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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053792/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-infectious-diarrhea
#1
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
October 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053745/impact-of-the-structural-integrity-of-the-three-way-junction-of-adenovirus-vai-rna-on-pkr-inhibition
#2
Edis Dzananovic, Astha, Grzegorz Chojnowski, Soumya Deo, Evan P Booy, Pauline Padilla-Meier, Kevin McEleney, Janusz M Bujnicki, Trushar R Patel, Sean A McKenna
Highly structured RNA derived from viral genomes is a key cellular indicator of viral infection. In response, cells produce the interferon inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) that, when bound to viral dsRNA, phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and attenuates viral protein translation. Adenovirus can evade this line of defence through transcription of a non-coding RNA, VAI, an inhibitor of PKR. VAI consists of three base-paired regions that meet at a three-way junction; an apical stem responsible for the interaction with PKR, a central stem required for inhibition, and a terminal stem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053700/come-to-the-light-side-in-vivo-monitoring-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-infections-in-chronic-wounds-in-a-diabetic-hairless-murine-model
#3
Alessandra M Agostinho Hunt, Jacob A Gibson, Casandra L Larrivee, Sandra O'Reilly, Svetlana Navitskaya, Julia V Busik, Christopher M Waters
The presence of bacteria as structured biofilms in chronic wounds, especially in diabetic patients, is thought to prevent wound healing and resolution. Chronic mouse wounds models have been used to understand the underlying interactions between the microorganisms and the host. The models developed to date rely on the use of haired animals and terminal collection of wound tissue for determination of viable bacteria. While significant insight has been gained with these models, this experimental procedure requires a large number of animals and sampling is time consuming...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053647/efficacy-of-different-methods-used-for-dry-socket-prevention-and-risk-factor-analysis-a-systematic-review
#4
M Taberner-Vallverdú, M-Á Sánchez-Garcés, C Gay-Escoda
BACKGROUND: Dry socket is one of the most common complications that develops after the extraction of a permanent tooth, and its prevention is more effective than its treatment. OBJECTIVES: Analyze the efficacy of different methods used in preventing dry socket in order to decrease its incidence after tooth extraction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Cochrane and PubMed-MEDLINE database search was conducted with the search terms "dry socket", "prevention", "risk factors", "alveolar osteitis" and "fibrynolitic alveolitis", both individually and using the Boolean operator "AND"...
October 20, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053403/human-cytomegalovirus-vaccine-development-immune-responses-to-look-into-vaccine-strategy
#5
Lin Xia, Ruopeng Su, Zhiqiang An, Tong-Ming Fu, Wenxin Luo
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes considerable morbidity and disability in high risk, immunocompromised populations including recipients of solid organ transplants, and fetuses whose immune systems are not yet mature. Vaccines aimed at ameliorating the severity of disease and preventing HCMV infection can be categorized into two main approaches of vaccine design, with one focusing on virus modification and the other on individual antigens. However, no candidates in either class have been successful in achieving durable and protective immunity...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053401/are-we-prepared-for-emerging-flaviviruses-in-europe-challenges-for-vaccination
#6
Patricia Kaaijk, Willem Luytjes
Tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile fever are endemic flavivirus diseases in Europe. Climate change, virus evolution, and social factors may increase the risk of these flavivirus infections and may lead to the emergence of other flaviviruses in Europe that are endemic in (sub)tropical regions of the world. Control of the spread of flaviviruses is very difficult considering the cycling of flaviviruses between arthropod vectors and animal reservoir hosts. The increasing threat of flavivirus infections emphasizes the necessity of a sustainable vector surveillance system, an active animal health surveillance system and an adequate human surveillance system for early detection of flavivirus infections...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053255/fabrication-of-non-toxic-reduced-graphene-oxide-protein-nano-framework-as-sustained-antimicrobial-coating-for-biomedical-application
#7
Priyadarshani Choudhary, Thanusu Parandhaman, Baskaran Ramalingam, Natarajan Duraipandy, Manikantan Syamala Kiran, Sujoy K Das
Bacterial colonization on medical devices is a major concern in the healthcare industry. In the present study we report synthesis of environmental sustainable reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at large scale through biosynthetic route and its potential application for antibacterial coating on medical devices. HRTEM image depicts formation of graphene nanosheet, while DLS and ζ potential studies reveal that in aqueous medium the average hydrodynamic size and surface charge of rGO are 4410 ± 116 nm and -25.2 ± 3...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053252/optogenetics-manipulation-enables-to-prevent-biofilm-formation-of-engineered-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-on-surfaces
#8
Lu Pu, Shuai Yang, Aiguo Xia, Fan Jin
Synthetic biologists have attempted to solve real-world problems, such as those of bacterial biofilms, that are involved in the pathogenesis of many clinical infections and difficult to eliminate. To address this, we employed a blue light responding system and integrated it into the chromosomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. With making rational adaption and improvement of the light-activated system, we provided a robust and convenient means to spatiotemporally control gene expression and manipulate biological processes with minimal perturbation in P...
October 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053225/histological-outcomes-of-anal-high-grade-cytopredictions
#9
Jennifer Margaret Roberts, Fengyi Jin, Isobel Mary Poynten, Carmella Law, David James Templeton, Julia Kathleen Thurloe, Suzanne Marie Garland, Andrew Edwin Grulich, Annabelle Farnsworth, Richard John Hillman
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of histological outcomes after anal cytological screening in men who have sex with men (MSM) are rare. This study measured the positive predictive values (PPVs) of each level of baseline cytological abnormality in MSM in Sydney, Australia, over a 12-month period. METHODS: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer is a 3-year prospective study of the natural history of anal human papillomavirus infection in MSM at least 35 years old...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052770/extrapulmonary-involvement-in-pediatric-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Supika Kritsaneepaiboon, Mariaem M Andres, Vincent R Tatco, Cielo Consuelo Q Lim, Nathan David P Concepcion
Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052751/-prevention-of-infections-due-to-musculoskeletal-allografts
#11
REVIEW
A Pruß
Transplantation of musculoskeletal tissues is widely used in the treatment of extensive defects of the musculoskeletal system, especially in orthopedics for exchange of prostheses, surgical interventions on the spine and in traumatology for reconstruction after extensive tumor resections. A danger after transplantation is the potential transmission of clinically relevant pathogens. Tissue banks have therefore established a safety level approach for musculoskeletal tissue transplants, which includes donor selection, laboratory testing, tissue procurement, tissue processing, tissue storage and quality assurance...
October 20, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052492/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-secondary-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-hiv-related-toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-using-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
#12
Mark P Connolly, Gertruud Haitsma, Adrián V Hernández, José E Vidal
A recent systematic literature and meta-analysis reported relative efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in HIV-infected adults. Here, we estimated relapse rates during secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMX, and further explored differences in relapse rates prior to introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the widespread adoption of HAART. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials yielded 707 studies whereby 663 were excluded after abstract screening, and 38 were excluded after full review leaving 6 studies for extraction...
September 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052469/vitamin-d-and-l-isoleucine-promote-antimicrobial-peptide-hbd-2-production-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-elderly-individuals
#13
Julio E Castañeda-Delgado, Zajda Araujo, Irma Gonzalez-Curiel, Carmen J Serrano, Cesar Rivas Santiago, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Elderly individuals are susceptible to develop infectious diseases; promoting innate immunity to prevent infections is a key issue. Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. L-isoleucine and vitamin D are important molecules that induce hBD-2. The Aim of this study was to determine the use L-isoleucine and Vitamin D to induce hBD-2 in cells from healthy elderly individuals and elderly individuals with recurrent infections. We explored three groups: young adults (n = 20) used as control group, elderly adults (n = 18) and elderly with recurrent infections (n = 11)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052452/what-is-the-role-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-herpes-virus-infections-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atopic-dermatitis
#14
Simone Saintive, Eliane Abad, Dennis de C Ferreira, Mayra Stambovsky, Fernanda S Cavalcante, Lucio S Gonçalves, Fabio Vidal, Katia Rn Dos Santos
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing disease. Genetic, environmental and immunological factors are involved in its pathophysiology. Individuals with AD have an increased predisposition to colonization and/or infection of the skin by various pathogens, especially Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. The composition of their skin microbiome is also different, and changes during flares. The disease severity can be related to the degree of colonization by S. aureus. In addition, the presence of this bacterial species can predispose the host to more severe and disseminated viral infections...
October 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052136/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-infection-and-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#15
Chi-Ping Chan, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the first retrovirus discovered to cause adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a highly aggressive blood cancer. HTLV-1 research in the past 35 years has been most revealing in the mechanisms of viral oncogenesis. HTLV-1 establishes a lifelong persistent infection in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The infection outcome is governed by host immunity. ATL develops in 2-5% of infected individuals 30-50 years after initial exposure. HTLV-1 encodes two oncoproteins Tax and HBZ, which are required for initiation of cellular transformation and maintenance of cell proliferation, respectively...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052129/hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Youhua Xie
Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide in men and the ninth in women. It is also the second most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. About 350 million people globally are chronically infected with HBV. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for at least 50% cases of HCC worldwide. Other non-HBV factors may increase HCC risk among persons with chronic HBV infection. Both indirect and direct mechanisms are involved in HCC oncogenesis by HBV...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052128/overview-of-infectious-causes-of-human-cancers
#17
Qiliang Cai, Zhenghong Yuan
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that almost each person is infected at least one potentially cancer-causing organism; however, only a small proportion of infected individual develops cancer. In this review, to elucidate the potential role of infectious organisms in the development and progression of human cancers, we summarize the previous history and current understandings of infection-associated cancers and highlight the common molecular mechanisms of cancers caused by infectious agents and their potential cofactors, which may bring us to effectively prevent and reduce the infection-associated cancers in the future...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052109/assessments-of-opportunities-to-improve-antibiotic-prescribing-in-an-emergency-department-a-period-prevalence-survey
#18
Tristan T Timbrook, Aisling R Caffrey, Anais Ovalle, Maya Beganovic, William Curioso, Melissa Gaitanis, Kerry L LaPlante
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 30% of all outpatient antimicrobials are inappropriately prescribed. Currently, antimicrobial prescribing patterns in emergency departments (ED) are not well described. Determining inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing patterns and opportunities for interventions by antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) are needed. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed among a random sample of non-admitted, adult patients who received an antimicrobial prescription in the ED from January 1 to December 31, 2015...
October 19, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051881/fracture-management-in-pyknodysostosis-a-rare-case-report
#19
G Subramanya Gandhi, V Vijayanarasimhan, Lionel John, S Kailash, E Sathish Balaji
INTRODUCTION: Pyknodysostosis is congenital osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia of a rare entity. It is an autosomal recessive disease which presents with short stature and generalized osteosclerosis of skeleton as result of decreased bone turnover. Here, the authors report a case of pyknodysostosis who presented to our emergency room with a pathological fracture in the shaft of the femur for which operative intervention was carried out. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old female presented to our emergency room with a history of trivial injury to right thigh region and was diagnosed as fracture in her right femur shaft region...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051710/knowledge-and-care-seeking-practices-for-ear-infections-among-parents-of-under-five-children-in-kigali-rwanda-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Kaitesi Batamuliza Mukara, Peter Waiswa, Richard Lilford, Debara Lyn Tucci
BACKGROUND: Infections affecting the middle ear are a common childhood occurrence. Some cases may present with ear discharge through a tympanic membrane perforation which may heal spontaneously. However, up to 5% or more cases of those affected have persistent ear discharge. A number of barriers contribute towards delayed presentation at health facilities for treatment of ear infections. We conducted a study to evaluate parents' and caregivers' knowledge and care seeking practices for ear infections in children under five in Gasabo district in Kigali, Rwanda...
2017: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
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