast and ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to use biocompatible albumin as well as folate decorated albumin to formulate colloidal nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin difluorinated (CDF)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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