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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931240/influenza-like-illness-incidence-is-not-reduced-by-influenza-vaccination-in-a-cohort-of-older-adults-despite-effectively-reducing-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-virus-infections
#1
Josine van Beek, Reinier H Veenhoven, Jacob P Bruin, Renée A J van Boxtel, Marit M A de Lange, Adam Meijer, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Nynke Y Rots, Willem Luytjes
Background: Data on the relative contribution of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens to respiratory infections in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) are needed. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the Netherlands during 2 winters. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected during influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes and from controls. Viruses and bacteria were identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and conventional bacterial culture...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931216/emergence-of-oseltamivir-resistant-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-immunosuppressed-cynomolgus-macaques
#2
Maki Kiso, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Seiya Yamayoshi, Ryuta Uraki, Mutsumi Ito, Noriko Nakajima, Shinya Yamada, Masaki Imai, Eiryo Kawakami, Yuriko Tomita, Satoshi Fukuyama, Yasushi Itoh, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Tiago J S Lopes, Tokiko Watanabe, Louise H Moncla, Hideki Hasegawa, Thomas C Friedrich, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Antiviral compounds (eg, the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir) are invaluable for the treatment of individuals infected with influenza A viruses of the H7N9 subtype (A[H7N9]), which have infected and killed hundreds of persons. However, oseltamivir treatment often leads to the emergence of resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals. To better understand the emergence and properties of oseltamivir-resistant A(H7N9) viruses in immunosuppressed individuals, we infected immunosuppressed cynomolgus macaques with an A(H7N9) virus and treated them with oseltamivir...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931212/temozolomide-resistant-human-brain-tumor-stem-cells-are-susceptible-to-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-and-double-deleted-vaccinia-virus-in-vitro
#3
Bin Jiang, Xueqing Lun, Xiaoguang Hao, Yihua Wang, Xin Yin, Dezhang Huang, Wei He, Zhigang Wang
BACKGROUND: Malignant glioma still has a poor prognosis and remains incurable. Although temozolomide (TMZ) has demonstrated antitumor activity, its use recently has been halted because of some patients' resistance to this drug. New treatments are desperately needed. An oncolytic virus (virotherapy) is being developed as a novel cancer therapy. We have previously reported that recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV-ΔM51) and double deleted Vaccinia Virus (vvDD) infected and killed glioma cell lines in vitro and prolonged survival in animal glioma models...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931177/effects-of-aldosterone-on-chemerin-expression-and-secretion-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#4
Junhua Ma, Fei Sun, Jingnan Wang, He Jiang, Jiancan Lu, Xing Wang, Jichen Zhang, Chao Shi, Wen You, Xiangqi Li, Hongling Zhu, Mingjun Gu
Aldosterone plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Chemerin has been characterized as an adipokine with crucial roles in obesity-associated disorders and cardiovascular homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effects of aldosterone on chemerin expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to identify the potential signalling pathways involved. Chemerin mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR, whereas the levels of secreted chemerin in the culture media were determined using ELISA...
September 20, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931168/socio-cultural-norms-and-roles-in-the-use-and-abuse-of-alcohol-among-members-of-a-rural-community-in-southeast-nigeria
#5
E N Nwagu, S I C Dibia, A N Odo
Social influences together with local cultural norms are central factors that can influence the use of alcohol. The study, therefore, identified socio-cultural norms and roles capable of influencing alcohol use among young people in an alcohol producing community, in Nigeria. We used qualitative technique - focused group discussions among selected key persons in the area of study. Three groups; adult males, adult females and youths were engaged in discussions around the themes of socio-cultural; norms, roles, beliefs, values and practices that influences alcohol abuse...
October 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931145/medical-and-psychological-problems-faced-by-young-australian-gap-year-travellers
#6
Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Deborah Mills, Sarah Sheridan, Colleen Lau
Background: Gap year travellers can potentially be exposed to many infectious diseases and other travel-related health problems including injuries and psychological problems. Currently, there is little information on health and wellbeing of this particular group of travellers. Methods: Participants were recruited from an organization that specialized in organising international gap year placements. Gap year travellers were asked to complete a pre-departure survey on demographics, placement destination and duration, previous travel experience, hobbies, risk taking behaviour, anticipated problems during the placement, and pre-travel preparations...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931093/synthesis-of-udp-apiose-in-bacteria-the-marine-phototroph-geminicoccus-roseus-and-the-plant-pathogen-xanthomonas-pisi
#7
James Amor Smith, Maor Bar-Peled
The branched-chain sugar apiose was widely assumed to be synthesized only by plant species. In plants, apiose-containing polysaccharides are found in vascularized plant cell walls as the pectic polymers rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan. Apiosylated secondary metabolites are also common in many plant species including ancestral avascular bryophytes and green algae. Apiosyl-residues have not been documented in bacteria. In a screen for new bacterial glycan structures, we detected small amounts of apiose in methanolic extracts of the aerobic phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the pathogenic soil-dwelling bacteria Xanthomonas pisi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931076/ghrelin-mediated-inhibition-of-the-tsh-stimulated-function-of-differentiated-human-thyrocytes-ex-vivo
#8
Maria Barington, Marianne Møller Brorson, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Birgitte Holst, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced mainly in the gastrointestinal tract known to regulate several physiological functions including gut motility, adipose tissue accumulation and hunger sensation leading to increased bodyweight. Studies have found a correlation between the plasma levels of thyroid hormones and ghrelin, but an effect of ghrelin on the human thyroid has never been investigated even though ghrelin receptors are present in the thyroid. The present study shows a ghrelin-induced decrease in the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-induced production of thyroglobulin and mRNA expression of thyroperoxidase in a primary culture of human thyroid cells obtained from paranodular tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931063/plant-flavones-enhance-antimicrobial-activity-of-respiratory-epithelial-cell-secretions-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee
Flavones are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. Some flavones also activate the T2R14 bitter taste receptor, which is expressed in motile cilia of the sinonasal epithelium and activates innate immune nitric oxide (NO) production. Flavones may thus be potential therapeutics for respiratory infections. Our objective was to examine the anti-microbial effects of flavones on the common sinonasal pathogens Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, evaluating both planktonic and biofilm growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#10
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930998/in-vitro-ovule-cultivation-for-live-cell-imaging-of-zygote-polarization-and-embryo-patterning-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Daisuke Kurihara, Yusuke Kimata, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
In most flowering plants, the zygote and embryo are hidden deep in the mother tissue, and thus it has long been a mystery of how they develop dynamically; for example, how the zygote polarizes to establish the body axis and how the embryo specifies various cell fates during organ formation. This manuscript describes an in vitro ovule culture method to perform live-cell imaging of developing zygotes and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. The optimized cultivation medium allows zygotes or early embryos to grow into fertile plants...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930997/using-in-vivo-and-tissue-and-cell-explant-approaches-to-study-the-morphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-of-the-embryonic-and-perinatal-aorta
#12
Ashish Misra, Zhonghui Feng, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhi-Yin Lou, Daniel M Greif
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aortic wall is composed of an inner layer of endothelial cells, a middle layer of alternating elastic lamellae and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and an outer layer of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In contrast to the widespread study of pathological models (e.g., atherosclerosis) in the adult aorta, much less is known about the embryonic and perinatal aorta. Here, we focus on SMCs and provide protocols for the analysis of the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of embryonic and perinatal aortic SMCs in normal development and disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930996/assessment-of-the-anticoagulant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-endothelial-cells-using-3d-cell-culture-and-non-anticoagulated-whole-blood
#13
Riccardo Sfriso, Anjan Bongoni, Yara Banz, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf, Robert Rieben
In vivo, endothelial cells are crucial for the natural anticoagulation of circulating blood. Consequently, endothelial cell activation leads to blood coagulation. This phenomenon is observed in many clinical situations, like organ transplantation in the presence of pre-formed anti-donor antibodies, including xenotransplantation, as well as in ischemia/reperfusion injury. In order to reduce animal experimentation according to the 3R standards (reduction, replacement and refinement), in vitro models to study the effect of endothelial cell activation on blood coagulation would be highly desirable...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930992/a-cell-culture-model-of-resistance-arteries
#14
Lauren A Biwer, Christophe Lechauve, Sheri Vanhoose, Mitchell J Weiss, Brant E Isakson
The myoendothelial junction (MEJ), a unique signaling microdomain in small diameter resistance arteries, exhibits localization of specific proteins and signaling processes that can control vascular tone and blood pressure. As it is a projection from either the endothelial or smooth muscle cell, and due to its small size (on average, an area of ~1 µm(2)), the MEJ is difficult to study in isolation. However, we have developed a cell culture model called the vascular cell co-culture (VCCC) that allows for in vitro MEJ formation, endothelial cell polarization, and dissection of signaling proteins and processes in the vascular wall of resistance arteries...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930982/development-of-a-human-preclinical-model-of-osteoclastogenesis-from-peripheral-blood-monocytes-co-cultured-with-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#15
Laura Mercatali, Chiara Spadazzi, Giacomo Miserocchi, Chiara Liverani, Alessandro De Vita, Alberto Bongiovanni, Federica Recine, Dino Amadori, Toni Ibrahim
The crosstalk between tumor cells and bone cells in the bone microenvironment is crucial to understanding the mechanism of bone metastasis formation. We developed an in vitro fully human preclinical model of a co-culture of breast cancer cells and monocytes undergoing differentiation towards osteoclasts. We optimized a model of osteoclastogenesis starting from a sample of peripheral blood collected from healthy donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were first separated by density gradient centrifugation, seeded at a high density and induced to differentiate by adding two growth factors (GFs): receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930914/the-protective-effect-of-a-short-peptide-derived-from-cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Joseph McGinn, Fangming Zhang, Monowar Aziz, Weng-Lang Yang, Jeffrey Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) functions as damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and has been demonstrated to be responsible in part for the damage occurring after renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A short peptide derived from CIRP, named C23, binds to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) co-receptor. We hypothesize that C23 reduces renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury by blocking CIRP. We observed that pre-treatment with C23 significantly decreased the levels of recombinant mouse CIRP-induced TNF-α in a dose-dependent fashion in cultured macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930838/clinical-efficacy-of-intravesical-electrical-stimulation-on-detrusor-underactivity-8-years-of-experience-from-a-single-center
#17
Han Deng, Limin Liao, Juan Wu, Guoqing Chen, Xing Li, Zhaoxia Wang, Li Wan
The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) on detrusor underactivity (DU).From 2009 to 2016, a total of 105 patients with symptoms of DU who were treated with IVES were included in this retrospective study. The medical records, physical examination findings, urine culture results, and video-urodynamic studies were reviewed. Changes in post-void residual urine (PVR) and voiding efficiency (VE) were included for evaluation of efficacy...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930765/encouraging-reflexivity-in-a-residency-leadership-development-program-expanding-outside-the-competency-approach
#18
Justin T Clapp, Emily K B Gordon, Dimitry J Baranov, Beulah Trey, Felice Y Tilin, Lee A Fleisher
PROBLEM: While leadership development is increasingly a goal of academic medicine, it is typically framed as competency acquisition, which can limit its focus to a circumscribed set of social behaviors. This orientation may also reinforce the cultural characteristics of academic medicine that can make effective leadership difficult, rather than training leaders capable of examining and changing this culture. Expanding leadership development so it promotes social reflexivity presents a way to bolster some of the weaknesses of the competency paradigm...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930711/the-angry-amish-grandfather-cultural-competence-and-empathy-a-case-commentary
#19
James L Benedict
Crosscultural encounters are common in the delivery of healthcare, and cultural differences may contribute to misunderstandings and ethical conflict. Encounters between members of the Amish ethno-religious group and modern, science-based healthcare providers hold a high potential for misunderstanding and conflict because the Amish stridently maintain a countercultural outlook and they approach such encounters with suspicion and anxiety. This commentary on the case presented by Amy E. Caruso Brown, MD,1 involving a grandfather's resistance to treating a child with leukemia commends this physician for successfully managing the case and deriving important insights from reflection upon it...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930710/at-the-intersection-of-faith-culture-and-family-dynamics-a-complex-case-of-refusal-of-treatment-for-childhood-cancer
#20
Amy E Caruso Brown
Refusing treatment for potentially curable childhood cancers engenders much discussion and debate. I present a case in which the competent parents of a young Amish child with acute myeloid leukemia deferred authority for decision making to the child's maternal grandfather, who was vocal in his opposition to treatment. I analyze three related concerns that distinguish this case from other accounts of refused treatment. First, I place deference to grandparents as decision makers in the context of surrogate decision making more generally...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
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