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Pediatric emergency ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352416/point-of-care-ultrasound-in-pediatric-anesthesiology-and-critical-care-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Erik Su, Nicholas Dalesio, Aliaksei Pustavoitau
Ultrasound has increasingly become a clinical asset in the hands of the anesthesiologist and intensivist who cares for children. Though many applications for ultrasound parallel adult modalities, children as always are not simply small adults and benefit from the application of ultrasound to their management in various ways. Body composition and size are important factors that affect ultrasound performance in the child, as are the pathologies that may uniquely afflict children and aspects of procedures unique to this patient population...
January 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346232/use-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-to-guide-pediatric-gastrostomy-tube-replacement-in-the-emergency-department
#2
Toby C Myatt, Anthony J Medak, Samuel H F Lam
The presentation of a pediatric patient to the emergency department for a malfunctioning or dislodged gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is not uncommon. As such, these tubes are often replaced at the bedside. Improper placement can result in a number of complications, including perforation, fistula tract formation, peritonitis, and sepsis. The current criterion standard method to confirm proper G-tube placement is contrast-enhanced radiography. However, point-of-care ultrasound may be an alternative method to guide and confirm pediatric G-tube replacement in the emergency department...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336754/predictors-and-outcomes-of-nondiagnostic-ultrasound-for-acute-appendicitis-in-children
#3
Richard Sola, Blair A Wormer, William E Anderson, Thomas M Schmelzer, Graham H Cosper
Ultrasound assessments of children with possible acute appendicitis (AA) are often nondiagnostic. We aimed to identify the predictors of nondiagnostic ultrasound and to investigate the outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted on children aged 4 to 17 years evaluated in 2013 for AA with ultrasound at a tertiary hospital pediatric emergency department. Demographics, clinical data, and outcomes were analyzed. Of 528 children, 194 (36.7%) had diagnostic ultrasounds and 334 (63.3%) had nondiagnostic ultrasounds...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321112/the-evaluation-and-management-of-urolithiasis-in-the-emergency-department-a-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a common condition in the U.S. Patients frequently present to the emergency department (ED) for care, including analgesia and treatments to facilitate stone passage. OBJECTIVE: With the new evidence concerning the evaluation and treatment of urolithiasis, this review summarizes current literature regarding the ED management of urolithiasis. DISCUSSION: Urolithiasis occurs primarily through supersaturation of urine and commonly presents with flank pain, hematuria, and nausea/vomiting...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310984/comparison-of-sonographic-inferior-vena-cava-and-aorta-indexes-during-fluid-administered-in-children
#5
Yun Ang Choi, Hyuksool Kwon, Jin Hee Lee, Jae Yun Jung, Yoo Jin Choi
OBJECTIVES: This prospective, observational study evaluated changes in ultrasound measurements of the inferior vena caval index (IVCI), the aorta diameter/IVC diameter index (Ao/IVCD), and the aorta area/IVC area index (Ao/IVCA) during fluid administration in children requiring intravenous fluid administration. METHODS: Children who presented to the pediatric emergency department with symptoms of dehydration were enrolled between May 2015 and February 2016. The maximum diameter of the aorta, from inner wall to inner wall, and the long and short axis diameters of IVC were measured using a convex array transducer in the transverse view...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307034/emergency-department-imaging-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-during-combat-operations-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#6
Jason F Naylor, Michael D April, Jamie L Roper, Guyon J Hill, Paul Clark, Steven G Schauer
BACKGROUND: Military hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan treated children with traumatic injuries during the recent conflicts. Diagnostic imaging is an integral component of trauma management; however, few published data exist on its use in the wartime pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: The authors describe the emergency department (ED) utilization of radiology resources for pediatric trauma patients in Iraq and Afghanistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric patients admitted to military fixed-facility hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016...
January 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298251/bedside-ultrasound-for-the-evaluation-of-epidural-hematoma-after-infant-lumbar-puncture
#7
Matthew P Kusulas, Eric P Eutsler, Andrew D DePiero
BACKGROUND: Unsuccessful lumbar puncture (LP) attempts may lead to epidural hematoma (EH) formation within the spinal canal at the site of needle insertion, which can affect subsequent attempts. We aimed to determine the rate of EH formation after infant LP using bedside ultrasound (US). Furthermore, we aimed to correlate both perceived trauma during LP and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) red blood cell (RBC) counts with EH formation. METHODS: We enrolled infants younger than 6 months who underwent LP in the emergency department...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298244/national-imaging-trends-of-recurrent-pediatric-urolithiasis
#8
Lindsey Barrick, Daniel M Cohen, Megan S Schober, Andrew Schwaderer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) utilization trends in incident and prevalent pediatric emergency department (ED) urolithiasis patients before and after imaging guideline release. METHODS: We reviewed imaging modalities for children with 2 or more ED encounters between January 1, 2006, and September 1, 2013, for urolithiasis using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Z scores compared the proportion of patient encounters receiving CT and US before (January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010) and after (January 1, 2011, to September 1, 2013) the release of imaging guidelines...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249008/secondary-imaging-for-suspected-appendicitis-after-equivocal-ultrasound-time-to-disposition-of-mri-compared-to-ct
#9
James F Martin, David J Mathison, Paul C Mullan, Hansel J Otero
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare MRI to CT as a secondary imaging modality for children age 5 years and older with suspected appendicitis after an equivocal abdominal ultrasound in terms of (1) the time to ED disposition decision, (2) surgery consultation rate, and (3) imaging test accuracy. METHODS: We retrospectively studied children with suspected appendicitis and equivocal ultrasound results who underwent MR or CT as secondary imaging in a pediatric emergency department over two-consecutive 9-month periods...
December 16, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248322/-can-a-simple-lung-ultrasound-score-predict-length-of-ventilation-for-infants-with-severe-acute-viral-bronchiolitis
#10
M Taveira, N Yousef, J Miatello, C Roy, C Claude, B Boutillier, C Dubois, A-F Pierre, P Tissières, P Durand
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LU) is a bedside point-of-care technique in critical care and emergency medicine. LU is quick and non-irradiating, and provides accurate diagnostic information when compared with chest radiographs. Specific LU signs have been described for bronchiolitis. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between severity of LU-diagnosed lung lesions, using a quantitative LU score, and the length of non-invasive ventilation (LOV) for infants diagnosed with severe viral bronchiolitis...
December 13, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239803/ultrasound-guided-ureteroscopy-in-children-safety-and-success
#11
Jeffrey C Morrison, Jason P Van Batavia, Kassa Darge, Christopher J Long, Aseem R Shukla, Arun K Srinivasan
INTRODUCTION: Ureteroscopy has been shown to be a highly efficacious and safe modality for the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis. However, conventional ureteroscopy relies on fluoroscopy for intraoperative guidance, exposing both patient and operating room personnel to ionizing radiation. Pediatric urolithiasis patients are at a particularly increased risk from this radiation exposure. The use of ultrasound in place of fluoroscopy for intraoperative guidance has emerged as one modification that can reduce radiation exposure during ureteroscopy...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223689/point-of-care-hip-ultrasound-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#12
Christopher I Cruz, Rebecca L Vieira, Rebekah C Mannix, Michael C Monuteaux, Jason A Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203186/direction-of-rotation-in-testicular-torsion-and-identification-of-predictors-of-testicular-salvage
#13
Todd Yecies, Jathin Bandari, Francis Schneck, Glenn Cannon
OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate at which testicular torsion occurs in a lateral direction and identify any predictors of direction of testicular rotation and orchiectomy METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 104 cases of emergent scrotal exploration performed for testicular torsion by 3 pediatric urologists from 2003-2017. Patients with neonatal torsion, negative scrotal exploration, or exploration for presumed intermittent testicular torsion were excluded. Univariable logistic regression was performed to assess if any factors predicted direction of testicular rotation...
December 1, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153235/imaging-of-the-pediatric-temporomandibular-joint
#14
REVIEW
Matthew R Hammer, Yassine Kanaan
Imaging of the temporomandibular joint in pediatric patients is a critical component in the evaluation and treatment of children with temporomandibular joint symptoms. MRI can provide detailed joint anatomy and identify inflammation, sometimes before symptom onset. Ultrasound scan is a convenient emerging modality to evaluate the joint and guide therapeutic injections. Radiography and computed tomography offer osseous detail to recognize early morphologic changes of the mandibular condyle and provide operative planning...
February 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145243/obstructive-internal-hernia-caused-by-mesodiverticular-bands-in-children-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Mirko Bertozzi, Berardino Melissa, Elisa Magrini, Giuseppe Di Cara, Susanna Esposito, Antonino Apignani
INTRODUCTION: The mesodiverticular band (MDB) is an embryologic remnant of the vitelline circulation, which carries the arterial supply to the Meckel diverticulum. In the event of an error of involution, a patent or nonpatent arterial band persists and extends from the mesentery to the apex of the antimesenteric diverticulum. This creates a snare-like opening through which bowel loops may herniate and become obstructed. This report describes 2 rare cases of small bowel occlusion owing to an internal hernia caused by a MDB...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110982/point-of-care-ultrasound-is-associated-with-decreased-length-of-stay-in-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-soft-tissue-infection
#16
Margaret J Lin, Mark Neuman, Rachel Rempell, Michael Monuteaux, Jason Levy
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is increasingly being used to differentiate cellulitis from abscess in the pediatric emergency department (ED). POCUS has also been shown to decrease length of stay (LOS) for other applications among adult patients. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if ED LOS differed for children presenting with skin and soft tissue infections who received POCUS versus radiology-performed ultrasound. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children presenting to an urban pediatric ED between January 2011 and June 2013 with a diagnosis of cellulitis or abscess who underwent soft tissue ultrasound...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110981/distributive-shock-in-a-neonate-with-diffuse-infantile-hepatic-hemangioma
#17
James Brown, Rajan Arora, Usha Sethuraman
BACKGROUND: Hemangiomas are common cutaneous findings on healthy infants. These vascular malformations are generally benign, though in rare circumstances they can potentially be fatal. This is particularly true when the hemangiomas are large or numerous and occurring in visceral organs. Previously unrecognized visceral hemangiomas are part of the differential for any neonate presenting unexpectedly in shock. CASE REPORT: A 10-day-old neonate presented to the pediatric emergency department with difficulty breathing...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095775/vaginal-foreign-bodies-the-potential-role-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#18
Isabel Theresia Gross, Antonio Riera
Transabdominal point-of-care ultrasound may be a helpful tool during the evaluation of children with suspected vaginal foreign bodies. We discuss the case of an 11-year-old girl presenting after having placed a pen into her vagina. The patient attempted to remove the pen, but there was concern the cap may have been retained in the vagina. Point-of-care ultrasound findings confirmed a retained pen cap that was subsequently removed by pediatric surgery. We discuss the role of transabdominal point-of-care ultrasound for the detection of vaginal foreign bodies in pediatric patients...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095385/ultrasound-guided-popliteal-sciatic-nerve-block-for-an-ankle-laceration-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#19
Takaaki Mori, Yusuke Hagiwara
Although ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block has recently been introduced into pediatric emergency departments, knowledge of its use is limited. We present here a case demonstrating the safety and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block for a pediatric spoke injury in a pediatric emergency department setting.
December 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036004/the-utility-of-clinical-ultrasonography-in-identifying-distal-forearm-fractures-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#20
Iratxe Galletebeitia Laka, Frederic Samson, Inigo Gorostiza, Andrés Gonzalez, Carlos Gonzalez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of Point-Of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) for diagnosing distal forearm fractures in pediatric emergency departments (ED). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out in children aged younger than 15 years attended in an ED with an indication of radiography because of a suspected distal forearm fracture. The POCUS was performed considering cortical irregularity or disruption compatible with fracture...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
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