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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453555/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-hyperthermia-and-electron-radiation-on-prostate-cancer-stem-cells
#1
Zhila Rajaee, Samideh Khoei, Seied Rabi Mahdavi, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Sakine Shirvalilou, Alireza Mahdavian
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperthermia, 6 MeV electron radiation and combination of these treatments on cancer cell line DU145 in both monolayer culture and spheroids enriched for prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Flowcytometric analysis of the expression of molecular markers CD133 + /CD44 + was carried out to determine the prostate CSCs in cell line DU145 grown as spheroids in serum-free medium. Following monolayer and spheroid culture, DU145 cells were treated with different doses of hyperthermia, electron beam and combination of them...
February 17, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453391/diffusion-mechanism-in-the-sodium-ion-battery-material-sodium-cobaltate
#2
T J Willis, D G Porter, D J Voneshen, S Uthayakumar, F Demmel, M J Gutmann, M Roger, K Refson, J P Goff
High performance batteries based on the movement of Li ions in Li x CoO 2 have made possible a revolution in mobile electronic technology, from laptops to mobile phones. However, the scarcity of Li and the demand for energy storage for renewables has led to intense interest in Na-ion batteries, including structurally-related Na x CoO 2 . Here we have determined the diffusion mechanism for Na 0.8 CoO 2 using diffuse x-ray scattering, quasi-elastic neutron scattering and ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations, and we find that the sodium ordering provides diffusion pathways and governs the diffusion rate...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453249/hhex-induces-promyelocyte-self-renewal-and-cooperates-with-growth-factor-independence-to-cause-myeloid-leukemia-in-mice
#3
Jacob T Jackson, Ashley P Ng, Benjamin J Shields, Sue Haupt, Ygal Haupt, Matthew P McCormack
The hematopoietically expressed homeobox (Hhex) transcription factor is overexpressed in human myeloid leukemias. Conditional knockout models of murine acute myeloid leukemia indicate that Hhex maintains leukemia stem cell self-renewal by enabling Polycomb-mediated epigenetic repression of the Cdkn2a tumor suppressor locus, encoding p16 Ink4a and p19 Arf However, whether Hhex overexpression also affects hematopoietic differentiation is unknown. To study this, we retrovirally overexpressed Hhex in hematopoietic progenitors...
February 27, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452982/reactive-oxygen-species-involvement-in-t-cell-signaling-and-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Davide G Franchina, Catherine Dostert, Dirk Brenner
T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452949/estimation-of-the-effectiveness-ratio-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-for-resistant-cancer-cells-in-u87mg-human-glioblastoma
#5
Perla Marmolejo-León, Erika Patricia Azorín-Vega, Nallely Jiménez-Mancilla, Héctor Javier Mendoza-Nava, Eleni Mitsoura, Benjamín Pineda, Eugenio Torres-García
Glioblastoma contains self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem-like cells that contribute to tumor initiation and therapeutic resistance. The aim of this research was to estimate and compare the effectiveness ratio (α/β) of stem-like cells and differentiated glioma cells derived from the U87MG glioblastoma cell line. Cell survival experiments were obtained in a dose range of 0-20 Gy (13.52 ± 0.09 Gy/h) as a hyperfractionationated accelerated radiotherapy scheme. Biochemical characterization of the post-irradiated cells was performed by flow cytometry analysis and the percentage of stem-like cells that resisted irradiation was determined by the CD133 expression...
January 11, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452181/the-demosponge-pseudoceratina-purpurea-as-a-new-source-of-fibrous-chitin
#6
Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Mikhail Tsurkan, Swee-Cheng Lim, Heike Meissner, Konstantin Tabachnick, Lamiaa A Shaala, Diaa T A Youssef, Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Iaroslav Petrenko, Marcin Wysokowski, Nicole Bechmann, Yvonne Joseph, Teofil Jesionowski, Hermann Ehrlich
Among marine demosponges (Porifera: Demospongiae), only representatives of the order Verongiida have been recognized to synthetize both biologically active substances as well as scaffolds-like fibrous skeletons made of structural aminopolysaccharide chitin. The unique 3D architecture of such scaffolds open perspectives for their applications in waste treatment, biomimetics and tissue engineering. Here, we focus special attention to the demosponge Pseudoceratina purpurea collected in the coastal waters of Singapore...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452146/the-hippo-yap1-pathway-interacts-with-fgfr1-signaling-to-maintain-stemness-in-lung-cancer
#7
Tingting Lu, Ziming Li, Ying Yang, Wenxiang Ji, Yongfeng Yu, Xiaomin Niu, Qingyu Zeng, Weiliang Xia, Shun Lu
The Hippo pathway plays a critical role in organ size control, tissue homeostasis and tumor genesis through its key transcription regulator Yes-associated protein1 (YAP1), but the mechanism underlying its role in lung cancer is unclear. We hypothesized that YAP1 influences FGFR1 signaling to maintain cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties in FGFR1-amplified lung cancer. In support of this, our data confirms that expression levels of YAP1 are positively associated with those of FGFR1 in clinical lung carcinoma samples as measured by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining...
February 13, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451874/a-stochastic-and-dynamical-view-of-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Yen Ting Lin, Peter G Hufton, Esther J Lee, Davit A Potoyan
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are of paramount importance for biomedical sciences because of their innate ability for self-renewal and differentiation into all major cell lines. The fateful decision to exit or remain in the pluripotent state is regulated by complex genetic regulatory networks. The rapid growth of single-cell sequencing data has greatly stimulated applications of statistical and machine learning methods for inferring topologies of pluripotency regulating genetic networks. The inferred network topologies, however, often only encode Boolean information while remaining silent about the roles of dynamics and molecular stochasticity inherent in gene expression...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451854/tracing-stem-cell-division-in-adult-neurogenesis
#9
Nina S Corsini, Juergen A Knoblich
Neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the adult brain continuously generate differentiated neurons without depleting the stem cell pool. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Obernier et al. (2018) present the surprising finding that this occurs through mostly symmetric divisions that either generate two differentiating or two self-renewing daughter cells.
February 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451199/brain-injury-and-neural-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Parker E Ludwig, Finosh G Thankam, Arun A Patil, Andrea J Chamczuk, Devendra K Agrawal
Many therapies with potential for treatment of brain injury have been investigated. Few types of cells have spurred as much interest and excitement as stem cells over the past few decades. The multipotentiality and self-renewing characteristics of stem cells confer upon them the capability to regenerate lost tissue in ischemic or degenerative conditions as well as trauma. While stem cells have not yet proven to be clinically effective in many such conditions as was once hoped, they have demonstrated some effects that could be manipulated for clinical benefit...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451115/understanding-the-complexities-of-food-safety-using-a-one-health-approach
#11
Kalmia E Kniel, Deepak Kumar, Siddhartha Thakur
The philosophy of One Health is growing in concept and clarity. The interdependence of human, animal, and environmental health is the basis for the concept of One Health. One Health is a comprehensive approach to ensure the health of people, animals, and the environment through collaborative efforts. Preharvest food safety issues align with the grand concept of One Health. Imagine any food production system, and immediately, parallel images from One Health emerge: for example, transmission of zoonotic diseases, antibiotic residues, or resistance genes in the environment; environmental and animal host reservoirs of disease; challenges with rearing animals and growing fresh produce on the same farm; application and transport of manure or diseased animals...
February 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450919/looking-into-the-future-toward-advanced-3d-biomaterials-for-stem-cell-based-regenerative-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Zhongmin Liu, Mingliang Tang, Jinping Zhao, Renjie Chai, Jiuhong Kang
Stem-cell-based therapies have the potential to provide novel solutions for the treatment of a variety of diseases, but the main obstacles to such therapies lie in the uncontrolled differentiation and functional engraftment of implanted tissues. The physicochemical microenvironment controls the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells, and the key step in mimicking the stem cell microenvironment is to construct a more physiologically relevant 3D culture system. Material-based 3D assemblies of stem cells facilitate the cellular interactions that promote morphogenesis and tissue organization in a similar manner to that which occurs during embryogenesis...
February 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450571/evaluation-of-fish-health-status-and-histopathology-in-gills-and-liver-due-to-metal-contaminated-sediments-exposure
#13
Ghazala Jabeen, Farkhanda Manzoor, Arshad Javid, Hamda Azmat, Mateen Arshad, Shafaq Fatima
Health status of freshwater fish, Cirrhina mrigala was studied by qualitative and quantitative histopathological analysis, alterations in frequency/prevalence percentages (%) and histological alteration indices (HAI) in response to metal contaminated sediments of the River Ravi aquatic ecosystem. Histo-structures of gill and liver samples of fish were analyzed and comparison between the degree of damage of the alterations in fish organs was performed after exposure to metal contaminated sediments for 7, 14 and 28 days under semi-static water renewal bioassays...
February 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450122/methyl-perillate-as-a-highly-functionalized-natural-starting-material-for-terephthalic-acid
#14
Esmer Jongedijk, Frits van der Klis, Rozemarijn de Zwart, Daan S van Es, Jules Beekwilder
Renewable commodity chemicals can be generated from plant materials. Often abundant materials such as sugars are used for this purpose. However, these lack appropriate functionalities and, therefore, they require extensive chemical modifications before they can be used as commodity chemicals. The plant kingdom is capable of producing an almost endless variety of compounds, including compounds with highly appropriate functionalities, but these are often not available in high quantities. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to produce functionalized plant compounds on a large scale by fermentation in microorganisms...
February 2018: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449841/langerhans-cells-sensing-the-environment-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Julie Deckers, Hamida Hammad, Esther Hoste
In the last few decades, our understanding of Langerhans cells (LCs) has drastically changed based on novel findings regarding the developmental origin and biological functions of these epidermis-specific resident immune cells. It has become clear that LCs not only exert pivotal roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis but also impact on pathology by either inducing tolerance or mediating inflammation. Their unique capabilities to self-renew within the epidermis, while also being able to migrate to lymph nodes in order to present antigen, place LCs in a key position to sample the local environment and decide on the appropriate cutaneous immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449715/leptin-and-brain-adipose-crosstalks
#16
REVIEW
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449696/snail-regulates-bmp-and-tgf%C3%AE-pathways-to-control-the-differentiation-status-of-glioma-initiating-cells
#17
Laia Caja, Kalliopi Tzavlaki, Mahsa S Dadras, E-Jean Tan, Gad Hatem, Naga P Maturi, Anita Morén, Lotta Wik, Yukihide Watanabe, Katia Savary, Masood Kamali-Moghaddan, Lene Uhrbom, Carl-Henrik Heldin, Aristidis Moustakas
Glioblastoma multiforme is a brain malignancy characterized by high heterogeneity, invasiveness, and resistance to current therapies, attributes related to the occurrence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) promotes self-renewal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induces differentiation of GSCs. BMP7 induces the transcription factor Snail to promote astrocytic differentiation in GSCs and suppress tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrate that Snail represses stemness in GSCs. Snail interacts with SMAD signaling mediators, generates a positive feedback loop of BMP signaling and transcriptionally represses the TGFB1 gene, decreasing TGFβ1 signaling activity...
February 16, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449660/gut-microbiota-injury-in-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
Yusuke Shono, Marcel R M van den Brink
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered to be the strongest curative immunotherapy for various malignancies (primarily, but not limited to, haematologic malignancies). However, application of allo-HSCT is limited owing to its life-threatening major complications, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse and infections. Recent advances in large-scale DNA sequencing technology have facilitated rapid identification of the microorganisms that make up the microbiota and evaluation of their interactions with host immunity in various diseases, including cancer...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449637/facile-emulsion-mediated-synthesis-of-phase-pure-diopside-nanoparticles
#19
Elena Tajuelo Rodriguez, Lawrence M Anovitz, Caleb D Clement, Adam J Rondinone, Michael C Cheshire
Diopside is a common natural pyroxene that is rarely found in a pure state, since magnesium is often partially substituted by iron, and other elements (sodium and aluminum) are often present. This pyroxene, along with feldspars and olivines, is common in concrete. As the prospective license renewal of light water reactors to 80 years of operation has raised concerns on the effects of radiation in the concrete biological shield surrounding the reactors, mineral nanoparticles can be valuable to perform amorphization studies to inform predictive models of mechanical properties of irradiated concrete...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449625/toll-like-receptor-4-modulation-influences-human-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#20
Chiara Grasselli, Daniela Ferrari, Cristina Zalfa, Matias Soncini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Fabio A Facchini, Laura Marongiu, Francesca Granucci, Massimiliano Copetti, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Francesco Peri, Lidia De Filippis
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation is pivotal to innate immunity and has been shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in vivo. Here we study the role of TLR4 in regulating hNSC derived from the human telencephalic-diencephalic area of the fetal brain and cultured in vitro as neurospheres in compliance with Good Manifacture Procedures (GMP) guidelines. Similar batches have been used in recent clinical trials in ALS patients. We found that TLR2 and 4 are expressed in hNSCs as well as CD14 and MD-2 co-receptors, and TLR4 expression is downregulated upon differentiation...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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