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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053791/pharmacological-targeting-of-apelin-impairs-glioblastoma-growth
#1
Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Gwennan Andre-Gregoire, Kathryn A Jacobs, Lucas Treps, Sophie Le Gonidec, Heloise M Leclair, Sara Gonzalez-Diest, Quentin Roux, François Guillonneau, Delphine Loussouarn, Lisa Oliver, François M Vallette, Fabienne Foufelle, Philippe Valet, Anthony P Davenport, Robert C Glen, Nicolas Bidere, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma are highly aggressive brain tumours that are associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Within these tumours exists a subpopulation of highly plastic self-renewing cancer cells that retain the ability to expand ex vivo as tumourspheres, induce tumour growth in mice, and have been implicated in radio- and chemo-resistance. Although their identity and fate are regulated by external cues emanating from endothelial cells, the nature of such signals remains unknown. Here, we used a mass spectrometry proteomic approach to characterize the factors released by brain endothelial cells...
October 3, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053328/qcd-electroweak-first-order-phase-transition-in-a-supercooled-universe
#2
Satoshi Iso, Pasquale D Serpico, Kengo Shimada
If the electroweak sector of the standard model is described by classically conformal dynamics, the early Universe evolution can be substantially altered. It is already known that-contrarily to the standard model case-a first-order electroweak phase transition may occur. Here we show that, depending on the model parameters, a dramatically different scenario may happen: A first-order, six massless quark QCD phase transition occurs first, which then triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking. We derive the necessary conditions for this dynamics to occur, using the specific example of the classically conformal B-L model...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053244/punctured-two-dimensional-sheets-for-harvesting-blue-energy
#3
Alessandro Aliprandi, Dawid Pakulski, Artur Ciesielski, Paolo Samorì
The challenges of global climate change and the world's growing demand for energy have brought the need for new renewable energy sources to the top of the international community's agenda. We have known for many centuries that energy is released upon mixing seawater and freshwater, yet it was just a few decades ago that it became clear how this energy can be converted into electricity instead of heat. As a result, the blue energy rush has raised and set new strategies in different science and technology sectors, leading to the construction of a new generation of plants and other technological investments...
October 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052930/comprehensive-functional-characterization-of-the-glycoside-hydrolase-family-3-enzymes-from-cellvibrio-japonicus-reveals-unique-metabolic-roles-in-biomass-saccharification
#4
Cassandra E Nelson, Mohamed A Attia, Artur Rogowski, Carl Morland, Harry Brumer, Jeffrey G Gardner
Lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;3)/β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), and β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052551/planning-low-carbon-electricity-systems-under-uncertainty-considering-operational-flexibility-and-smart-grid-technologies
#5
Rodrigo Moreno, Alexandre Street, José M Arroyo, Pierluigi Mancarella
Electricity grid operators and planners need to deal with both the rapidly increasing integration of renewables and an unprecedented level of uncertainty that originates from unknown generation outputs, changing commercial and regulatory frameworks aimed to foster low-carbon technologies, the evolving availability of market information on feasibility and costs of various technologies, etc. In this context, there is a significant risk of locking-in to inefficient investment planning solutions determined by current deterministic engineering practices that neither capture uncertainty nor represent the actual operation of the planned infrastructure under high penetration of renewables...
August 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052549/a-methodology-to-assess-the-economic-impact-of-power-storage-technologies
#6
Laila El-Ghandour, Timothy C Johnson
We present a methodology for assessing the economic impact of power storage technologies. The methodology is founded on classical approaches to the optimal stopping of stochastic processes but involves an innovation that circumvents the need to, ex ante, identify the form of a driving process and works directly on observed data, avoiding model risks. Power storage is regarded as a complement to the intermittent output of renewable energy generators and is therefore important in contributing to the reduction of carbon-intensive power generation...
August 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052531/pten-expression-is-upregulated-by-a-rna-binding-protein-rbm38-via-enhancing-its-mrna-stability-in-breast-cancer
#7
Xu-Jie Zhou, Jing Wu, Liang Shi, Xiao-Xia Li, Lei Zhu, Xi Sun, Jia-Yi Qian, Ying Wang, Ji-Fu Wei, Qiang Ding
BACKGROUND: PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10), a well-characterized tumor suppressor, is a key regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway involved in cell survival, metastasis and cell renewal. PTEN expression is closely related to the phenotype, prognosis and drug selection in breast cancer. It is mainly regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications. RNA binding motif protein 38 (RBM38), an RNA-binding protein (RBP) and a target of P53 family, plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular processing, especially in post-transcription regulation and gene transcription...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052215/transmission-electron-microscopy-imaging-to-analyze-chromatin-density-distribution-at-the-nanoscale-level
#8
Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Lusik Cherkezyan, Christoph Ringli, Célia Baroux
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the fine ultrastructural organization of cells. Delicate specimen preparation is required for results to reflect the "native" ultrastructural organization of subcellular features such as the nucleus. Despite the advent of high-resolution, fluorescent imaging of chromatin components, TEM still provides a unique and complementary level of resolution capturing chromatin organization at the nanoscale level. Here, we describe the workflow, from tissue preparation, TEM image acquisition and image processing, for obtaining a quantitative description of chromatin density distribution in plant cells, informing on local fluctuations and periodicity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051961/hierarchically-interconnected-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanosheets-for-an-efficient-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#9
Hao Wang, Qinghua Yi, Lijun Gao, Yongqian Gao, Tingting Liu, Ying-Bing Jiang, Yinghui Sun, Guifu Zou
Exploring low-cost and efficient electrocatalysts based on earth-abundant elements for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is of great importance for the development of clean and renewable energy. In this work, we report a facile self-foaming strategy for synthesis of hierarchically interconnected nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets (NCNS). The doping N species within the 3D interconnected carbon network affords rich active sites for the HER and facilitates fast charge transfer. As a result, the NCNS exhibit excellent catalytic activity with an onset potential of -65 mV, and a Tafel slope of 81 mV dec(-1) with robust stability over 10 h in acidic media...
October 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051861/additive-manufacturing-unlocking-the-evolution-of-energy-materials
#10
REVIEW
Adilet Zhakeyev, Panfeng Wang, Li Zhang, Wenmiao Shu, Huizhi Wang, Jin Xuan
The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing. Additive manufacturing has shown its promise to change the way how future energy system can be designed and delivered. It offers capability in manufacturing complex 3D structures, with near-complete design freedom and high sustainability due to minimal use of materials and toxic chemicals. Recent literatures have reported that additive manufacturing could unlock the evolution of energy materials and chemistries with unprecedented performance in the way that could never be achieved by conventional manufacturing techniques...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051494/mir-31-promotes-mammary-stem-cell-expansion-and-breast-tumorigenesis-by-suppressing-wnt-signaling-antagonists
#11
Cong Lv, Fengyin Li, Xiang Li, Yuhua Tian, Yue Zhang, Xiaole Sheng, Yongli Song, Qingyong Meng, Shukai Yuan, Liming Luan, Thomas Andl, Xu Feng, Baowei Jiao, Mingang Xu, Maksim V Plikus, Xing Dai, Christopher Lengner, Wei Cui, Fazheng Ren, Jianwei Shuai, Sarah E Millar, Zhengquan Yu
MicroRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation plays key roles in stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis. However, the in vivo functions of specific microRNAs in controlling mammary stem cell (MaSC) activity and breast cancer formation remain poorly understood. Here we show that miR-31 is highly expressed in MaSC-enriched mammary basal cell population and in mammary tumors, and is regulated by NF-κB signaling. We demonstrate that miR-31 promotes mammary epithelial proliferation and MaSC expansion at the expense of differentiation in vivo...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051348/ultraslow-waves-on-the-nanoscale
#12
REVIEW
Kosmas L Tsakmakidis, Ortwin Hess, Robert W Boyd, Xiang Zhang
There has recently been a surge of interest in the physics and applications of broadband ultraslow waves in nanoscale structures operating below the diffraction limit. They range from light waves or surface plasmons in nanoplasmonic devices to sound waves in acoustic-metamaterial waveguides, as well as fermions and phonon polaritons in graphene and van der Waals crystals and heterostructures. We review the underlying physics of these structures, which upend traditional wave-slowing approaches based on resonances or on periodic configurations above the diffraction limit...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050915/decellularized-matrix-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-enhanced-retinal-progenitor-cell-proliferation-via-the-akt-erk-pathway-and-neuronal-differentiation
#13
Jing Ji, Dandan Zhang, Wei Wei, Bingqiao Shen, Yi Zhang, Yuyao Wang, Zhimin Tang, Ni Ni, Hao Sun, Jiaqiang Liu, Xianqun Fan, Ping Gu
BACKGROUND AIMS: Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) are a promising cell therapy treatment for retinal degenerative diseases. However, problems with limited proliferation ability and differentiation preference toward glia rather than neurons restrict the clinical application of these RPCs. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been recognized to provide an appropriate microenvironment to support stem cell adhesion and direct cell behaviors, such as self-renewal and differentiation. METHODS: In this study, decellularized matrix of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (DMA) was manufactured using a chemical agent method (0...
October 16, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050853/cytoplasmic-expression-of-cd133-stemness-marker-is-associated-with-tumor-aggressiveness-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#14
Leili Saeednejad Zanjani, Zahra Madjd, Maryam Abolhasani, Yvonne Andersson, Arezoo Rasti, Ahmad Shariftabrizi, Mojgan Asgari
Prominin-1 (CD133) is one of the most commonly used markers for cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are characterized by their ability for self-renewal and tumorigenicity. However, the clinical and prognostic significance of CSCs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns and prognostic significance of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 in different histological subtypes of RCC. CD133 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 193 well-defined renal tumor samples on tissue microarrays, including 136 (70...
October 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050668/microbial-transformation-of-iodine-from-radioisotopes-to-iodine-deficiency
#15
Chris M Yeager, Seigo Amachi, Russell Grandbois, Daniel I Kaplan, Chen Xu, Kathy A Schwehr, Peter H Santschi
Iodine is a biophilic element that is important for human health, both as an essential component of several thyroid hormones and, on the other hand, as a potential carcinogen in the form of radioiodine generated by anthropogenic nuclear activity. Iodine exists in multiple oxidation states (-1, 0, +1, +3, +5, and +7), primarily as molecular iodine (I2), iodide (I(-)), iodate [Formula: see text] , or organic iodine (org-I). The mobility of iodine in the environment is dependent on its speciation and a series of redox, complexation, sorption, precipitation, and microbial reactions...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050317/microrna-542-3p-inhibits-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-progression-by-inhibiting-ilk-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad2-3-signaling
#16
Bin Qiao, Jing-Hua Cai, Alfred King-Yin Lam, Bao-Xia He
In this study, we investigated the effects of microRNA-542-3p (miR-542-3p) on ILK/TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signaling and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression. Levels of miR-542-3p were lower in OSCC tissues (n=108) than adjacent normal tissues, whereas levels of ILK, TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 were higher. Patients with undifferentiated tumors, advanced TNM stage and lymph node metastasis showed low miR-542-3p levels. This was accompanied by high ILK expression and poor survival. Dual luciferase reporter assays of SCC-9 cells showed that miR-542-3p inhibited ILK gene expression by binding to its 3'UTR at 233-240 bp...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050290/gmi-ablates-cancer-stemness-and-cisplatin-resistance-in-oral-carcinomas-stem-cells-through-il-6-stat3-signaling-inhibition
#17
Tung Yuan Wang, Cheng-Chia Yu, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Yi-Wen Liao, Chuan-Hang Yu, Ming-Yung Chou
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified to exert tumor-initiating ability, resulting in the recurrence, metastasis and chemoresistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas. In the present study, we showed that GMI, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma microsporum, induc ed a cytotoxic effect in oral carcinomas stem cells (OCSCs). Treatment of GMI dose-dependently inhibited the expression of CSC markers, including ALDH1 activity and CD44 positivity. Moreover, GMI suppressed the self-renewal property, colony formation, migration, and invasion abilities as well as potentiated chemo-sensitivity in OCSCs...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050203/loss-of-egr1-a-human-del5q-gene-accelerates-bcr-abl-driven-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#18
Silvia Maifrede, Andrew Magimaidas, Xiaojin Sha, Kaushiki Mukherjee, Dan A Liebermann, Barbara Hoffman
There is substantial evidence that early growth response-1 (Egr1) gene, a zinc-finger transcription factor, behaves as a tumor suppressor in leukemia. This includes reports from this laboratory that constitutive Egr1 overrides leukemia conferred by deregulated c-Myc or E2F-1 in the M1 myeloid leukemic cell line by promoting differentiation. To investigate the effect of Egr1 on the initiation and progression of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), lethally irradiated syngeneic wild type mice were reconstituted with bone marrow (BM) from either wild type or Egr1 null mice transduced with a 210-kD BCR-ABL-expressing MSCV-retrovirus (bone marrow transplantation {BMT})...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050061/-perioperative-anaphylaxia-on-drugs
#19
Wolfgang Pfützner, Hinnerk Wulf
The diagnostic evaluation of perioperative anaphylaxia is of great importance for the medical care of the affected persons in the context of renewed interventions in general anesthesia. The most frequent triggers include muscle relaxants, antibiotics, latex and analgesics of the type of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, but other perioperatively administered drugs such as opioids, anesthetics, benzodiazepines, dyes, disinfectants and even corticosteroids or drug additives may also be the cause in rare cases. The most important aim is therefore the identification of the responsible drug, for which a near-time allergological diagnosis should be carried out within the first 4 weeks to 6 months after the reaction...
October 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049924/equine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-endometrial-or-adipose-tissue-share-significant-biological-properties-but-have-distinctive-pattern-of-surface-markers-and-migration
#20
J Cabezas, D Rojas, F Navarrete, R Ortiz, G Rivera, F Saravia, L Rodriguez-Alvarez, F O Castro
Adult stromal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been postulated as responsible for cell renewal in highly and continuously regenerative tissues such as the endometrium. MSCs have been identified in the endometrium of many species including humans, rodents, pets and some farm animals, but not in horses. The objective of this work was to isolate such cells from the endometrium of mares and to compare their main biological attributes with horse adipose-derived MSCs. Here we successfully isolated and characterized endometrial MSCs (eMSCs) from mares...
October 6, 2017: Theriogenology
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