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Sahar M Kheir, Shamsoun Khamis Kafi, Patrik Ryden, Haitham Elbir, Mohammed A Soliman, Shima Ali, Ramy Abulikailik, Khadega Ahamed, Hasan Abu-Aisha
The culture negative peritonitis in Sudan 2010 was 46% exceeding 20% of the recommended ISPD (International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis) guidelines. This study reports an update after applying the standard ISPD protocol. The routine method was replaced by ISPD protocol. The culture negative rate using the ISPD guidelines dropped from 46% in the year 2010, to 39% in the year 2011, to 5% in the 2012 and to zero percent in the year 2013. Bacterial and fungal species represent (86.76%) and (13.23%) of infection and most isolates showed low resistance rate to antibiotics...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Gagandeep S Saggu, Zarna R Pala, Shilpi Garg, Vishal Saxena
The MEP (Methyl Erythritol Phosphate) isoprenoids biosynthesis pathway is an attractive drug target to combat malaria, due to its uniqueness and indispensability for the parasite. It is functional in the apicoplast of Plasmodium and its products get transported to the cytoplasm, where they participate in glycoprotein synthesis, electron transport chain, tRNA modification and several other biological processes. Several compounds have been tested against the enzymes involved in this pathway and amongst them Fosmidomycin, targeted against IspC (DXP reductoisomerase) enzyme and MMV008138 targeted against IspD enzyme have shown good anti-malarial activity in parasite cultures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martin Wilkie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
R Douglas Wilson, Isabelle De Bie, Christine M Armour, Richard N Brown, Carla Campagnolo, June C Carroll, Nan Okun, Tanya Nelson, Rhonda Zwingerman, Francois Audibert, Jo-Ann Brock, Richard N Brown, Carla Campagnolo, June C Carroll, Isabelle De Bie, Jo-Ann Johnson, Nan Okun, Melanie Pastruck, Karine Vallée-Pouliot, R Douglas Wilson, Rhonda Zwingerman, Christine Armour, David Chitayat, Isabelle De Bie, Sara Fernandez, Raymond Kim, Josee Lavoie, Norma Leonard, Tanya Nelson, Sherry Taylor, Margot Van Allen, Clara Van Karnebeek
OBJECTIVE: This guideline was written to update Canadian maternity care and reproductive healthcare providers on pre- and postconceptional reproductive carrier screening for women or couples who may be at risk of being carriers for autosomal recessive (AR), autosomal dominant (AD), or X-linked (XL) conditions, with risk of transmission to the fetus. Four previous SOGC- Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) guidelines are updated and merged into the current document. INTENDED USERS: All maternity care (most responsible health provider [MRHP]) and paediatric providers; maternity nursing; nurse practitioner; provincial maternity care administrator; medical student; and postgraduate resident year 1-7...
August 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Hirokazu Yagi, Chu-Wei Kuo, Takayuki Obayashi, Satoshi Ninagawa, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Koichi Kato
Dystroglycanopathy is a major class of congenital muscular dystrophy caused by a deficiency of functional glycans on α-dystroglycan (αDG) with laminin-binding activity. Recent advances have led to identification of several causative gene products of dystroglycanopathy and characterization of their in vitro enzymatic activities. However, the in vivo functional roles remain equivocal for enzymes such as ISPD, FKTN, FKRP, and TMEM5 that are supposed to be involved in post-phosphoryl modifications linking the GalNAc-β3-GlcNAc-β34-Man-6-phosphate core and the outer laminin-binding glycans...
September 6, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Belkacem Issad, Guy Rostoker, Corinne Bagnis, Gilbert Deray
Acute renal failure (ARF) in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) often evolves in a context of multiple organ failure, which explains the high mortality rate and increase treatment needs. Among, two modalities of renal replacement therapy, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was the first modality used for the treatment of ARF in the 1950s. Today, while PD is generalized for chronic renal failure treatment, its use in the ICU is limited, particularly, due to the advent of new hemodialysis techniques and the development of continuous replacement therapy...
July 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Philip Kam-Tao Li, Cheuk Chun Szeto, Beth Piraino, Javier de Arteaga, Stanley Fan, Ana E Figueiredo, Douglas N Fish, Eric Goffin, Yong-Lim Kim, William Salzer, Dirk G Struijk, Isaac Teitelbaum, David W Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Zohreh Fattahi, Zahra Kalhor, Mahsa Fadaee, Raheleh Vazehan, Elham Parsimehr, Ayda Abolhassani, Maryam Beheshtian, Gholamreza Zamani, Shahriar Nafissi, Yalda Nilipour, Mohammad R Akbari, Kimia Kahrizi, Ariana Kariminejad, Hossein Najmabadi
Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) include a broad range of disorders affecting muscles, nerves and neuromuscular junctions. Their overlapping phenotypes and heterogeneous genetic nature have created challenges in diagnosis which calls for the implementation of massive parallel sequencing as a candidate strategy to increase the diagnostic yield. In this study, total of 45 patients, mostly offspring of consanguineous marriages were examined using whole exome sequencing. Data analysis was performed to identify the most probable pathogenic rare variants in known NMD genes which led to identification of causal variants for 33 out of 45 patients (73...
May 28, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Isabelle Gerin, Benoît Ury, Isabelle Breloy, Céline Bouchet-Seraphin, Jennifer Bolsée, Mathias Halbout, Julie Graff, Didier Vertommen, Giulio G Muccioli, Nathalie Seta, Jean-Marie Cuisset, Ivana Dabaj, Susana Quijano-Roy, Ammi Grahn, Emile Van Schaftingen, Guido T Bommer
Mutations in genes required for the glycosylation of α-dystroglycan lead to muscle and brain diseases known as dystroglycanopathies. However, the precise structure and biogenesis of the assembled glycan are not completely understood. Here we report that three enzymes mutated in dystroglycanopathies can collaborate to attach ribitol phosphate onto α-dystroglycan. Specifically, we demonstrate that isoprenoid synthase domain-containing protein (ISPD) synthesizes CDP-ribitol, present in muscle, and that both recombinant fukutin (FKTN) and fukutin-related protein (FKRP) can transfer a ribitol phosphate group from CDP-ribitol to α-dystroglycan...
2016: Nature Communications
Jeremy L Praissman, Tobias Willer, M Osman Sheikh, Ants Toi, David Chitayat, Yung-Yao Lin, Hane Lee, Stephanie H Stalnaker, Shuo Wang, Pradeep Kumar Prabhakar, Stanley F Nelson, Derek L Stemple, Steven A Moore, Kelley W Moremen, Kevin P Campbell, Lance Wells
Multiple glycosyltransferases are essential for the proper modification of alpha-dystroglycan, as mutations in the encoding genes cause congenital/limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. Here we elucidate further the structure of an O-mannose-initiated glycan on alpha-dystroglycan that is required to generate its extracellular matrix-binding polysaccharide. This functional glycan contains a novel ribitol structure that links a phosphotrisaccharide to xylose. ISPD is a CDP-ribitol (ribose) pyrophosphorylase that generates the reduced sugar nucleotide for the insertion of ribitol in a phosphodiester linkage to the glycoprotein...
2016: ELife
Ramon A Tamayo-Isla, Mauro Cuba de la Cruz, Ikechi G Okpechi
South Africa has one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide due to the ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. There are, however, no reports on peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Africa. The aim of this study is to discuss our experience of tuberculous peritonitis in CAPD patients from a rural endemic area of South Africa. This is a retrospective descriptive study of CAPD patients diagnosed with mycobacterium peritonitis infection from January 2008 to August 2014 at the Limpopo Kidney and Dialysis Centre (LKDC) in South Africa...
March 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Motoi Kanagawa, Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Michiko Tajiri, Hiroshi Manya, Atsushi Kuga, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Keiko Akasaka-Manya, Jun-ichi Furukawa, Mamoru Mizuno, Hiroko Kawakami, Yasuro Shinohara, Yoshinao Wada, Tamao Endo, Tatsushi Toda
Glycosylation is an essential post-translational modification that underlies many biological processes and diseases. α-dystroglycan (α-DG) is a receptor for matrix and synaptic proteins that causes muscular dystrophy and lissencephaly upon its abnormal glycosylation (α-dystroglycanopathies). Here we identify the glycan unit ribitol 5-phosphate (Rbo5P), a phosphoric ester of pentose alcohol, in α-DG. Rbo5P forms a tandem repeat and functions as a scaffold for the formation of the ligand-binding moiety. We show that enzyme activities of three major α-dystroglycanopathy-causing proteins are involved in the synthesis of tandem Rbo5P...
March 8, 2016: Cell Reports
John M Clough, Richard P Dale, Barry Elsdon, Timothy R Hawkes, Bridget V Hogg, Anushka Howell, Daniel P Kloer, Karine Lecoq, Matthew M W McLachlan, Phillip J Milnes, Timothy J C O'Riordan, Saranga Ranasinghe, Stephen E Shanahan, Karen D Sumner, Shanaaz Tayab
BACKGROUND: Exploiting novel herbicidal modes of action is an important method to overcome the challenges faced by increasing resistance and regulatory pressure on existing commercial herbicides. Recent reports of inhibitors of enzymes in the non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis led to the design of a novel class of azolopyrimidines which were assessed for their herbicidal activity. Studies were also undertaken to determine the mode of action responsible for the observed herbicidal activity...
February 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
Ana E Figueiredo, Judith Bernardini, Elaine Bowes, Miki Hiramatsu, Valerie Price, Chunyan Su, Rachael Walker, Gillian Brunier
Being aware of controversies and lack of evidence in peritoneal dialysis (PD) training, the Nursing Liaison Committee of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) has undertaken a review of PD training programs around the world in order to develop a syllabus for PD training. This syllabus has been developed to help PD nurses train patients and caregivers based on a consensus of training program reviews, utilizing current theories and principles of adult education. It is designed as a 5-day program of about 3 hours per day, but both duration and content may be adjusted based on the learner...
February 25, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Leah S Imlay, Christopher M Armstrong, Mary Clare Masters, Ting Li, Kathryn E Price, Rachel L Edwards, Katherine M Mann, Lucy X Li, Christina L Stallings, Neil G Berry, Paul M O'Neill, Audrey R Odom
As resistance to current therapies spreads, novel antimalarials are urgently needed. In this work, we examine the potential for therapeutic intervention via the targeting of Plasmodium IspD (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidyltransferase), the second dedicated enzyme of the essential methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Enzymes of this pathway represent promising therapeutic targets because the pathway is not present in humans. The Malaria Box compound, MMV008138, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth, and PfIspD has been proposed as a candidate intracellular target...
April 10, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
Cheuk-Chun Szeto
With appropriate training and adequate support, it is possible to keep the peritonitis rate of elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients at a highly respectable level. In general, the latest recommendations for the treatment and prevention of PD-related infections by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) are applicable to older patients. However, there are minor differences in the spectrum of causative organisms amongst elderly patients, with coagulase-negative staphylococcal species (CNSS) and Enterobacteriaceae species being more common in elderly patients...
November 2015: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Moniek Riemersma, D Sean Froese, Walinka van Tol, Udo F Engelke, Jolanta Kopec, Monique van Scherpenzeel, Angel Ashikov, Tobias Krojer, Frank von Delft, Marco Tessari, Anna Buczkowska, Ewa Swiezewska, Lucas T Jae, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Hiroshi Manya, Tamao Endo, Hans van Bokhoven, Wyatt W Yue, Dirk J Lefeber
A unique, unsolved O-mannosyl glycan on α-dystroglycan is essential for its interaction with protein ligands in the extracellular matrix. Defective O-mannosylation leads to a group of muscular dystrophies, called dystroglycanopathies. Mutations in isoprenoid synthase domain containing (ISPD) represent the second most common cause of these disorders, however, its molecular function remains uncharacterized. The human ISPD (hISPD) crystal structure showed a canonical N-terminal cytidyltransferase domain linked to a C-terminal domain that is absent in cytidyltransferase homologs...
December 17, 2015: Chemistry & Biology
Kirti Shitiz, Neha Sharma, Tarun Pal, Hemant Sood, Rajinder S Chauhan
Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively...
2015: PloS One
Gashaw M Goshu, Debarati Ghose, Joy M Bain, Phillip G Pierce, Darren W Begley, Stephen N Hewitt, Hannah S Udell, Peter J Myler, R Meganathan, Timothy J Hagen
The fragment FOL7185 (compound 17) was found to be a hit against IspD and IspE enzymes isolated from bacteria, and a series of analogs containing the pyrazolopyrimidine core were synthesized. The majority of these compounds inhibited the growth of Burkholderia thailandensis (Bt) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) in the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test. Compound 29 shows inhibitory activity at 0.1 mM (32.2 lg/mL), which is comparable to the control compound kanamycin (48.5 lg/mL). Compound 29 also shows inhibitory activity at 0...
December 15, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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