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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351012/a-comprehensive-overview-on-electro-active-biofilms-role-of-exo-electrogens-and-their-microbial-niches-in-microbial-fuel-cells-mfcs
#1
Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Muhammad Kashif Shahid, Guangyin Zhen, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Han-Seung Shin, Young-Gyun Choi, Sang-Hyoun Kim
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are biocatalyzed systems which can drive electrical energy by directly converting chemical energy using microbial biocatalyst and are considered as one of the important propitious technologies for sustainable energy production. Much research on MFCs experiments is under way with great potential to become an alternative to produce clean energy from renewable waste. MFCs have been one of the most promising technologies for generating clean energy industry in the future. This article summarizes the important findings in electro-active biofilm formation and the role of exo-electrogens in electron transfer in MFCs...
March 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350987/the-super-elongation-complex-drives-neural-stem-cell-fate-commitment
#2
Kun Liu, Dan Shen, Jingwen Shen, Shihong M Gao, Bo Li, Chouin Wong, Weidong Feng, Yan Song
Asymmetric stem cell division establishes an initial difference between a stem cell and its differentiating sibling, critical for maintaining homeostasis and preventing carcinogenesis. Yet the mechanisms that consolidate and lock in such initial fate bias remain obscure. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the super elongation complex (SEC) acts as an intrinsic amplifier to drive cell fate commitment. SEC is highly expressed in neuroblasts, where it promotes self-renewal by physically associating with Notch transcription activation complex and enhancing HES (hairy and E(spl)) transcription...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350981/asymmetric-notch-amplification-to-secure-stem-cell-identity
#3
Anthony M Rossi, Claude Desplan
Stem cells self-renew and produce progenitors with limited proliferative potential. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Liu et al. (2017) demonstrate that in some neural stem cells, Notch activity is asymmetrically amplified by a positive feedback loop with the super elongation complex (SEC) to quickly differentiate between stem cells and progenitors.
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350875/effects-of-embryo-derived-exosomes-on-the-development-of-bovine-cloned-embryos
#4
Pengxiang Qu, Suzhu Qing, Ruiqi Liu, Hongyu Qin, Weiwei Wang, Fang Qiao, Hui Ge, Jun Liu, Yong Zhang, Wei Cui, Yongsheng Wang
The developmental competence of in vitro cultured (IVC) embryos is markedly lower than that of their in vivo counterparts, suggesting the need for optimization of IVC protocols. Embryo culture medium is routinely replaced three days after initial culture in bovine, however, whether this protocol is superior to continuous nonrenewal culture method under current conditions remains unclear. Using bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos as the model, our results showed that compared with routine renewal treatment, nonrenewal culture system significantly improved blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality (increased total cell number, decreased stress and apoptosis, enhanced Oct-4 expression and ratio of ICM/TE), as well as following development to term...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346893/biochemical-transformation-of-lignin-for-deriving-valued-commodities-from-lignocellulose
#5
REVIEW
Daniel L Gall, John Ralph, Timothy J Donohue, Daniel R Noguera
The biochemical properties of lignin present major obstacles to deriving societally beneficial entities from lignocellulosic biomass, an abundant and renewable feedstock. Similar to other biopolymers such as polysaccharides, polypeptides, and ribonucleic acids, lignin polymers are derived from multiple types of monomeric units. However, lignin's renowned recalcitrance is largely attributable to its racemic nature and the variety of covalent inter-unit linkages through which its aromatic monomers are linked...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346452/purine-synthesis-promotes-maintenance-of-brain-tumor-initiating-cells-in-glioma
#6
Xiuxing Wang, Kailin Yang, Qi Xie, Qiulian Wu, Stephen C Mack, Yu Shi, Leo J Y Kim, Briana C Prager, William A Flavahan, Xiaojing Liu, Meromit Singer, Christopher G Hubert, Tyler E Miller, Wenchao Zhou, Zhi Huang, Xiaoguang Fang, Aviv Regev, Mario L Suvà, Tae Hyun Hwang, Jason W Locasale, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), also known as cancer stem cells, hijack high-affinity glucose uptake active normally in neurons to maintain energy demands. Here we link metabolic dysregulation in human BTICs to a nexus between MYC and de novo purine synthesis, mediating glucose-sustained anabolic metabolism. Inhibiting purine synthesis abrogated BTIC growth, self-renewal and in vivo tumor formation by depleting intracellular pools of purine nucleotides, supporting purine synthesis as a potential therapeutic point of fragility...
March 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346424/skp2-deficiency-restricts-the-progression-and-stem-cell-features-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-by-destabilizing-twist
#7
D Ruan, J He, C-F Li, H-J Lee, J Liu, H-K Lin, C-H Chan
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains a major clinical challenge because of the lack of effective targeted therapy for its treatment. The mechanism underlying how CRPC gains resistance toward hormone depletion and other forms of chemotherapy is poorly understood. Research on understanding the factors that drive these processes is desperately needed to generate new therapies to cure the disease. Here, we discovered a fundamental role of S-phase protein kinase 2 (Skp2) in the formation and progression of CRPC...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346106/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-distinct-subpopulation-from-the-wm115-cell-line-that-resembles-in-vitro-properties-of-melanoma-cancer-stem-cells
#8
Sonia G Escobar, Mark H Chin, Mark L Sandberg, Han Xu
Despite key advances in cancer therapies, malignant tumors, such as melanoma, continue to be one of the leading causes of mortality. Recent debate on whether cancer can originate from a tumor-initiating subpopulation has permeated oncology and stem cell research. It has been well established that primary and immortalized tumor cells consist of heterogeneous cell populations. The profound effect of tumor heterogeneity on tumor growth and drug resistance remains elusive, but it is highly likely that subpopulations of cancer cells have different capabilities of self-renewal and drug resistance...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345668/c9orf135-encodes-a-membrane-protein-whose-expression-is-related-to-pluripotency-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
Shixin Zhou, Yinan Liu, Yumin Ma, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yang Li, Jinhua Wen
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a unique population of cells defined by their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. Here, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene in hESCs, C9ORF135, which is sharply downregulated during gastrulation and gametogenesis, along with the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG. Human ESCs express two C9ORF135 isoforms, the longer of which encodes a membrane-associated protein, as determined by immunostaining and western blotting of fractionated cell lysates...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345642/dynamic-changes-in-amygdala-psychophysiological-connectivity-reveal-distinct-neural-networks-for-facial-expressions-of-basic-emotions
#10
Matteo Diano, Marco Tamietto, Alessia Celeghin, Lawrence Weiskrantz, Mona-Karina Tatu, Arianna Bagnis, Sergio Duca, Giuliano Geminiani, Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa
The quest to characterize the neural signature distinctive of different basic emotions has recently come under renewed scrutiny. Here we investigated whether facial expressions of different basic emotions modulate the functional connectivity of the amygdala with the rest of the brain. To this end, we presented seventeen healthy participants (8 females) with facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and emotional neutrality and analyzed amygdala's psychophysiological interaction (PPI). In fact, PPI can reveal how inter-regional amygdala communications change dynamically depending on perception of various emotional expressions to recruit different brain networks, compared to the functional interactions it entertains during perception of neutral expressions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345261/antibodies-from-plants-for-bionanomaterials
#11
REVIEW
Gueven Edgue, Richard M Twyman, Veronique Beiss, Rainer Fischer, Markus Sack
Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as 'green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of antibodies, ranging from laboratory-scale expression to industrial-scale manufacturing...
March 27, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344826/impact-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-remodeling-the-lung-injury-induced-by-lipopolysaccharides-in-mice
#12
Mouchira M Mohi El-Din, Laila A Rashed, Mohi A Mahmoud Haridy, Atef Mohamed Khalil, Mohamed A Mohamed Albadry
AIM: This study evaluated the potential of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to regulate cytokines and remodel the lung induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; O-antigen). MATERIALS & METHODS: A group of mice (n = 21) was inoculated intraperitoneally with one dose 0.1 ml containing 0.025 mg LPS/mouse, and another treated intravenously with one dose of labeling bone marrow derived MSCs at 7.5 × 10(5) cell/mouse 4 h after LPS injection. All animals were sacrificed on the 1st, 7th and 14th days post-injection...
March 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344364/improved-electroanalytical-characteristics-for-flumetralin-determination-in-the-presence-of-surface-active-compound
#13
Dariusz Guziejewski, Sylwia Smarzewska, Radovan Metelka, Agnieszka Nosal-Wiercińska, Witold Ciesielski
ABSTRACT: The use of square wave voltammetry (SWV) and square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV) in conjunction with a cyclic renewable silver amalgam film electrode for the determination of flumetralin is presented. Poor separation of two overlapped reduction peaks is significantly improved when hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide is used as a component of the supporting electrolyte solution (together with BR buffer pH 9.5). The SW technique parameters were investigated and found optimal as follows: frequency 50 Hz, amplitude 40 mV, and step potential 5 mV...
2017: Monatshefte Für Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344363/electrochemical-determination-of-closantel-in-the-commercial-formulation-by-square-wave-adsorptive-stripping-voltammetry
#14
Mariola Brycht, Agnieszka Nosal-Wiercińska, Karolina Sipa, Konrad Rudnicki, Sławomira Skrzypek
ABSTRACT: In this paper, the square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (SWAdSV) determination of the veterinary drug closantel using a renewable silver amalgam film electrode (Hg(Ag)FE) is presented. As observed in SWAdSV, closantel provided one well-shaped reduction peak suitable for analytical purposes at potential ca. -1.4 V in the Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer at pH 7.0. At optimal conditions, the SWAdSV response of Hg(Ag)FE for determining closantel was linear over two concentration ranges of 5...
2017: Monatshefte Für Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344043/renewed-awareness-of-motor-symptoms-in-psychiatric-assessment
#15
Anne Beate Helseth Udal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343453/a-trans-diagnostic-perspective-on-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
C M Gillan, N A Fineberg, T W Robbins
Progress in understanding the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has stalled in part because of the considerable problem of heterogeneity within this diagnostic category, and homogeneity across other putatively discrete, diagnostic categories. As psychiatry begins to recognize the shortcomings of a purely symptom-based psychiatric nosology, new data-driven approaches have begun to be utilized with the goal of solving these problems: specifically, identifying trans-diagnostic aspects of clinical phenomenology based on their association with neurobiological processes...
March 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343120/nanoemulgel-using-a-bicephalous-heterolipid-as-a-novel-approach-to-enhance-transdermal-permeation-of-tenofovir
#17
Sanjeev Rambharose, Rahul S Kalhapure, Thirumala Govender
Improvements in permeation enhancement strategies, such as nanoemulsions (NEs) and nanoemulgels (NEGs), have led to a renewed interest in transdermal drug delivery (TDD). This study aimed to investigate the potential of LLA1E, a novel dendritic permeation enhancer, as an oily phase in the development of a NEG for the TDD of tenofovir (TNF). TNF loaded NEs (TNEs) were prepared and analysed for mean globule diameter (MGD), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and morphology. NEGs of the TNEs (TNEGs) were prepared and evaluated for ex vivo transdermal permeation efficacy...
March 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343049/stabilisation-of-spent-mushroom-substrate-for-application-as-a-plant-growth-promoting-organic-amendment
#18
Fabiana S Paula, Enrico Tatti, Florence Abram, Jude Wilson, Vincent O'Flaherty
Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342853/thyroid-hormone-promotes-differentiation-of-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#19
Annunziata Gaetana Cicatiello, Raffaele Ambrosio, Monica Dentice
Tumor formation and maintenance depend on a small fraction of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can self-renew and generate a wide variety of differentiated cells. CSCs are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation, and can represent a reservoir of cancer cells that often cause relapse after treatment. Evidence suggests that CSCs also give rise to metastases. Thyroid hormone (TH) controls a variety of biological processes including the development and functioning of most adult tissues. Recent years has seen the emergence of an intimate link between TH and multiple steps of tumorigenesis...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342851/site-specific-photocoupling-of-pbpa-mutated-scfv-antibodies-for-use-in-affinity-proteomics
#20
Mattias Brofelth, Lars Wagner Städe, Anna Isinger Ekstrand, Linn Petersson Edfeldt, Rebeka Kovačič, Thorbjørn Terndrup Nielsen, Kim Lambertsen Larsen, Laurent Duroux, Christer Wingren
Recombinant antibody libraries can provide a source of renewable and high-performing binders tailored for use in affinity proteomics. In this context, the process of generating site-specific 1:1 tagging/functionalization and/or orientated surface immobilization of antibodies has, however, proved to be challenging. Hence, novel ways of generating such engineered antibodies for use in affinity proteomics could have a major impact on array performance. In this study, we have further tailored the design of human recombinant scFv antibodies for site-specific photocoupling through the use of an unnatural amino acid (UAA) and the Dock'n'Flash technology...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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