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statins and memory

Hongxi Sun, Yu Li, Bei Sun, Ningning Hou, Juhong Yang, Miaoyan Zheng, Jie Xu, Jingyu Wang, Yi Zhang, Xianwei Zeng, Chunyan Shan, Bai Chang, Liming Chen, Baocheng Chang
BACKROUND: Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic disease. Atorvastatin has become a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. However, increasing evidence showed that statins can dose-dependently increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. The mechanism is not clear. OBJECTIVE: The Ras complex pathway (Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]/cAMP response element-binding protein [CREB]) is the major pathway that regulates the gene transcription...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kristen M Beavers, Iris Leng, Stephen R Rapp, Michael E Miller, Denise K Houston, Anthony P Marsh, Don G Hire, Laura D Baker, George A Bray, George L Blackburn, Andrea L Hergenroeder, John M Jakicic, Karen C Johnson, Mary T Korytkowski, Brent Van Dorsten, Stephen B Kritchevsky
OBJECTIVES: To test whether average long-term glucose exposure is associated with cognitive and physical function in middle-aged and younger-old adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Data obtained as part of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial (NCT00017953) and Look AHEAD Movement and Memory ancillary study (NCT01410097). PARTICIPANTS: Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 45 to 76 at baseline (N = 879)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Sally-Ann Cooper, Temitope Ademola, Muriel Caslake, Elizabeth Douglas, Jonathan Evans, Nicola Greenlaw, Caroline Haig, Angela Hassiotis, Andrew Jahoda, Alex McConnachie, Jill Morrison, Howard Ring, John Starr, Ciara Stiles, Chammy Sirisena, Frank Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Dementia is very common in Down syndrome (trisomy 21) adults. Statins may slow brain amyloid β (Aβ, coded on chromosome 21) deposition and, therefore, delay Alzheimer disease onset. One prospective cohort study with Down syndrome adults found participants on statins had reduced risk of incident dementia, but there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on this issue. Evidence is sparse on the best instruments to detect longitudinal cognitive decline in older Down syndrome adults...
2016: Trials
Roelof A J Smit, Stella Trompet, Behnam Sabayan, Saskia le Cessie, Jeroen van der Grond, Mark A van Buchem, Anton J M de Craen, J Wouter Jukema
BACKGROUND: Recently, it was shown that intraindividual variation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) predicts both cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. We aimed to examine whether this extends to cognitive function and examined possible pathways using a magnetic resonance imaging substudy. METHODS: We investigated the association between LDL-C variability and 4 cognitive domains at month 30 in 4428 participants of PROSPER (PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk)...
July 19, 2016: Circulation
Barry I Freedman, Crystal A Gadegbeku, R Nick Bryan, Nicholette D Palmer, Pamela J Hicks, Lijun Ma, Michael V Rocco, S Carrie Smith, Jianzhao Xu, Christopher T Whitlow, Benjamin C Wagner, Carl D Langefeld, Amret T Hawfield, Jeffrey T Bates, Alan J Lerner, Dominic S Raj, Mohammad S Sadaghiani, Robert D Toto, Jackson T Wright, Donald W Bowden, Jeff D Williamson, Kaycee M Sink, Joseph A Maldjian, Nicholas M Pajewski, Jasmin Divers
To assess apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk-variant effects on the brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cerebral volumes and cognitive function were assessed in 517 African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) Memory IN Diabetes (MIND) and 2568 hypertensive African American Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participants without diabetes. Within these cohorts, 483 and 197 had cerebral MRI, respectively. AA-DHS participants were characterized as follows: 60.9% female, mean age of 58...
August 2016: Kidney International
Y-Q Wang, D-H Qu, K Wang
Amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques are pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is predominantly characterized by clinical symptoms of dementia. Therapies targeting Aβ are essential for preventing and treating AD. This review focuses on the non-amyloidogenic pathways that prevent the generation of Aβ peptide and thereby plaque formation in AD. An a-secretase-dependent cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) precludes the amyloidogenic pathway of Aβ generation. This non-amyloidogenic a-secretase activation thereby secretes sAPPa with prominent neurotrophic and memory-enhancing properties...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Fabrizio Sallustio, Valeria Studer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. It is pathologically characterized by diffused extracellular deposits, senile plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, responsible for neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Memory, language and other cognitive functions can be affected to a limited extent in the initial stage called mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or in a more severe and daily life interfering manner in the later stage called dementia. Currently no effective disease-modifying treatment exists for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Katherine Samaras, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Statin therapy has strong evidence supporting health benefits and mortality reduction in cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, renal disease, and genetic lipid disorders. Further, reports that statin therapy might be protective against Alzheimer's disease have subsequently been refuted in randomized trials. Low-level evidence based on case reports suggests that statins may adversely affect memory, a significant consumer concern. In this review, the published evidence on statins and memory in the elderly in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohort studies was examined in detail...
August 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni de Silva, Raveen Hanwella
BACKGROUND: Simvastatin is commonly prescribed for hypercholesterolemia to reduce vascular risk in patients. Some of these patients have dementia with cognitive defects of several domains. Although protective effects seem to be present, there is emerging evidence that statins cause cognitive impairment. The role of cholesterol in cognitive function is complex. This is reflected in the effects that statins show on cognition functions. The reduction in cholesterol levels seen with statins is effective in improving learning and memory in some patients...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Joanna M Moryś, Grzegorz M Kozera, Jolanta Neubauer-Geryk, Piotr Kruszewski, Bogumił Wolnik, Walenty M Nyka, Leszek Bieniaszewski
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess a wide range of cognitive functions in patients with type 1 diabetes (DM1) compared with healthy control subjects and to evaluate the effects of statins on cognitive functions in DM1 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample studied consisted of 55 DM1 patients (80.0% with hyperlipidemia, 20% with statin treatment) and 36 age-matched control subjects (77.8% with hyperlipidemia) without diabetes or statin use. Their cognitive functions (attention, memory, and executive functions) were evaluated with the trail making test, controlled oral word association test (COWAT), Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, brain damage test (diagnosticum für cerebralschädigung, DCS), Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), and digit span and block design tests from the revised Wechsler adult intelligence scale...
July 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Lisa K Smelser, Callum Walker, Erin M Burns, Michael Curry, Nathanael Black, Jennifer A Metzler, Susan A McDowell, Heather A Bruns
Statins are potent modulators of immune responses, resulting in their ability to enhance host survival from primary bacterial infections. Alterations in primary immune responses that may be beneficial for survival following infection may also result in alterations in the generation of the immunologic memory response and subsequently affect immune responses mounted during secondary bacterial infection. In this study, we report that levels of total serum IgG2c, following primary infection, were decreased in simvastatin pretreated mice, and investigate the effect of simvastatin treatment, prior to primary infection, on immune responses activated during secondary S...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Danúbia Bonfanti Santos, Dirleise Colle, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar Moreira, Mariana Appel Hort, Marcelo Godoi, Gael Le Douaron, Antonio Luiz Braga, Jamil Assreuy, Patrick Pierre Michel, Rui Daniel Prediger, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Marcelo Farina
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by non-motor and motor disabilities. This study investigated whether succinobucol (SUC) could mitigate nigrostriatal injury caused by intranasal 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration in mice. Moreover, the effects of SUC against MPTP-induced behavioral impairments and neurochemical changes were also evaluated. The quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells was also performed in primary mesencephalic cultures to evaluate the effects of SUC against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) toxicity in vitro...
February 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Dale M Needham, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Victor D Dinglas, Catherine L Hough, Amy W Wozniak, James C Jackson, Peter E Morris, Pedro A Mendez-Tellez, E Wesley Ely, Ramona O Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Delirium is common in mechanically ventilated patients and is associated with cognitive impairment lasting at least 1 year after hospital discharge. Preclinical and observational studies suggest that the use of statins might reduce delirium in intensive care. We assessed whether the pleiotropic effects of statins can reduce delirium in intensive care and decrease subsequent cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: We did this ancillary study within the SAILS trial, a randomised controlled trial assessing mortality and ventilator-free days for rosuvastatin versus placebo for patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome...
March 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Beatrice Bortolato, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD...
2016: BMC Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Harvard Men's Health Watch
Basil N Okeahialam
Statins are useful in the armamentarium of the clinician dealing with dyslipidemia, which increases cardiovascular morbi-mortality in hypertensive and diabetic patients among others. Dyslipidemia commonly exists as a comorbidity factor in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Use of statins is however associated with side effects which at times are so disabling as to interfere with activities of daily living. There are various ways of dealing with this, including use of more water-soluble varieties, intermittent dosing, or use of statin alternatives...
2015: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Muh Geot Wong, Christoph Wanner, John Knight, Vlado Perkovic
The value of cholesterol lowering in preventing cardiovascular disease has now been established in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who are intrinsically at high cardiovascular risk. While data from completed studies has clearly demonstrated substantive benefit of statins in early CKD, the effects in end-stage CKD remain controversial. Recent studies have also suggested that the effects of different statins on the kidney may be heterogeneous, and the safety of high-dose statins in this population remains uncertain...
November 14, 2015: European Heart Journal
Reza Izadpanah, Deborah J Schächtele, Andreas B Pfnür, Dong Lin, Douglas P Slakey, Philip J Kadowitz, Eckhard U Alt
Statins reduce atherosclerotic events and cardiovascular mortality. Their side effects include memory loss, myopathy, cataract formation, and increased risk of diabetes. As cardiovascular mortality relates to plaque instability, which depends on the integrity of the fibrous cap, we hypothesize that the inhibition of the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into macrophages would help to explain the long known, but less understood "non-lipid-associated" or pleiotropic benefit of statins on cardiovascular mortality...
October 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yvo M Smulders
Statins are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in the Western world. Hence, one would expect their safety and side effect profile to be firmly established. However, this assumption may be false. In a recent analysis, acute memory loss appeared to be significantly associated with the use of lipid-lowering drugs, of which statins are the most important subgroup. However troubling these findings may be, the study could still not exclude the possibility of the findings having been confounded by detection bias...
2015: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Avik Roy, Malabendu Jana, Madhuchhanda Kundu, Grant T Corbett, Suresh B Rangaswamy, Rama K Mishra, Chi-Hao Luan, Frank J Gonzalez, Kalipada Pahan
Neurotrophins are important for neuronal health and function. Here, statins, inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol lowering drugs, were found to stimulate expression of neurotrophins in brain cells independent of the mevalonate pathway. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses, computer-derived simulation, site-directed mutagenesis, thermal shift assay, and de novo binding followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) demonstrates that statins serve as ligands of PPARα and that Leu331 and Tyr 334 residues of PPARα are important for statin binding...
August 4, 2015: Cell Metabolism
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