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Female circumcision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288604/hiv-prevalence-and-uptake-of-hiv-aids-services-among-youths-15-24-years-in-fishing-and-neighboring-communities-of-kasensero-rakai-district-south-western-uganda
#1
Richardson Mafigiri, Joseph K B Matovu, Fredrick Edward Makumbi, Anthony Ndyanabo, Doreen Nabukalu, Moses Sakor, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: Although fishing communities have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than the general population, there is paucity of data on the burden of HIV and service utilization, particularly among the youth. We assessed the HIV prevalence and utilization of HIV prevention and treatment services among youth in Kasensero fishing community and the neighboring communities. METHOD: Data were derived from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) surveys conducted between 2013 and 2014...
March 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283307/obstetric-fistula-and-sociocultural-practices-in-hausa-community-of-northern-nigeria
#2
Oluwakemi C Amodu, Bukola Salami, Solina Richter
BACKGROUND: Obstetric Fistula is a childbirth injury that disproportionately affects women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although poverty plays an important role in perpetuating obstetric fistula, sociocultural practices has a significant influence on susceptibility to the condition. AIM: This paper aims to explore narratives in the literature on obstetric fistula in the context of Hausa ethno-lingual community of Northern Nigeria and the potential role of nurses and midwives in addressing obstetric fistula...
March 7, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278564/multilevel-influences-on-acceptance-of-medical-male-circumcision-in-rakai-district-uganda
#3
Pamela S Lilleston, Arik V Marcell, Neema Nakyanjo, Lori Leonard, Maria J Wawer
Despite access to safe medical male circumcision (MMC) and proven effectiveness of the procedure in reducing acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, uptake remains suboptimal in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, including Rakai District, Uganda. This study explored multilevel barriers and facilitators to MMC in focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 35 groups) in Rakai. Focus groups were conducted from May through July 2012 with adolescent and adult males, with a range of HIV risk and reproductive health service use profiles, and with adolescent and adult females...
March 1, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274904/gender-specific-combination-hiv-prevention-for-youth-in-high-burden-settings-the-mp3-youth-observational-pilot-study-protocol
#4
Jasmine Buttolph, Irene Inwani, Kawango Agot, Charles M Cleland, Peter Cherutich, James N Kiarie, Alfred Osoti, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Ruth Nduati, John Kinuthia, Timothy B Hallett, Ramzi Alsallaq, Ann E Kurth
BACKGROUND: Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya...
March 8, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270959/labial-fusion-a-rare-cause-of-urinary-retention-in-reproductive-age-woman-and-review-of-literature
#5
Emre Erdoğdu, Cem Demirel, Ali Emre Tahaoğlu, Arzu Özdemir
Labial fusion usually affects prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women, it may rarely occurs in reproductive years in the absence of predisposing factors such as vulvar infections, dermatitis, trauma, female circumcision and lichen sclerosis. Should be considered in differential diagnosis in the differential diagnosis of urinary retention even if the patient doesn't have history of sexual intercourse.
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258953/sexual-pleasure-and-function-coital-trauma-and-sex-behaviors-after-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-among-men-in-the-dominican-republic
#6
Maximo O Brito, Shaveta Khosla, Sheewin Pananookooln, Paul J Fleming, Leonel Lerebours, Yeycy Donastorg, Robert C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is effective in decreasing the risk of HIV acquisition. As men resume sexual activity after circumcision, it will be important to study their satisfaction with the procedure, sexual pleasure and function, coital trauma, and risk compensation (RC), which can hamper or facilitate the long-term success of VMMC programs. AIM: To assess men's satisfaction with VMMC, sexual pleasure and function, coital trauma, and RC after VMMC...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208951/acquired-clitoromegaly-a-gynaecological-problem-or-an-obstetric-complication
#7
Mamta Gupta, Vandana Saini, Anju Poddar, Supriya Kumari, Ashesh Maitra
Acquired non-hormonal clitoromegaly is a rare condition and is due to benign or malignant tumours and sometimes idiopathic. Few cases of clitoral abscesses have been reported after female circumcision. We hereby report a case of clitoral abscess causing acquired clitoromegaly following an obstetrical surgery.
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187741/virility-pleasure-and-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-a-qualitative-study-of-perceptions-and-experiences-of-medicalized-defibulation-among-somali-and-sudanese-migrants-in-norway
#8
R Elise B Johansen
BACKGROUND: The most pervasive form of female genital mutilation/cutting-infibulation-involves the almost complete closure of the vaginal orifice by cutting and closing the labia to create a skin seal. A small opening remains for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. This physical closure has to be re-opened-defibulated-later in life. When they marry, a partial opening is made to enable sexual intercourse. The husband commonly uses his penis to create this opening. In some settings, a circumciser or traditional midwife opens the infibulated scar with a knife or razor blade...
February 10, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130505/a-national-evaluation-using-standardised-patient-actors-to-assess-sti-services-in-public-sector-clinical-sentinel-surveillance-facilities-in-south-africa
#9
Pamela K Kohler, Eva Marumo, Suzanne L Jed, Gladys Mema, Sean Galagan, Kenneth Tapia, Erushka Pillay, Julia DeKadt, Evasen Naidoo, Julia C Dombrowski, King K Holmes
OBJECTIVES: Quality concerns in STI service delivery and missed opportunities for integration with HIV testing and prevention services in South Africa have been well documented. This national evaluation aimed to evaluate current utilisation and adherence to national STI guidelines, including partner notification and integration with HIV services, for diagnosis and management of STIs. METHODS: Facility surveys assessed infrastructure and resource availability, and standardised patient (SP) assessments evaluated quality of STI care in 50 public clinics in nine provinces in South Africa...
January 27, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118387/could-circumcision-of-hiv-positive-males-benefit-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-programs-in-africa-mathematical-modeling-analysis
#10
Susanne F Awad, Sema K Sgaier, Fiona K Lau, Yousra A Mohamoud, Bushimbwa C Tambatamba, Katharine E Kripke, Anne G Thomas, Naomi Bock, Jason B Reed, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological and programmatic implications of inclusivity of HIV-positive males in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs are uncertain. We modeled these implications using Zambia as an illustrative example. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Age-Structured Mathematical (ASM) model to evaluate, over an intermediate horizon (2010-2025), the effectiveness (number of VMMCs needed to avert one HIV infection) of VMMC scale-up scenarios with varying proportions of HIV-positive males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069002/unpacking-early-infant-male-circumcision-decision-making-using-qualitative-findings-from-zimbabwe
#11
Webster Mavhu, Karin Hatzold, Getrude Ncube, Shamiso Fernando, Collin Mangenah, Kumbirai Chatora, Roy Dhlamini, Owen Mugurungi, Ismail Ticklay, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: Early infant male circumcision (EIMC) has been identified as a key HIV prevention intervention. Exploring the decision-making process for adoption of EIMC for HIV prevention among parents and other key stakeholders is critical for designing effective demand creation interventions to maximize uptake, roll out and impact in preventing HIV. This paper describes key players, decisions and actions involved in the EIMC decision-making process. METHODS: Two complementary qualitative studies explored hypothetical and actual acceptability of EIMC in Zimbabwe...
January 9, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066905/implications-of-genital-mutilation-at-autopsy
#12
Roger W Byard
Given the potential significance of mutilation of the external genitalia in medicolegal fatalities, a review of the literature was undertaken to identify subcategories. Such mutilations may have been sustained sometime before death, around the time of death, or after death. The most common type of ante mortem genital mutilations involves cultural practices such as male circumcision. Less common male mutilations such as subincisions are tribally based. Female genital mutilation is found particularly in African, Middle Eastern, or Asian populations...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938869/effect-of-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-on-sexual-functions
#13
Mohammad-Hossein Biglu, Alireza Farnam, Parvaneh Abotalebi, Sahar Biglu, Mostafa Ghavami
BACKGROUND: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran...
December 2016: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930720/early-resumption-of-sex-following-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-amongst-school-going-males
#14
Gavin George, Kaymarlin Govender, Sean Beckett, Carl Montague, Janet Frohlich
Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40) and the second group (n = 98) reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920395/tetanus-immunity-gaps-in-children-5-14-years-and-men-%C3%A2-15-years-of-age-revealed-by-integrated-disease-serosurveillance-in-kenya-tanzania-and-mozambique
#15
Heather M Scobie, Minal Patel, Diana Martin, Harran Mkocha, Sammy M Njenga, Maurice R Odiere, Sonia Pelletreau, Jeffrey W Priest, Ricardo Thompson, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie
Recent tetanus cases associated with male circumcision in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) prompted an examination of tetanus immunity by age and sex using multiplex serologic data from community surveys in three ESA countries during 2012-2013. Tetanus seroprotection was lower among children 5-14 years versus 1-4 years of age in Kenya (66% versus 90%) and Tanzania (66% versus 89%), but not in Mozambique (91% versus 88%), where children receive two booster doses in school. Among males ≥ 15 years of age, tetanus seroprotection was lower than females in Kenya (45% versus 96%), Tanzania (28% versus 94%), and Mozambique (64% versus 90%)...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898732/chemokine-levels-in-the-penile-coronal-sulcus-correlate-with-hiv-1-acquisition-and-are-reduced-by-male-circumcision-in-rakai-uganda
#16
Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul
Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887911/does-perception-of-catheterization-limit-its-use-in-pediatric-uti
#17
Rachel E Selekman, Melissa T Sanford, Lauren N Ko, I Elaine Allen, Hillary L Copp
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect 3-8% of febrile children annually, but correctly diagnosing UTI in young children can present a challenge. Diagnosis requires a non-contaminated urine sample, which requires catheterization or suprapubic aspiration in infants and young children that have not completed toilet training. To improve adherence to these guidelines, it is critical to understand the barriers to urine testing and catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate parental perception of pediatric UTI evaluation to better understand factors that impede urine testing prior to treatment of suspected UTI...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760682/prep-as-a-feature-in-the-optimal-landscape-of-combination-hiv-prevention-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Jessica B McGillen, Sarah-Jane Anderson, Timothy B Hallett
INTRODUCTION: The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724920/bibliometric-analysis-of-literature-on-female-genital-mutilation-1930-2015
#19
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684495/discourses-of-masculinity-femininity-and-sexuality-in-uganda-s-stand-proud-get-circumcised-campaign
#20
Sarah Rudrum, John L Oliffe, Cecilia Benoit
This paper analyses discourses of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in Stand Proud, Get Circumcised, a public health campaign promoting circumcision as an HIV-prevention strategy in Uganda. The campaign includes posters highlighting the positive reactions of women to circumcised men, and is intended to support the national rollout of voluntary medical male circumcision. We offer a critical discourse analysis of representations of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in relation to HIV prevention. The campaign materials have a playful feel and, in contrast to ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Use condoms) campaigns, acknowledge the potential for pre-marital and extra-marital sex...
August 11, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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