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Infection prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214384/placental-pathology-in-hiv-infection-at-term-a-comparison-with-hiv-uninfected-women
#1
Emma Kalk, Pawel Schubert, Julie A Bettinger, Mark F Cotton, Monika Esser, Amy Slogrove, Colleen A Wright
OBJECTIVES: To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. METHODS: Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n=120) and HIV-negative (n=103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214367/population-genetic-structure-and-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-on-the-edge-of-endemic-distribution
#2
Craig W Duffy, Hampate Ba, Samuel Assefa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Yacine B Deh, Abderahmane Tandia, Freja C M Kirsebom, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
To determine whether the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits fragmented population structure or local adaptation at the northern limit of its African distribution where the dry Sahel zone meets the Sahara, samples were collected from diverse locations within Mauritania over a range of ~ 1000 kilometres. Microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 203 clinical infection samples from eight locations, and Illumina paired-end sequences were obtained to yield high coverage genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 65 clinical infection samples from four locations...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214254/normothermia-in-arthroplasty
#3
REVIEW
Mark W Allen, David J Jacofsky
Since the initial design of surgical theaters, the thermal environment of the operating suite itself has been an area of concern and robust discussion. In the 1950s, correspondence in the British Medical Journal discussed the most suitable design for a surgeon's cap to prevent sweat from dripping onto the surgical field. These deliberations stimulated questions about the effects of sweat-provoking environments on the efficiency of the surgical team, not to mention the effects on the patient. Although these benefits translate to implant-based orthopedic surgery, they remain poorly understood and, at times, ignored...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214045/factors-affecting-the-willingness-of-nursing-students-to-receive-annual-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-a-large-scale-cross-sectional-study
#4
Kin Cheung, Sin Man Simone Ho, Winsome Lam
Nursing students are at high risk of exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases such as seasonal influenza. However, due to the limited number of studies conducted in this area, the prevalence and factors affecting annual seasonal influenza vaccination (ASIV) uptake remain unclear. This was a large-scale cross-sectional survey study conducted among 902 nursing students in different years of study. The questionnaire was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), and logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ASIV uptake...
February 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213874/disease-burden-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-the-netherlands-1989-2014-the-gap-between-females-and-males-is-diminishing
#5
Scott A McDonald, Venetia Qendri, Johannes Berkhof, Hester E de Melker, Johannes A Bogaards
PURPOSE: Besides cervical cancer, HPV infection is linked to a multitude of diseases in both males and females, suggesting that vaccination programmes should be re-evaluated, with a judicious assessment made of the disease burden stratified by sex, age, and genotype. Projections of burden into the near future are also needed to provide a benchmark for evaluating the impact of vaccination programmes, and to assess the need for scaling-up preventive measures. METHODS: Using the disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure, we estimated the total HPV-associated disease burden in the Netherlands...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213871/thieno-2-3-b-pyridine-derivatives-a-new-class-of-antiviral-drugs-against-mayaro-virus
#6
Raquel Amorim, Marcelo Damião Ferreira de Meneses, Julio Cesar Borges, Luiz Carlos da Silva Pinheiro, Lucio Ayres Caldas, Claudio Cesar Cirne-Santos, Marcos Vinícius Palmeira de Mello, Alessandra Mendonça Teles de Souza, Helena Carla Castro, Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer Paixão, Renata de Mendonça Campos, Ingrid E Bergmann, Viviana Malirat, Alice Maria Rolim Bernardino, Moacyr Alcoforado Rebello, Davis Fernandes Ferreira
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an arthropod-borne virus and a member of the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Its infection leads to an acute illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. To date, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines against infection with MAYV and resources for the prevention or treatment of other alphaviruses are very limited. MAYV has served as a model to study the antiviral potential of several substances on alphavirus replication. In this work we evaluated the antiviral effect of seven new derivatives of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine against MAYV replication in a mammalian cell line...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213810/how-to-tackle-natural-focal-infections-from-risk-assessment-to-vaccination-strategies
#7
Luca Busani, Alexander E Platonov, Onder Ergonul, Giovanni Rezza
Natural focal diseases are caused by biological agents associated with specific landscapes. The natural focus of such diseases is defined as any natural ecosystem containing the pathogen's population as an essential component. In such context, the agent circulates independently on human presence, and humans may become accidentally infected through contact with vectors or reservoirs. Some viruses (i.e., tick-borne encephalitis and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus) are paradigmatic examples of natural focal diseases...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213455/question-2-does-prophylactic-nystatin-prevent-invasive-fungal-infections-in-immunocompetent-critically-ill-children-on-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#8
Matthew Beake, James Fraser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213434/malaria-during-pregnancy
#9
Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy
One hundred and twenty-five million women in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant each year (see Dellicour et al. PLoS Med7: e1000221 [2010]) and require protection from infection to avoid disease and death for themselves and their offspring. Chloroquine prophylaxis was once a safe approach to prevention but has been abandoned because of drug-resistant parasites, and intermittent presumptive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, which is currently used to protect pregnant women throughout Africa, is rapidly losing its benefits for the same reason...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213367/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-infective-endocarditis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Thomas J Cahill, James L Harrison, Paul Jewell, Igho Onakpoya, John B Chambers, Mark Dayer, Peter Lockhart, Nia Roberts, David Shanson, Martin Thornhill, Carl J Heneghan, Bernard D Prendergast
OBJECTIVE: The use of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) is controversial. In recent years, guidelines to cardiologists and dentists have advised restriction of AP to high-risk groups (in Europe and the USA) or against its use at all (in the UK). The objective of this systematic review was to appraise the evidence for use of AP for prevention of bacteraemia or IE in patients undergoing dental procedures. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and ISI Web of Science...
February 17, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213046/splenectomy-as-a-destination-improving-quality-of-care-among-asplenic-veterans-through-a-travel-clinic
#11
Aaron P Mitchell, Joel C Boggan, Karen Lau, David L Simel
BACKGROUND: Asplenic patients are at risk for severe infections, but adherence to recommended preventive education and vaccination is poor. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that a targeted intervention can improve vaccination rates in a population of asplenic veterans. METHODS: Surgically asplenic patients actively receiving care in our health care system were identified via a database search. Patients were contacted via mailed letters and encouraged to attend an existing travel clinic with a new process designed for asplenic patients...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212668/association-of-community-sanitation-usage-with-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-among-school-aged-children-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#12
William E Oswald, Aisha E P Stewart, Michael R Kramer, Tekola Endeshaw, Mulat Zerihun, Berhanu Melak, Eshetu Sata, Demelash Gessese, Tesfaye Teferi, Zerihun Tadesse, Birhan Guadie, Jonathan D King, Paul M Emerson, Elizabeth K Callahan, Matthew C Freeman, W Dana Flanders, Thomas F Clasen, Christine L Moe
BACKGROUND: Globally, in 2010, approximately 1.5 billion people were infected with at least one species of soil-transmitted helminth (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Infection occurs through ingestion or contact (hookworm) with eggs or larvae in the environment from fecal contamination. To control these infections, the World Health Organization recommends periodic mass treatment of at-risk populations with deworming drugs...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212625/prevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-associated-factors-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-infected-patients-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study
#13
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfection with HIV/AIDS has emerged as a series of disease pattern. It most often results in unfavorable responses to treatment, frequent relapses, and deaths. Scarce data is available regarding the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfected patients. This study sought to determine the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis infected patients. METHODS: Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from October, 2015 to August, 2016 in Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212478/-risk-factors-related-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-therapy
#14
Juan Pablo Romo-Gamboa, Bertha Alicia Sandoval-Pérez, Ana Bertha Rodríguez-López, Marco Antonio Torres-González, Juan Carlos Barrera-de León
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) represents the second cause of nosocomial infections and it is associated with greater morbility, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and hospital stay. The objective was to determine factors related with VAP in neonates. METHODS: Analytical transversal study including newborns admitted already intubated with at least 48 hours of MV or who were intubated in Neonatal Therapy. VAP was defined according to the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "those patients submitted to MV during at least 48 hours"...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212409/pathogenic-waterborne-free-living-amoebae-an-update-from-selected-southeast-asian-countries
#15
Mohamad Azlan Abdul Majid, Tooba Mahboob, Brandon G J Mong, Narong Jaturas, Reena Leeba Richard, Tan Tian-Chye, Anusorn Phimphila, Panomphanh Mahaphonh, Kyaw Nyein Aye, Wai Lynn Aung, Joon Chuah, Alan D Ziegler, Atipat Yasiri, Nongyao Sawangjaroen, Yvonne A L Lim, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Each water sample was filtered and cultured onto non-nutrient agar seeded with live suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated at room temperature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212164/effectiveness-of-a-nurse-led-initiative-peer-to-peer-teaching-on-organizational-cauti-rates-and-related-costs
#16
Barbara Pashnik, Angela Creta, Lynette Alberti
A nurse-led initiative of peer-to-peer teaching positively impacted organizational incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The initiative included validating the competency of the nursing staff, highlighting the importance of CAUTI prevention, identifying CAUTI costs, quantifying the value of nursing care, and supporting nurses as teachers. The project demonstrated that peer-to-peer teaching and competency validation can be effective methods to engage nurses in quality improvement...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212157/current-approaches-to-myopia-control
#17
Seo Wei Leo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myopia is a global problem, being particularly prevalent in the urban areas of east and southeast Asia. In addition to the direct economic and social burdens, associated ocular complications may lead to substantial vision loss. With prevalence of myopia above 80% and high myopia over 20%, it is crucial to control myopia. The aim of this review to is provide an update on the interventions to slow the onset of myopia and retard its progression. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemic of myopia is characterized by increasingly early onset, combined with high myopia progression rates...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212153/new-therapies-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-exacerbations-of-bronchiectasis
#18
Hani Abo-Leyah, James D Chalmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exacerbations of bronchiectasis have a major impact on quality of life, healthcare costs, and long-term risk of complications. Preventing exacerbations is one of the major goals of treatment. Bronchiectasis is increasingly recognized and the impact of bronchiectasis exacerbations on daily clinical practice is also increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: Preventing bronchiectasis exacerbations are dependent on appropriate risk assessment, identifying the patients at highest risk to rationally target preventive therapies...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211475/biofilm-formation-of-the-black-yeast-like-fungus-exophiala-dermatitidis-and-its-susceptibility-to-antiinfective-agents
#19
Lisa Kirchhoff, Maike Olsowski, Katrin Zilmans, Silke Dittmer, Gerhard Haase, Ludwig Sedlacek, Eike Steinmann, Jan Buer, Peter-Michael Rath, Joerg Steinmann
Various fungi have the ability to colonize surfaces and to form biofilms. Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to targeted treatment because of resistance to antifungal drugs. One fungus that frequently colonises the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the opportunistic black yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. We investigated the biofilm-forming ability of E. dermatitidis and its susceptibility to various antiinfective agents and natural compounds. We tested 58 E...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211358/a-prospective-interventional-study-to-examine-the-effect-of-a-silver-alloy-and-hydrogel-coated-catheter-on-the-incidence-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection
#20
P Hy Chung, C Wy Wong, C Kc Lai, H K Siu, D Nc Tsang, K Y Yeung, D Km Ip, P Kh Tam
INTRODUCTION: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is a major hospital-acquired infection. This study aimed to analyse the effect of a silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheter on the occurrence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. METHODS: This was a 1-year prospective study conducted at a single centre in Hong Kong. Adult patients with an indwelling urinary catheter for longer than 24 hours were recruited. The incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in patients with a conventional latex Foley catheter without hydrogel was compared with that in patients with a silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheter...
February 17, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
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