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Infection prevention

Lars Korn, Cornelia Betsch, Robert Böhm, Nicolas W Meier
OBJECTIVE: Most vaccines provide indirect community protection by preventing the transmission of the disease. Paradoxically, this effect can also motivate omission of vaccination because increasing vaccination rates reduce the risk of infection and, therefore, the individual benefit of vaccination. Consequently, vaccination becomes a social dilemma where individuals' interests conflict with group interests. The current study investigated two social nudge interventions aiming to increasing individuals' motivation to act in the group's interest...
September 17, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Shi-Jiang Yu, Qi Pan, Ren Luo, Cui-Lun Wang, Lu-Yan Cheng, Juan-Sheng Yang, Hao-Nan Zhou, Dong-Yuan Hou, Hao-Qiang Liu, Chun Ran
BACKGROUND: Dialeurodes citri is an important pest in citrus-producing areas of the world. Lecanicillium attenuatum parasitizes D. citri and kills it, suggesting a potential approach for the biological control of pests. However, the low virulence of the fungus and its slow rate of killing have limited its commercial competitiveness. The objective reason for these disadvantages is immunological rejection by the host. Our strategy was to use fungi to express the dsRNA of the host immune genes...
September 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Y Y Shen, L Y Ye, Y Q Zhang, L J Song, Q Zhao, Y P Luo, Y Zhang
Objective: To analyze risk factors and drug resistance of community-onset methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infection through the investigation of patients infected with CO-MRSA. Methods: The clinical data of 97 cases infected with community-onset staphylococcus aureus (COSA) was collected in this hospital from July 2016 to June 2017. Epidemiological survey method and the variables were determined according to expert consultation, literature and practical work experience. Results: Among 97 patients infected with COSA, the diagnosis rate of CO-MRSA was 21...
August 28, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Clara Marincowitz, Amanda Genis, Nandu Goswami, Patrick De Boever, Tim S Nawrot, Hans Strijdom
Mounting evidence points to increased rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Endothelial dysfunction (loss of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in response to pro-vasodilatory stimuli) constitutes an early pathophysiological event in atherogenesis and CVD. Both HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction; however, conclusions are frequently drawn from associations shown in epidemiological studies...
September 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
Hanan Goldberg, Chen Shenhar, Hadar Tamir, Roy Mano, Jack Baniel, David Margel, Daniel Kedar, David Lifshitz, Ofer Yossepowitch
PURPOSE: To compare surgical site infections (SSI) rate after radical cystectomy (RC) over time and ascertain whether antibiotic prophylaxis should be enhanced. METHODS: All medical records of RC patients in a single tertiary uro-oncology center between 2007 and 2017 were analyzed. SSI was defined using the criteria of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All bacterial culture results and antimicrobial resistance rates were recorded. Lastly, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain SSI predictors...
September 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Lan Li, Xiaoning Tian, Jin Chen, Pengcheng Li, Qisheng Zheng, Jibo Hou
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a pathogen that severely disrupts swine production. Despite sustained efforts, the disease is still endemic, with high mortality and morbidity. New antiviral strategies to control PRRSV are needed. Griffithsin, a red algal lectin, has potent antiviral effect on several human enveloped viruses, but this effect has not been demonstrated on PRRSV. Here, we first tested the in vitro antiviral activity of Griffithsin against PRRSV. Griffithsin exerted strong saccharide-dependent antiviral activity against PRRSV, probably through interactions with glycans on the surface of PRRSV that interfered with virus entry...
September 15, 2018: Archives of Virology
Allison M Dering-Anderson, Alex J Adams
The transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to humans through tick bites results in Lyme disease. Appropriate therapy for Lyme disease is antibacterial drugs, most often doxycycline. Patients often approach community pharmacists for self-care assistance with the symptoms of Lyme disease: fever, headache, fatigue and skin rash. Pharmacists with the patient history are trained and capable of appropriately dispensing doxycycline to treat these patients and prevent the spread of infection to the joints, nerves or heart...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sarah King, Daniel Tancredi, Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Kelsie Gould, Hailey Vann, Grant Connors, Mary Ellen Sanders, Jeffrey A Linder, Andi L Shane, Dan Merenstein
Background: Overall reduction of antibiotic use is a widely adopted public health goal. Given evidence that consuming probiotics reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of certain types of common acute infections, we hypothesized that probiotics are associated with reduced antibiotic use. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed the impact of probiotic supplementation (any strain, dose or duration), compared to placebo, on antibiotic utilization for common, acute infections in otherwise healthy people of all ages...
September 14, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Phillip L Marotta, Louisa Gilbert, Assel Terlikbayeva, Elwin Wu, Nabila El-Bassel
BACKGROUND: The criminalization of drug use leads to high rates of drug crime convictions for engaging in injection drug use behaviors, introducing barriers to HIV prevention and drug treatment for PWID. Females (FWID) face unique vulnerabilities to HIV compared to males (MWID) in Kazakhstan. This study examined sex differences in associations between HIV/HCV infection, HIV knowledge, injection drug risk behaviors, and conviction for a drug crime in a sample of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Almaty, Kazakhstan...
September 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Supriya D Mehta, Rachel K Nordgren, Walter Agingu, Fredrick Otieno, Winnie Odongo, Finch Odhiambo, Robert C Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Sexual quality of life (SQoL) is a critical component of sexual health and is understudied in Sub-Saharan African settings with endemic HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI). AIM: We sought to assess SQoL among heterosexual couples in Kisumu, Kenya, and how this was associated with HIV status, STIs, and sexual practices. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of community-recruited couples. SQoL, HIV status, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 status, bacterial vaginosis (BV), sexual practices, and sociodemographics were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Luz Natalia Franco Montoya, Gisele Cristina Favero, Fabio Sabbadin Zanuzzo, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
This study investigated the effects of two β-glucan molecules with different purities and isolated by different biotechnological processes on the immune response of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) prior and after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In this sense, we evaluated serum cortisol and plasma glucose levels, the number of leukocytes (lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes), as well as the respiratory activity of leukocytes prior to, 6 and 24 h post infection (hpi). During 15 days, fish were fed with diets containing 0...
September 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Angela Toepp, Mandy Larson, Geneva Wilson, Carolyne Bennett, Adam Leal-Lima, Bryan Anderson, Molly Parrish, Michael Anderson, Hailie Fowler, Jessica Hinman, Eric Kontowicz, Jane Jefferies, Marvin Beeman, Jesse Buch, Jill Saucier, Phyllis Tyrrell, Radhika Gharpure, Caitlin Cotter, Christine Petersen
Better tools are necessary to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Modeling studies for regional Leishmania elimination indicate that an effective vaccine is a critical tool. Dogs are the reservoir host of L. infantum in Brazil and the Mediterranean basin, and therefore are an important target for public health interventions as well as a relevant disease model for human VL. No vaccine has been efficacious as an immunotherapy to prevent progression of already diagnostically positive individuals to symptomatic leishmaniasis...
September 12, 2018: Vaccine
Guizhong Zhang, Xin Li, Lvyan Liu, Junxin Li, Qian Chen, Shiran Huang, Yutao Li, Xiaochun Wan
BACKGROUND: Conventional hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines fail to induce protective antibody titers in 5-10% of immune-competent vaccines. Therefore, safe and effective HBV vaccines are still clinically needed. METHODS: In this study, we developed a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding CD317 single-chain fragment variable (α317scFv) linked with the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and detected the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by this vaccine in BALB/c mice...
September 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lindsay K Nicholson, Harsh Pratap, Elisabeth Bowers, Elise Gunzburger, Srinivasa R Bandi, Edward M Gardner, Brent E Palmer, Timothy Wright, John Kittelson, Edward N Janoff
Identifying HIV-1-associated B cell defects and responses to activation may direct interventions to circumvent their impaired antibody responses to infection and vaccines. Among 34 viremic HIV-1-infected and 20 seronegative control adults, we measured baseline frequencies and activation of B and T cell subsets, expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), potential determinants of B cell activation in vivo and B and T cell responses in vitro. At baseline, HIV-1 infection was associated with increased IgM memory and decreased anergic cell frequencies, as well as increased activation in all 10 B cell subsets compared with controls...
September 7, 2018: Immunobiology
Mohamed Y Mahmoud, Donald R Demuth, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis adherence to oral streptococci is a key point in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases (Honda in Cell Host Microbe 10:423-425, 2011). Previous work in our groups has shown that a region of the streptococcal antigen denoted BAR (SspB Adherence Region) inhibits P. gingivalis/S. gordonii interaction and biofilm formation both in vitro and in a mouse model of periodontitis (Daep et al. in Infect Immun 74:5756-5762, 2006; Daep et al. in Infect immun 76:3273-3280, 2008; Daep et al...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Lei Tian, Ziyong Sun, Zhen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Data on the pathogens responsible for nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Hubei province are limited. This study was conducted to determine the major pathogens causing BSI and to characterize their AMR. METHODS: Data from the China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (CARSS) from 2014 to 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common pathogens responsible for nosocomial BSI...
September 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Robert B Lochhead, Sheila L Arvikar, John M Aversa, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Klemen Strle, Allen C Steere
In most patients with Lyme arthritis (LA), antibiotic therapy results in Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen elimination, tissue repair, and return to homeostasis. However, despite spirochetal killing, some patients develop proliferative synovitis, characterized by synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, vascular damage, and fibrosis that persists for months to several years after antibiotic treatment, called post-infectious LA. In this study, we characterized the transcriptomes of post-infectious LA patients' synovial tissue, the target tissue of the immune response...
September 14, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Yuki Lama, Tao Chen, Mark Dredze, Amelia Jamison, Sandra Crouse Quinn, David A Broniatowski
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer, many of which could have been prevented with vaccination. Yet, the initiation and completion rates of HPV vaccination remain low among these populations. Given the importance of social media platforms for health communication, we examined US-based HPV images on Twitter. We explored inconsistencies between the demographics represented in HPV images and the populations that experience the greatest burden of HPV-related disease...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Kexin Duan, Xiaojing Hua, Yuting Wang, Yanxue Wang, Yaping Chen, Wen Shi, Lijie Tang, Yijing Li, Min Liu
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infects wild and cultured salmonid fish causing high mortality with serious economic losses to salmonid aquaculture. Ideally, the method of oral immunization should prevent the infection of rainbow trout juveniles with IPNV. In the present study, genetically engineered Lactobacillus casei 393 pPG-612-VP2/L. casei 393 and pPG-612-CK6-VP2/L. casei 393 constitutively expressing VP2 protein of IPNV were constructed. The recombinant strains pPG-612-CK6-VP2/L. casei 393 and pPG-612-VP2/L...
September 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yasaswi Kaumadha Wijesuriya, Martha Lappas
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the most prominent complication attributing to poor pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Infection is most commonly implicated in preterm birth; it initiates a cascade of inflammatory events that leads to the rupture of fetal membranes and spontaneous uterine contractions. Anti-inflammatory agents may thus be a therapeutic approach to prevent the premature rupture of fetal membranes and block contractions. In non-gestational tissues, the polyphenol honokiol has been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory properties...
October 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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