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Distraction adhd

Chieko Kanai, Ryuichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Masayuki Tani, Takashi Yamada, Haruhisa Ota, Akira Iwanami, Nobumasa Kato
The cognitive profile differences between adult patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well characterized. We examined the cognitive profiles of adults having either ASD (n=120) or ADHD (n=76) with no intellectual disabilities (IQ≥70) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Verbal Intelligence (VIQ) - Performance Intelligence (PIQ) difference discrepancies were detected between the two groups. Information subtest scores of the Verbal Comprehension index and Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests of the Freedom from Distractibility index were significantly higher in ASD than in ADHD, while the Picture Completion subtest was significantly lower in ASD...
January 5, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Régis Lopez, Pierre Michel, Laura Brandejsky, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip, Christophe Lancon, Laurent Boyer
The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI) is a questionnaire composed of 36 items designed to investigate abnormal perception related to the inability to control sensitivity to sensory stimuli frequently reported in adult with ADHD. This questionnaire can be considered too lengthy to be taken by people with ADHD, and a shortened version is needed. One hundred and sixty-three adults with ADHD responded to the SGI-36. An item reduction process took into account both the results of statistical analyses and the expertise of a steering committee...
December 30, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
We examined the performance of nonclinical subjects with high and low levels of self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like traits in a novel distractibility paradigm with far peripheral visual distractors, the likely origin of many distractors in everyday life. Subjects were tested on a Sustained Attention to Response Task with distractors appearing before some of the target or nontarget stimuli. When the distractors appeared 80 ms before the targets or nontargets, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits were less affected in their reaction times than those with lower levels...
November 28, 2016: Perception
Elke Godefroid, Jan R Wiersema
The current study examined the mechanisms of attention allocation in adult ADHD to investigate the frequently reported diminished target processing in ADHD as well as the less consistently observed increased distractibility by task-irrelevant distracting stimuli. To this end, while high-density EEG was recorded, 25 adults with ADHD and 23 healthy controls completed a 4-stimulus oddball task that comprised a frequently presented standard stimulus and 3 different categories of equally infrequent stimuli: task-relevant targets, task-irrelevant nontargets, and task-irrelevant unfamiliar novels...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Y E M Dreissen, D C Cath, M A J Tijssen
Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal dyskinesias, can be difficult. In support of a functional jerk are: acute onset in adulthood, precipitation by a physical event, variable, complex, and inconsistent phenomenology, suggestibility, distractibility, entrainment and a Bereitschaftspotential preceding the movement...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Leo M J de Sonneville, Elske Hidding, Herman van Engeland, Jacob A S Vorstman, Monique E J Sijmens-Morcus, Hanna Swaab
Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial-syndrome) are at risk for the developmental disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, the relation between executive functioning (EF) and the severity of ADHD and ASD symptoms is examined, since EF is known to be important in relation to emotional and behavioral problems. The participants consist of 58 children (38 females) with a mean age of 13.5 years (SD 2.6). Standardized assessment was used to evaluate the severity of ASD and ADHD symptomatology...
September 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Selma Tural Hesapçıoğlu, Cihat Çelik, Sevim Özmen, İbrahim Yiğit
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of intelligence quotients scores (IQs), subtests of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Kaufman's and Bannatyne's categories scores which are the sums of subtests of WISC-R in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Another aim is to examine the difference of some neurocognitive skills between the children with ADHD and their unaffected peers by WISC-R subtests. METHOD: WISC-R's subtest and IQ scores, and scores of Kaufman's and Bannatyne's categories of the children who were diagnosed with only ADHD were compared with the same scores of the children who were in healthy control group (N= 111) and were in ADHD with co morbidity group (N= 82)...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Marie Reilly, Jason Fogler, Ellen Selkie, Marilyn Augustyn
Sarah is a 13-year-old eighth grader who was recently diagnosed for the first time with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-inattentive type, and the family elected to treat her with behavioral interventions to help her organization and attention. She had struggled with distractibility and disorganization since the fourth grade. At home, Sarah's mother described her as "spacey" and unable to complete the morning routine without constant supervision. Over time, her mother observed that it seemed as if Sarah had given up on school...
July 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Dennis Gmehlin, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Stephan Walther, Lara Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Klaus W Lange, Oliver Tucha, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner
Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness...
June 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Clara Pretus, Marisol Picado, Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Susanna Carmona, Vanessa Richarte, Jordi Fauquet, Óscar Vilarroya
OBJECTIVE: It is widely accepted that patients with ADHD exhibit greater susceptibility to distractors, especially during tasks with higher working memory load demands. However, no study to date has specifically measured the impact of distractors on timing functions, although these have consistently shown alterations in ADHD. In this investigation, we aimed to elucidate the neural mechanisms mediating distractor effects on timing functions. METHOD: We employed a time estimation functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm I: ncluding a distracting element in half of the trials in a sample of 21 patients with ADHD and 24 healthy controls...
May 16, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Steve Berggren, Ann-Charlotte Engström, Sven Bölte
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been associated with facial affect recognition (FAR) alterations. METHODS: This study examined accuracy and response times for general and specific FAR in whole face and eye-region stimuli. FAR was assessed in matched samples of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 35), ADHD (n = 32), and typical development (TD) (n = 32) aged 8.6-15.9 years (M = 11...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Paul Frewen, Heather Hargraves, Jonathan DePierro, Wendy D'Andrea, Les Flodrowski
Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS) represent a self-report, state measure of focused attention (FA) during the practice of meditation. The MBAS assessment procedure involves sounding a bell at periodic intervals during meditation practice, at which times participants indicate if they were attending toward breathing (scored 1) or if instead they had become distracted (e.g., by mind wandering; scored 0); scores are then tallied to yield participants' MBAS for that meditation. The current study developed and evaluated a fully automated and Internet-based version of MBAS in 1,101 volunteers...
July 2016: Psychological Assessment
J Mishra, R Sagar, A A Joseph, A Gazzaley, M M Merzenich
Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired focus on goal-relevant signals and fail to suppress goal-irrelevant distractions. To address both these issues, we developed a novel neuroplasticity-based training program that adaptively trains the resolution of challenging sensory signals and the suppression of progressively more challenging distractions. We evaluated this sensory signal-to-noise resolution training in a small sample, global mental health study in Indian children with ADHD...
April 12, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Eli Vakil, Meital Mass, Rachel Schiff
OBJECTIVE: To compare the eye movement patterns of adults with ADHD with those of controls as they perform the Stroop test. METHOD: Thirty individuals with ADHD (ages 18-31), and 30 controls participated in this study. The hypothesis was that under the incongruent condition, the group with ADHD would focus longer on the distracter than the controls. RESULTS: Participants with ADHD showed a more pronounced Stroop effect than the controls. Eye movements indicated that more time was spent fixating on the target than on the distracter...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ronna Fried, James Chan, Leah Feinberg, Amanda Pope, K Yvonne Woodworth, Stephen V Faraone, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Both working memory (WM; a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been associated with educational deficits. Since WM deficits are prevalent in children with ADHD, the main aim of the present study was to examine whether educational deficits are driven by working memory deficits or driven by the effect of ADHD itself. METHOD: Participants were referred youth with (N = 276) and without (N = 241) ADHD ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric sources...
2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Nicholas I Goldenson, Raina D Pang, Adam M Leventhal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Smoking outcome expectancies for positive reinforcement (PR: beliefs that smoking produces desirable outcomes) and negative reinforcement (NR: beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect) are modifiable cognitive manifestations of affect-mediated smoking motivation. Based on prior data and theory, we hypothesized that NR and PR expectancies are associated with ADHD symptom levels in a non-clinical sample of cigarette smokers. (Am J Addict 2016; XX:XX -XX) METHODS: Daily cigarette smokers (N = 256) completed self-report measures of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcome expectancies...
March 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Tess E Smith, Douglas B Samuel
An existing relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality disorder (PD) has been well documented, yet research has been limited by possible selection and self-report biases as well as PD models of questionable validity. This study examined the relationship of ADHD with adult personality traits and disorders in a sample that included individuals pre-screened for elevated childhood ADHD symptoms. Four hundred thirty-nine undergraduates completed retrospective reports of childhood ADHD symptoms as well as current ratings of ADHD symptoms, traditional PD categories, and the DSM-5 alternative PD trait model...
February 4, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Sarah E Bradshaw, Kara L Agster, Barry D Waterhouse, Jill A McGaughy
Adolescence is a period of major behavioral and brain reorganization. As diagnoses and treatment of disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often occur during adolescence, it is important to understand how the prefrontal cortices change and how these changes may influence the response to drugs during development. The current study uses an adolescent rat model to study the effect of standard ADHD treatments, atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attentional set shifting and reversal learning...
June 15, 2016: Brain Research
Vania Modesto-Lowe, Pantea Farahmand, Margaret Chaplin, Lauren Sarro
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders...
December 22, 2015: World Journal of Psychiatry
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