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Female circumcision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069002/unpacking-early-infant-male-circumcision-decision-making-using-qualitative-findings-from-zimbabwe
#1
Webster Mavhu, Karin Hatzold, Getrude Ncube, Shamiso Fernando, Collin Mangenah, Kumbirai Chatora, Roy Dhlamini, Owen Mugurungi, Ismail Ticklay, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: Early infant male circumcision (EIMC) has been identified as a key HIV prevention intervention. Exploring the decision-making process for adoption of EIMC for HIV prevention among parents and other key stakeholders is critical for designing effective demand creation interventions to maximize uptake, roll out and impact in preventing HIV. This paper describes key players, decisions and actions involved in the EIMC decision-making process. METHODS: Two complementary qualitative studies explored hypothetical and actual acceptability of EIMC in Zimbabwe...
January 9, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066905/implications-of-genital-mutilation-at-autopsy
#2
Roger W Byard
Given the potential significance of mutilation of the external genitalia in medicolegal fatalities, a review of the literature was undertaken to identify subcategories. Such mutilations may have been sustained sometime before death, around the time of death, or after death. The most common type of ante mortem genital mutilations involves cultural practices such as male circumcision. Less common male mutilations such as subincisions are tribally based. Female genital mutilation is found particularly in African, Middle Eastern, or Asian populations...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938869/effect-of-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-on-sexual-functions
#3
Mohammad-Hossein Biglu, Alireza Farnam, Parvaneh Abotalebi, Sahar Biglu, Mostafa Ghavami
BACKGROUND: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran...
December 2016: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930720/early-resumption-of-sex-following-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-amongst-school-going-males
#4
Gavin George, Kaymarlin Govender, Sean Beckett, Carl Montague, Janet Frohlich
Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40) and the second group (n = 98) reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920395/tetanus-immunity-gaps-in-children-5-14-years-and-men-%C3%A2-15-years-of-age-revealed-by-integrated-disease-serosurveillance-in-kenya-tanzania-and-mozambique
#5
Heather M Scobie, Minal Patel, Diana Martin, Harran Mkocha, Sammy M Njenga, Maurice R Odiere, Sonia Pelletreau, Jeffrey W Priest, Ricardo Thompson, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie
Recent tetanus cases associated with male circumcision in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) prompted an examination of tetanus immunity by age and sex using multiplex serologic data from community surveys in three ESA countries during 2012-2013. Tetanus seroprotection was lower among children 5-14 years versus 1-4 years of age in Kenya (66% versus 90%) and Tanzania (66% versus 89%), but not in Mozambique (91% versus 88%), where children receive two booster doses in school. Among males ≥ 15 years of age, tetanus seroprotection was lower than females in Kenya (45% versus 96%), Tanzania (28% versus 94%), and Mozambique (64% versus 90%)...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898732/chemokine-levels-in-the-penile-coronal-sulcus-correlate-with-hiv-1-acquisition-and-are-reduced-by-male-circumcision-in-rakai-uganda
#6
Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul
Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887911/does-perception-of-catheterization-limit-its-use-in-pediatric-uti
#7
Rachel E Selekman, Melissa T Sanford, Lauren N Ko, I Elaine Allen, Hillary L Copp
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect 3-8% of febrile children annually, but correctly diagnosing UTI in young children can present a challenge. Diagnosis requires a non-contaminated urine sample, which requires catheterization or suprapubic aspiration in infants and young children that have not completed toilet training. To improve adherence to these guidelines, it is critical to understand the barriers to urine testing and catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate parental perception of pediatric UTI evaluation to better understand factors that impede urine testing prior to treatment of suspected UTI...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760682/prep-as-a-feature-in-the-optimal-landscape-of-combination-hiv-prevention-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Jessica B McGillen, Sarah-Jane Anderson, Timothy B Hallett
INTRODUCTION: The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724920/bibliometric-analysis-of-literature-on-female-genital-mutilation-1930-2015
#9
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684495/discourses-of-masculinity-femininity-and-sexuality-in-uganda-s-stand-proud-get-circumcised-campaign
#10
Sarah Rudrum, John L Oliffe, Cecilia Benoit
This paper analyses discourses of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in Stand Proud, Get Circumcised, a public health campaign promoting circumcision as an HIV-prevention strategy in Uganda. The campaign includes posters highlighting the positive reactions of women to circumcised men, and is intended to support the national rollout of voluntary medical male circumcision. We offer a critical discourse analysis of representations of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in relation to HIV prevention. The campaign materials have a playful feel and, in contrast to ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Use condoms) campaigns, acknowledge the potential for pre-marital and extra-marital sex...
August 11, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659432/risk-factors-for-urethral-condyloma-among-heterosexual-young-male-patients-with-condyloma-acuminatum-of-penile-skin
#11
Jong Kwan Park, Yu Seob Shin
To our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on risk factor of urethral condyloma (UC). The subjects of our study included genital warts patients who had been diagnosed as having condyloma acuminatum of penile skin (CAPS) with/without UC. Relationship with UC of number of life time female partners, co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status, number of CAPS and wart diameter were studied by use of multivariate analysis. Co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status were risk factors of UC in heterosexual young male patients with CAPS...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632232/changes-in-male-circumcision-prevalence-and-risk-compensation-in-the-kisumu-kenya-population-2008-2013
#12
Matthew Westercamp, Walter Jaoko, Supriya Mehta, Pauline Abuor, Perez Siambe, Robert C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Three randomized controlled trials showed that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%. However, data from communities where VMMC programs have been implemented are needed to assess changes in circumcision prevalence and whether men and women compensate for perceived reductions in risk by increasing their HIV risk behaviors. METHODS: Scale-up of free VMMC began in Kisumu, Kenya in 2008...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622516/the-incidence-patterns-model-to-estimate-the-distribution-of-new-hiv-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa-development-and-validation-of-a-mathematical-model
#13
Annick Bórquez, Anne Cori, Erica L Pufall, Jingo Kasule, Emma Slaymaker, Alison Price, Jocelyn Elmes, Basia Zaba, Amelia C Crampin, Joseph Kagaayi, Tom Lutalo, Mark Urassa, Simon Gregson, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: Programmatic planning in HIV requires estimates of the distribution of new HIV infections according to identifiable characteristics of individuals. In sub-Saharan Africa, robust routine data sources and historical epidemiological observations are available to inform and validate such estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a predictive model, the Incidence Patterns Model (IPM), representing populations according to factors that have been demonstrated to be strongly associated with HIV acquisition risk: gender, marital/sexual activity status, geographic location, "key populations" based on risk behaviours (sex work, injecting drug use, and male-to-male sex), HIV and ART status within married or cohabiting unions, and circumcision status...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615724/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-a-useful-tool-to-prevent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
G Pialoux, C Delaugerre, L Cotte, F Raffi, E Cua, J-M Molina
The aim of preventive measures against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is to reduce the incidence of HIV infection in the general population and in high-risk groups, such as men having sex with men (MSM), and to reduce the risk that a given individual will contract or spread the virus. Male and female condoms, post-exposure prophylaxis and circumcision are preventive methods currently recognized or promoted worldwide. Although modest success has been reported in a phase-III vaccine trial, other methods are being evaluated, such as vaginal and rectal microbicides, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
September 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610340/critical-evaluation-of-unscientific-arguments-disparaging-affirmative-infant-male-circumcision-policy
#15
EDITORIAL
Brian J Morris, John N Krieger, Jeffrey D Klausner
We evaluate recent claims opposing infant male circumcision, a procedure now supported by the evidence-based policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics. We find those criticisms depend on speculative claims about the foreskin and obfuscation of the strong scientific evidence supporting pediatric policy development. An argument that circumcision should be delayed to allow a boy to make up his own mind as an adult fails to appreciate the psychological, scheduling and financial burdens later circumcision entails, so reducing the likelihood that it will occur...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519185/randomized-evaluation-and-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-service-referral-and-linkage-models-in-zambia
#16
Paul C Hewett, Mutinta Nalubamba, Fiammetta Bozzani, Jean Digitale, Lung Vu, Eileen Yam, Mary Nambao
BACKGROUND: Provision of HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health services in Zambia is largely characterized by discrete service provision with weak client referral and linkage. The literature reveals gaps in the continuity of care for HIV and sexual and reproductive health. This study assessed whether improved service delivery models increased the uptake and cost-effectiveness of HIV and sexual and reproductive health services. METHODS: Adult clients 18+ years of age accessing family planning (females), HIV testing and counseling (females and males), and male circumcision services (males) were recruited, enrolled and individually randomized to one of three study arms: 1) the standard model of service provision at the entry point (N = 1319); 2) an enhanced counseling and referral to add-on service with follow-up (N = 1323); and 3) the components of study arm two, with the additional offer of an escort (N = 1321)...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513384/higher-hpv16-and-hpv18-penile-viral-loads-are-associated-with-decreased-human-papillomavirus-clearance-in-uncircumcised-kenyan-men
#17
Virginia Senkomago, Danielle M Backes, Michael G Hudgens, Charles Poole, Steven R Meshnick, Kawango Agot, Stephen Moses, Peter Jf Snijders, Chris Jlm Meijer, Albertus T Hesselink, Nicolas F Schlecht, Robert C Bailey, Jennifer S Smith
BACKGROUND: Whether higher penile human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load is associated with a lower rate of HPV clearance remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between penile HPV16 and HPV18 viral load and subsequent HPV clearance in uncircumcised Kenyan men. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative, sexually active, 18- to 24-year-old men randomized to the control arm of a male circumcision trial in Kisumu, Kenya...
September 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499413/attitudes-to-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-among-male-adolescents-in-ilorin-nigeria
#18
Abiodun S Adeniran, Munirdeen A Ijaiya, Adegboyega A Fawole, Olayinka R Balogun, Kikelomo T Adesina, Abdul Waheed O Olatinwo, Adebunmi O Olarinoye, Peace I Adeniran
BACKGROUND: The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). OBJECTIVE: To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497811/pros-and-cons-of-circumcision-an-evidence-based-overview
#19
REVIEW
B Friedman, J Khoury, N Petersiel, T Yahalomi, M Paul, A Neuberger
Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse...
September 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489564/cancer-of-the-vulva-in-burkina-faso-a-hospital-based-case-series
#20
Nayi Zongo, Nina Korsaga-Somé, Amandine Banata Gang-Ny, Edgar Ouangré, Maurice Zida, Aimé Sosthène Ouédraogo, Aboubacar Hirrhum Bambara, Augustin Tozoula Bambara, Si Simon Traore, Pascal Niamba, Adama Traoré, Ahmadou Dem
BACKGROUND: Vulvar cancer is a rare gynaecological cancer. In Burkina Faso, the diagnosis of vulvar cancers is delayed and the prognosis is poor. However, no specific study on vulvar cancers has been conducted at the moment. This work aimed to study the characteristics of these cancers. METHODS: This is a prospective study on histologically confirmed primary cancers of the vulva diagnosed between 1st January 2013 and 30th June 2015. The demographic and clinical aspects were studied at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital of Ouagadougou (CHU-YO)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
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