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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929022/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-following-operative-treatment-of-ankle-fractures-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Jiashen Shao, Huixin Zhang, Bing Yin, Jia Li, Yanbin Zhu, Yingze Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aims to quantitatively summarize risk factors associated with surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. METHODS: Relevant original studies were searched in Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database and Cochrane central database (all through April 2018). Studies eligible had to meet the quality assessment criteria by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and to evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928974/a-bio-guided-approach-for-the-development-of-a-chestnut-based-proanthocyanidin-enriched-nutraceutical-with-potential-anti-gastritis-properties
#2
Enrico Sangiovanni, Stefano Piazza, Urska Vrhovsek, Marco Fumagalli, Saba Khalilpour, Domenico Masuero, Chiara Di Lorenzo, Luca Colombo, Fulvio Mattivi, Emma De Fabiani, Mario Dell'Agli
Gastritis is a widely spread inflammatory disease, mostly caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. Release of IL-8 by the stomach epithelium is a hallmark of gastritis and contributes to the amplification of the inflammatory state. Pharmacological modulation of IL-8 release is a strategy to relieve gastric inflammation and prevent more severe clinical outcomes. In search of nutraceuticals with potential anti-gastritis properties we used a bio-guided approach based on IL-8 secretion by gastric cells to characterize extracts from the fruits of different chestnut varieties...
June 18, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928942/interventions-to-decrease-short-term-peripheral-venous-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-impact-on-incidence-and-mortality
#3
Patrick Saliba, Ana Hornero, Guillermo Cuervo, Immaculada Grau, Emilio Jimenez, Damaris Berbel, Purificación Martos, Juan Manuel Verge, Cristian Tebe, Jose María Martínez-Sánchez, Evelyn Shaw, Laura Gavaldà, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Short-term peripheral venous catheters are a significant source of health-care acquired bloodstream infections and a preventable cause of death. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of interventions applied to reduce the incidence and mortality associated with short peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (PVCR-BSI). METHODS: The intervention included continuous PVCR-BSI surveillance, implementation of preventive measures related to catheter insertion and maintenance in accordance with evidence-based recommendations and the hospital's own data, front-line staff educational campaigns, and assessment of adherence to hospital guidelines by ward rounds...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928845/screening-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-hiv-infected-medicaid-enrollees
#4
Eleanor E Friedman, Awal Khan, Wayne A Duffus
OBJECTIVES: In the United States, universal screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection among people with HIV is recommended, but the percentage receiving screening is unknown. This study assessed screening for latent TB infection among people with HIV enrolled in Medicaid during 2006-2010. METHODS: We used nationwide fee-for-service Medicaid records to identify people with HIV, measure screening for latent TB infection, and examine associated demographic, social, and clinical factors...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928745/modeling-the-role-of-public-health-education-in-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks-in-sudan
#5
Benjamin Levy, Christina Edholm, Orou Gaoue, Roselyn Kaondera-Shava, Moatlhodi Kgosimore, Suzanne Lenhart, Benjamin Lephodisa, Edward Lungu, Theresia Marijani, Farai Nyabadza
Public involvement in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) prevention efforts is key to reducing disease outbreaks. Targeted education through practical health information to particular groups and sub-populations is crucial to controlling the disease. In this paper, we study the dynamics of Ebola virus disease in the presence of public health education with the aim of assessing the role of behavior change induced by health education to the dynamics of an outbreak. The power of behavior change is evident in two outbreaks of EVD that took place in Sudan only 3 years apart...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928619/systematic-review-and-practice-policy-statements-on-urinary-tract-infection-prevention-in-adults-with-spina-bifida
#6
REVIEW
Michael Tradewell, Joseph J Pariser, Tony Nimeh, Sean P Elliott
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a source of morbidity and healthcare costs in adults with spina bifida (ASB). UTI prevention strategies are often recommended, but the evidence of various approaches remains unclear. We performed a systematic review to inform a best practice policy statement for UTI prevention in ASB. On behalf of the Neurogenic Bladder Research Group (NBRG.org), we developed an a priori protocol and searched the published English literature for 30 outcomes questions addressing UTI prevention in ASB...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928531/strengthening-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-tuberculosis-prevention-capacity-among-south-african-healthcare-workers-a-mixed-methods-study-of-a-collaborative-occupational-health-program
#7
Alexandre Liautaud, Prince A Adu, Annalee Yassi, Muzimkhulu Zungu, Jerry M Spiegel, Angeli Rawat, Elizabeth A Bryce, Michelle C Engelbrecht
Background: Insufficient training in infection control and occupational health among healthcare workers (HCWs) in countries with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) burdens requires attention. We examined the effectiveness of a 1-year Certificate Program in Occupational Health and Infection Control conducted in Free State Province, South Africa in an international partnership to empower HCWs to become change agents to promote workplace-based HIV and TB prevention...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928502/high-molecular-weight-hyaluronic-acid-a-two-pronged-protectant-against-infection-of-the-urogenital-tract
#8
Catherine A Mowbray, Syema Shams, Git Chung, Anna Stanton, Phillip Aldridge, Andrejus Suchenko, Robert S Pickard, Ased Sm Ali, Judith Hall
Objectives: Recurrent urinary tract infections are associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) ascending and infecting the urinary tract. Antibiotics provide only symptomatic relief, not prevent recurrence. Clinical evidence suggests that intravesical glycosaminoglycan therapy, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), helps reduce UTI recurrence. This has been investigated here using in vitro systems modelling the urogenital tract tissues. Methods: RT4 bladder cells were preconditioned with high molecular weight HA (> 1500 kDa) at 2 mg mL-1 and challenged with UPEC to analyse barrier protection and bacterial adherence...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928280/tfh1-cells-in-germinal-centers-during-chronic-hiv-siv-infection
#9
REVIEW
Vijayakumar Velu, Geetha Mylvaganam, Chris Ibegbu, Rama Rao Amara
T follicular helper CD4 cells (Tfh) are essential for the development and maintenance of germinal center (GC) reactions, a critical process that promotes the generation of long-lived high affinity humoral immunity. It is becoming increasingly evident that GC-Tfh cells are heterogeneous in nature with some cellular characteristics associated with a Th1, Th2, and Th17 phenotype. Emerging studies suggest that GC-Tfh cells are directed to differentiate into distinct phenotypes during chronic HIV/SIV infection and these changes in GC-Tfh cells can greatly impact the B cell response and subclass of antibodies generated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928278/functions-of-cd1d-restricted-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-in-antimicrobial-immunity-and-potential-applications-for-infection-control
#10
REVIEW
Yuki Kinjo, Shogo Takatsuka, Naoki Kitano, Shun Kawakubo, Masahiro Abe, Keigo Ueno, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki
CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T ( i NKT) cells are innate-type lymphocytes that express a T-cell receptor (TCR) containing an invariant α chain encoded by the Vα14 gene in mice and Vα24 gene in humans. These i NKT cells recognize endogenous, microbial, and synthetic glycolipid antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule CD1d. Upon TCR stimulation by glycolipid antigens, i NKT cells rapidly produce large amounts of cytokines, including interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928186/hypothermia-related-acute-pancreatitis
#11
Kyawzaw Lin, Emmanuel Ofori, Aung Naing Lin, Sithu Lin, Thinzar Lin, Ameer Rasheed, Viswanath Vasudevan, Madhavi Reddy
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease presenting from mild localized inflammation to severe infected necrotic pancreatic tissue. In the literature, there are a few cases of hypothermia-induced AP. However, the association between hypothermia and AP is still a myth. Generally, mortality from acute pancreatitis is nearly 3-6%. Here, we present a 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female who presented with acute pancreatitis induced by transient hypothermia. A 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female was hypothermic at 81°F on arrival which was improved to 91...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928168/nationwide-implementation-of-pathogen-inactivation-for-all-platelet-concentrates-in-switzerland
#12
Markus Jutzi, Behrouz Mansouri Taleghani, Morven Rueesch, Lorenz Amsler, Andreas Buser
Introduction: Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) has been identified as the most prevalent transfusion-associated infectious risk. To prevent PC-related septic transfusion reactions, the Intercept® pathogen inactivation procedure was introduced for all PCs in Switzerland in 2011. Methods: Based on numbers of transfused units and mandatorily reported adverse events with high imputability, we compare the risks associated with transfusion of conventional PCs (cPCs) and pathogen-inactivated PCs (PI-PCs)...
May 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928161/the-role-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-upper-gastrointestinal-disorders
#13
Muhammad Ali Khan, Colin W Howden
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been in use since the early 1990s and play a crucial role in the management of a number of conditions affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett esophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis, and dyspepsia. PPIs also play an important role in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection and in the prevention of upper gastrointestinal tract ulcers and bleeding among patients taking antiplatelet therapy and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
March 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928075/can-drains-be-avoided-in-lipo-abdominoplasty
#14
Medha Anand Bhave
Context: Seroma formation is a common complication after lipoabdominoplasty. Conventionally, drains have been placed to prevent seroma; however, there are problems with drains, namely, pain, compromised mobilisation, breakage, tissue irritation and infection. Strategies to prevent seroma, such as the use of glue or quilting sutures have all been attempted with variable and unpredictable benefit. Aims: The author extrapolated the experience with own liposuction protocols to lipoabdominoplasty and began doing away with drains from the year 2006 onwards unless absolutely indicated...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928074/a-breast-prosthesis-infection-update-two-year-incidence-risk-factors-and-management-at-single-institution
#15
Ashley Nadia Boustany, Shady Elmaraghi, Nneamaka Agochukwu, Benjamin Cloyd, Adam J Dugan, Brian Rinker
Background: Infection following augmentation and prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can cause significant physical and psychological distress for patients. It may delay adjuvant therapies and compromise aesthetic outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify modifiable risk factors for infection and identify common bacterial isolates to achieve optimal outcomes for patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction over a 2-year period...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928066/ppar%C3%AE-is-critical-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induction-of-mcl-1-and-limitation-of-human-macrophage-apoptosis
#16
Eusondia Arnett, Ashlee M Weaver, Kiersten C Woodyard, Maria J Montoya, Michael Li, Ky V Hoang, Andrew Hayhurst, Abul K Azad, Larry S Schlesinger
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ is a global transcriptional regulator associated with anti-inflammatory actions. It is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages (AMs), which are unable to clear the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Although M.tb infection induces PPARγ in human macrophages, which contributes to M.tb growth, the mechanisms underlying this are largely unknown. We undertook NanoString gene expression analysis to identify novel PPARγ effectors that condition macrophages to be more susceptible to M...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928008/understanding-willingness-to-use-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#17
Xia Wang, Adam Bourne, Pulin Liu, Jiangli Sun, Thomas Cai, Gitau Mburu, Matteo Cassolato, Bangyuan Wang, Wang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional prevention choice for men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial risk of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent, and reasons, for MSM's willingness to use oral PrEP in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. METHODS: Between May and December 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 487 MSM recruited through snowball sampling in physical locations frequented by MSM and through social media applications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927958/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-intra-abdominal-and-urinary-tract-infections-in-mexico-from-2009-to-2015-results-from-the-study-for-monitoring-antimicrobial-resistance-trends-smart
#18
Alfredo Ponce-de-Leon, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Dora P Cornejo-Juárez, Juan C Tinoco, Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Carmen J Gaona-Tapia, M Lourdes Guerrero-Almeida, Alexandra Martin-Onraët, José Luis Vallejo Cervantes, José Sifuentes-Osornio
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing worldwide concern, which poses unique challenges for the effective prevention and treatment of several infections, especially the ones triggered by organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Here, we present the surveillance results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAI, n = 1,235) and urinary-tract infections (UTI, n = 2,682), collected in Mexico from 2009 to 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927956/staphylococcus-aureus-protein-a-causes-osteoblasts-to-hyper-mineralise-in-a-3d-extra-cellular-matrix-environment
#19
Nicola Kavanagh, Fergal J O'Brien, Steve W Kerrigan
Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone infection that is caused most commonly by the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Research into staphylococcal induced bone infection is typically conducted using traditional 2D in vitro culture settings, which is not fully representative of the dynamic in vivo environment. In this study we utilised a collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffold, previously developed for bone tissue engineering, as a representative 3D model of infection. The scaffold resisted degradation and retained its pore structure, which is important for cellular function and survival, when seeded with both cells and bacteria...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927946/implementation-and-outcomes-of-guideline-revisions-for-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-mother-support-programme-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#20
Alemnesh H Mirkuzie
About 40% of the new HIV infections in Ethiopia are among children < 15 years of age. The great majority of these infections occur through Mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT). For prevention of MTCT, the national guidelines has been revised to incorporate scientific advances in HIV prevention, treatment and care. Since 2005, the country has been implementing a peer mentor programme called Mother Support Group (MSG), which provides psychosocial and adherence support for HIV positive mothers. This study examined implementation of PMTCT guidelines revisions and outcomes of HIV exposed babies in the MSG in Addis Ababa...
2018: PloS One
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