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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#1
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087657/european-consensus-conference-on-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clinical-practice
#2
Giovanni Cammarota, Gianluca Ianiro, Herbert Tilg, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović, Patrizia Kump, Reetta Satokari, Harry Sokol, Perttu Arkkila, Cristina Pintus, Ailsa Hart, Jonathan Segal, Marina Aloi, Luca Masucci, Antonio Molinaro, Franco Scaldaferri, Giovanni Gasbarrini, Antonio Lopez-Sanroman, Alexander Link, Pieter de Groot, Willem M de Vos, Christoph Högenauer, Peter Malfertheiner, Eero Mattila, Tomica Milosavljević, Max Nieuwdorp, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Magnus Simren, Antonio Gasbarrini
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance...
January 13, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087635/rb-controls-growth-survival-and-neuronal-migration-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#3
Takeshi Matsui, Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Jay W Schneider, Jenny Hsieh
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which regulates cell cycle entry to S phase via E2F transcription factors. Using knockout (KO) mice, it has been described that Rb plays a role in cell migration and differentiation in developing and adult brain as well as apoptosis. In addition, the RB family is required for the self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of this gene in human brain development. Here, we investigated the role of RB in cerebral organoids from human ESCs deficient for RB...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087628/id4-levels-dictate-the-stem-cell-state-in-mouse-spermatogonia
#4
Aileen R Helsel, Qi-En Yang, Melissa J Oatley, Tessa Lord, Fred Sablitzky, Jon M Oatley
Spermatogenesis is a classic model of cycling cell lineages that depend on a balance between stem cell self-renewal for continuity and formation of progenitors as the initial step in production of differentiated cells. However, the mechanisms guiding the continuum of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) to progenitor spermatogonial transition and precise identifiers of subtypes in the process are undefined. Here we used an Id4-eGfp reporter mouse to discover that EGFP intensity is predictive of the subsets with the ID4-EGFP(Bright) population being mostly, if not purely, SSCs while the ID4-EGFP(Dim) population is in transition to the progenitor state...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087539/quantitative-stability-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-clonal-output-in-transplanted-rhesus-macaques
#5
Samson J Koelle, Diego A Espinoza, Chuanfeng Wu, Jason Xu, Rong Lu, Brian Li, Robert E Donahue, Cynthia E Dunbar
Autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells lentivirally labeled with unique oligonucleotide barcodes flanked by sequencing primer targets enables quantitative assessment of the self-renewal and differentiation patterns of these cells in a myeloablative rhesus macaque model. Compared with other approaches to clonal tracking, this approach is highly quantitative and reproducible. We documented very stable multipotent long-term hematopoietic clonal output of monocytes, granulocytes, B cells and T cells from a polyclonal pool of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in four macaques followed for up to 49 months post-transplantation...
January 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087284/pharmacological-and-surgical-therapy-for-the-central-giant-cell-granuloma-a-long-term-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Willem Hans Schreuder, Henk van den Berg, Anne Marie Westermann, Zachary Scott Peacock, Jan de Lange
PURPOSE: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with a central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) treated at a single center to assess and compare the different surgical and non-surgical approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort with a single histologically proven non-syndrome-related CGCG was selected and reviewed. Patients were allocated to group I (surgery), group II (pharmacotherapy), and group III (pharmacotherapy and surgery). The primary outcome was long-term radiologic response using computed tomography...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087122/human-trophoblast-stem-cells-real-or-not-real
#7
Ching-Wen Chang, Mana M Parast
Abnormal trophoblast differentiation is the root cause of many placenta-based pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Human trophoblast differentiation is difficult to study due to the lack of a stem cell model. Such a multipotent "trophoblast stem" (TS) cell, with the ability to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, has been derived from mouse blastocysts, but attempts to derive similar human cells have failed. We consider here several possibilities for the TS cell niche in the human placenta...
January 5, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086874/new-developments-in-anti-malarial-target-candidate-and-product-profiles
#8
REVIEW
Jeremy N Burrows, Stephan Duparc, Winston E Gutteridge, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Wiweka Kaszubska, Fiona Macintyre, Sébastien Mazzuri, Jörg J Möhrle, Timothy N C Wells
A decade of discovery and development of new anti-malarial medicines has led to a renewed focus on malaria elimination and eradication. Changes in the way new anti-malarial drugs are discovered and developed have led to a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of new molecules presently in pre-clinical and early clinical development. The twin challenges faced can be summarized by multi-drug resistant malaria from the Greater Mekong Sub-region, and the need to provide simplified medicines. This review lists changes in anti-malarial target candidate and target product profiles over the last 4 years...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086811/study-of-the-microrna-expression-profile-of-foreskin-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-following-inflammation-priming
#9
Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Bassam Badran, Dominique Bron, Laurence Lagneaux, Mehdi Najar
BACKGROUND: Due to their self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potential, and immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive tool for different therapeutic strategies. Foreskin (FSK), considered as a biological waste material, has already been shown to be a valuable source of MSCs. Besides their typical fibroblast like morphology and International Society for cellular Therapy compliant phenotype, foreskin-MSCs (FSK-MSCs) are clonogenic, and highly proliferative cells with multi-lineage and strong immunomodulatory capacities...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081346/neuroprotective-effects-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cellsand-conditioned-medium-in-mechanically-injured-neuroblastoma-cells
#10
Mesut Mete, Işıl Aydemir, Ülkün Ünlü Ünsal, Yusuf Kurtuluş Duransoy, İbrahim Mehmet Tuğlu, Mehmet Selçuki
BACKGROUND/AIM: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess self-renewal characteristics that distinguish them from other cell types. Recent studies have focused on the effects of conditioned medium (CM) that includes the extracellular matrix. Here we examined the neuroprotective effects of BMSCs and CM on damaged neuroblastoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cells were divided into five groups: 1) healthy controls, 2) damaged cells alone, 3) damaged cells treated with BMSCs, 4) damaged cells treated with CM, and 5) damaged cells treated with both BMSCs and CM...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081276/correlation-and-path-analysis-of-biomass-sorghum-production
#11
T P S Vendruscolo, M A A Barelli, M A S Castrillon, R S da Silva, F T de Oliveira, C L Corrêa, B W Zago, F D Tardin
Sorghum biomass is an interesting raw material for bioenergy production due to its versatility, potential of being a renewable energy source, and low-cost of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of biomass sorghum genotypes and to estimate genotypic, phenotypic, and environmental correlations, and direct and indirect effects of seven agronomic traits through path analysis. Thirty-four biomass sorghum genotypes and two forage sorghum genotypes were cultivated in a randomized block design with three replicates...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080071/nanoscale-engineering-in-vo2-nanowires-via-direct-electron-writing-process
#12
Zhenhua Zhang, Hua Guo, Wenqiang Ding, Bin Zhang, Yue Lu, Xiaoxing Ke, Weiwei Liu, Fu-Rong Chen, Manling Sui
Controlling phase transition in functional materials at nano-scale is not only of broad scientific interest, but also important for practical applications in the fields of renewable energy, information storage, transducer, sensor, etc. As a model functional material, vanadium dioxide (VO2) has its metal-insulator transition (MIT) usually at a sharp temperature around 68 °C. Here we report a focused electron beam can directly lower down the transition temperature of a nano-area to room temperature without pre-patterning the VO2...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080037/global-metabolic-engineering-of-glycolytic-pathway-via-multi-copy-integration-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Ryosuke Yamada, Kazuki Wakita, Hiroyasu Ogino
The use of renewable feedstocks for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals by engineering metabolic pathways of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently become an attractive option. Many researchers attempted to increase glucose consumption rate by overexpressing some glycolytic enzymes because most target bio-based chemicals are derived through glycolysis. However these attempts have met with little success. In this study, to create a S. cerevisiae strain with high glucose consumption rate, we used multi-copy integration to develop a global metabolic engineering strategy...
January 12, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079216/one-step-hydroprocessing-of-fatty-acids-into-renewable-aromatic-hydrocarbons-over-ni-hzsm-5-insights-into-the-major-reaction-pathways
#14
Shiyou Xing, Pengmei Lv, Jiayan Wang, Junying Fu, Pei Fan, Lingmei Yang, Gaixiu Yang, Zhenhong Yuan, Yong Chen
For high caloricity and stability in bio-aviation fuels, a certain content of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs, 8-25 wt%) is crucial. Fatty acids, obtained from waste or inedible oils, are a renewable and economic feedstock for AHC production. Considerable amounts of AHCs, up to 64.61 wt%, were produced through the one-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids over Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts. Hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and aromatization constituted the principal AHC formation processes. At a lower temperature, fatty acids were first hydrosaturated and then hydrodeoxygenated at metal sites to form long-chain hydrocarbons...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078803/why-do-they-care-narratives-of-physician-volunteers-on-motivations-for-participation-in-short-term-medical-missions-abroad
#15
Paul H Caldron, Ann Impens, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: Short-term medical missions (STMMs) refer to the provision of direct pro bono medical services in lower and middle income countries for periods ranging from days to a few weeks by physicians from rich countries. Survey data have provided limited information on demographic and professional profiles of physicians as well as monetary and manpower inputs. Understanding why physicians participate, however, remains incomplete. The study's objective was to elicit physicians' motivations directly...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078710/cancer-stem-cells-cscs-in-melanoma-there-s-smoke-but-is-there-fire
#16
REVIEW
Constance E Brinckerhoff
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also called Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs), can be defined as cancer cells that are present within solid tumors or hematological cancers, which have characteristics associated with normal stem cells, but which can give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs, therefore, are transformed stem cells, which can self-renew, differentiate into diverse progenies, and drive continuous tumor growth. (Villani et al. 2015) (Zhou et al., 2009)(Kreso & Dick, 2014)(Schatton et al...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078518/public-policy-performance-for-social-development-solar-energy-approach-to-assess-technological-outcome-in-mexico-city-metropolitan-area
#17
Angel Raúl Arenas-Aquino, Y Matsumoto-Kuwabara, M Kleiche-Dray
Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078392/carbon-footprint-assessment-of-western-australian-groundwater-recycling-scheme
#18
Andrew Simms, Stacey Hamilton, Wahidul K Biswas
This research has determined the carbon footprint or the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) of potable water production from a groundwater recycling scheme, consisting of the Beenyup wastewater treatment plant, the Beenyup groundwater replenishment trial plant and the Wanneroo groundwater treatment plant in Western Australia, using a life cycle assessment approach. It was found that the scheme produces 1300 tonnes of CO2 eq per gigalitre (GL) of water produced, which is 933 tonnes of CO2 eq higher than the desalination plant at Binningup in Western Australia powered by 100% renewable energy generated electricity...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078190/loss-of-quiescence-and-self-renewal-capacity-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-in-an-in-vitro-leukemic-niche
#19
Natalia-Del Pilar Vanegas, Jean-Paul Vernot
BACKGROUND: Leukemic and mesenchymal stem cells interact in the leukemic microenvironment and affect each other differently. This interplay has also important implications for the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) biology and function. This study evaluated human HSC self-renewal potential and quiescence in an in vitro leukemic niche without leukemic cells. METHODS: A leukemic niche was established by co-culturing mesenchymal stem cells with a fresh conditioned medium obtained from a leukemic (REH) cell line...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077646/adenovirus-modulates-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-by-reprogramming-orp1l-vap-protein-contacts-for-cholesterol-transport-from-endosomes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#20
Nicholas L Cianciola, Stacey Chung, Danny Manor, Cathleen R Carlin
: Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus counteracts host defense mechanisms. This study had two goals. First, determine the molecular basis of cholesterol homeostatic responses induced by the early region 3 membrane protein RIDα via its direct interaction with the sterol-binding protein ORP1L. Second, determine how this interaction regulates innate immunity to adenovirus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
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