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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538047/auditory-processing-disorder-what-does-it-mean-and-what-can-be-done
#1
Krista Bartlett, Elissa Kelley, Julie Purdy, Martin T Stein
Julian, an 11-year-old boy in the sixth grade with a compliant disposition and a positive attitude, has had a significant decline in his academic performance over the last 2 years. He spends much of his time in the nurse's office with headaches and fatigue. He reports that he cannot concentrate or follow along in class. Vision and hearing screenings were normal.Julian's teachers report that although he has no behavior problem, he is inattentive and does not put forth the effort she feels he is capable of giving...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511579/does-an-attention-bias-to-appetitive-and-aversive-words-modulate-interference-control-in-youth-with-adhd
#2
Ili Ma, Gabry W Mies, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Interference control refers to the ability to selectively attend to certain information while ignoring distracting information. This ability can vary as a function of distractor relevance. Distractors that are particularly relevant to an individual may attract more attention than less relevant distractors. This is referred to as attention bias. Weak interference control and altered reward sensitivity are both important features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, interference control is typically studied in isolation...
May 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492867/distracted-driving-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Vishal Madaan, Daniel J Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392322/manipulation-of-dopamine-metabolism-contributes-to-attenuating-innate-high-locomotor-activity-in-icr-mice
#4
Takeshi Yamaguchi, Mao Nagasawa, Hiromi Ikeda, Momoko Kodaira, Kimie Minaminaka, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Shinobu Yasuo, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as attention deficiency, restlessness and distraction. The main characteristics of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsiveness and carelessness. There is a possibility that these abnormal behaviors, in particular hyperactivity, are derived from abnormal dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. To elucidate the mechanism of high locomotor activity, the relationship between innate activity levels and brain monoamines and amino acids was investigated in this study. Differences in locomotor activity between ICR, C57BL/6J and CBA/N mice were determined using the open field test...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378204/a-schizophrenia-relevant-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-mice-assessing-broad-monitoring-distractibility-and-impulsivity
#5
Huiping Huang, Simone Guadagna, Maddalena Mereu, Mariasole Ciampoli, Giacomo Pruzzo, Theresa Ballard, Francesco Papaleo
The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) is an automated test for rodents allowing the assessment of multiple cognitive measures. Originally designed to assess cognitive deficits relevant to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it has been widely used in the investigation of neural systems of attention. In the current study, we have set up a modified version, which reduced the training phase to only 8-9 days with minimal food deprivation and without single-housing. Furthermore, based on evidence that patients with schizophrenia are more impaired in broad monitoring abilities than in sustained attention, we successfully developed a protocol replicating the Spatial Attentional Resource Allocation Task (SARAT), used in humans to assess broad monitoring...
April 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361657/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-motor-impairment
#6
Juliana B Goulardins, Juliana C B Marques, Jorge A De Oliveira
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347858/higher-interference-susceptibility-in-reaction-time-task-is-accompanied-by-weakened-functional-dissociation-between-salience-and-default-mode-network
#7
Florian N Götting, Viola Borchardt, Liliana R Demenescu, Vanessa Teckentrup, Katharina Dinica, Anton R Lord, Tim Rohe, Dorothea I Hausdörfer, Meng Li, Coraline D Metzger, Martin Walter
BACKGROUND: The relationship between task-positive and task-negative components of brain networks has repeatedly been shown to be characterized by dissociated fluctuations of spontaneous brain activity. We tested whether the interaction between task-positive and task-negative brain areas during resting-state predicts higher interference susceptibility, i.e. increased reaction times (RTs), during an Attention Modulation by Salience Task (AMST). METHODS: 29 males underwent 3T resting-state Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanning...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254649/altered-perceptual-pseudoneglect-in-adhd-evidence-for-a-functional-disconnection-from-early-visual-activation
#8
Jiaqing Chen, Matthias Niemeier
Novel insights into the right-brain dominant functions of spatial attention and visual awareness may come from the peculiar observation that the attentional bias to the left in healthy individuals, called "pseudoneglect," increases with visual noise superimposed onto test stimuli. However, it is unclear if this effect originates from noise activating early visual areas or causing higher-level cognitive interference. Cognitive distraction and load are known to induce neglect-like rightward biases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199914/controlling-attention-to-gaze-and-arrows-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Andrea Marotta, Augusto Pasini, Erica Menotti, Alessia Pasquini, Maria Bernarda Pitzianti, Maria Casagrande
The aim of this research was to assess implicit processing of social and non-social distracting cues in children with ADHD. Young people with ADHD and matched controls were asked to classify target words (LEFT/RIGHT) which were accompanied by a distracter eye-gaze or arrow. Typically developing participants showed evidence of interference effects from both eye-gaze and arrow distracters. In contrast, the ADHD group showed evidence of interference effects from arrow but failed to show interference from eye-gaze...
May 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164277/event-related-potential-measures-of-executive-functioning-from-preschool-to-adolescence
#10
REVIEW
Michelle Downes, Joe Bathelt, Michelle De Haan
Executive functions are a collection of cognitive abilities necessary for behavioural control and regulation, and are important for school success. Executive deficits are common across acquired and developmental disorders in childhood and beyond. This review aims to summarize how studies using event-related potential (ERP) can provide insight into mechanisms underpinning how executive functions develop in children from preschool to adolescence. We specifically focus on ERP components that are considered to be well-established markers of executive functioning, including the ability to resist distraction (inhibition, N200), hold scenes in mind (visuospatial working memory, contralateral delay activity), attend to specific stimuli (information processing, P300), follow rules (response monitoring, error-related negativity [ERN], and error-related positivity [Pe]), and adjust to feedback (outcome monitoring, feedback-related negativity)...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141715/-when-the-prescription-pad-is-not-enough-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-management-2-0
#11
Jenny Radesky, Arathi Reddy, Naomi Steiner, Marilyn Augustyn
Jose is a 13-year-old boy who presents to his primary care provider after struggling in school for many years. When he was in the first grade, he was diagnosed at a tertiary center with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple medication trials have produced few benefits and many side effects including poor sleep, morbid thoughts, lack of motivation, and, according to his parents, "he seemed like a robot."He comes now for his annual physical in April, and the parents tell you that the school is threatening that he be retained in the seventh grade...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141707/bullying-and-adhd-which-came-first-and-does-it-matter
#12
Robert Keder, Robert Sege, Peter C Raffalli, Marilyn Augustyn
Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122767/usefulness-and-validity-of-continuous-performance-tests-in-the-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-children
#13
Itai Berger, Ortal Slobodin, Hanoch Cassuto
OBJECTIVE: Despite the popularity of continuous performance tests (CPT) in supporting the diagnostic procedure of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), these measures are still controversial mainly due to limited sensitivity, specificity, and ecological validity. Thus, there continues to be a need for further validation of these objective attention measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a CPT that includes environmental distracting stimuli, in supporting the diagnosis of ADHD in children...
February 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064024/cognitive-profiles-of-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-those-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-based-on-the-wais-iii
#14
Chieko Kanai, Ryuichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Masayuki Tani, Takashi Yamada, Haruhisa Ota, Akira Iwanami, Nobumasa Kato
The cognitive profile differences between adult patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well characterized. We examined the cognitive profiles of adults having either ASD (n=120) or ADHD (n=76) with no intellectual disabilities (IQ≥70) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Verbal Intelligence (VIQ) - Performance Intelligence (PIQ) difference discrepancies were detected between the two groups. Information subtest scores of the Verbal Comprehension index and Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests of the Freedom from Distractibility index were significantly higher in ASD than in ADHD, while the Picture Completion subtest was significantly lower in ASD...
February 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039669/the-development-of-the-sgi-16-a-shortened-sensory-gating-deficit-and-distractibility-questionnaire-for-adults-with-adhd
#15
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Régis Lopez, Pierre Michel, Laura Brandejsky, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip, Christophe Lancon, Laurent Boyer
The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI) is a questionnaire composed of 36 items designed to investigate abnormal perception related to the inability to control sensitivity to sensory stimuli frequently reported in adult with ADHD. This questionnaire can be considered too lengthy to be taken by people with ADHD, and a shortened version is needed. One hundred and sixty-three adults with ADHD responded to the SGI-36. An item reduction process took into account both the results of statistical analyses and the expertise of a steering committee...
December 30, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895292/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-like-traits-and-distractibility-in-the-visual-periphery
#16
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
We examined the performance of nonclinical subjects with high and low levels of self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like traits in a novel distractibility paradigm with far peripheral visual distractors, the likely origin of many distractors in everyday life. Subjects were tested on a Sustained Attention to Response Task with distractors appearing before some of the target or nontarget stimuli. When the distractors appeared 80 ms before the targets or nontargets, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits were less affected in their reaction times than those with lower levels...
November 28, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736099/impaired-processing-of-task-irrelevant-salient-information-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#17
Elke Godefroid, Jan R Wiersema
The current study examined the mechanisms of attention allocation in adult ADHD to investigate the frequently reported diminished target processing in ADHD as well as the less consistently observed increased distractibility by task-irrelevant distracting stimuli. To this end, while high-density EEG was recorded, 25 adults with ADHD and 23 healthy controls completed a 4-stimulus oddball task that comprised a frequently presented standard stimulus and 3 different categories of equally infrequent stimuli: task-relevant targets, task-irrelevant nontargets, and task-irrelevant unfamiliar novels...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719843/functional-jerks-tics-and-paroxysmal-movement-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Y E M Dreissen, D C Cath, M A J Tijssen
Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal dyskinesias, can be difficult. In support of a functional jerk are: acute onset in adulthood, precipitation by a physical event, variable, complex, and inconsistent phenomenology, suggestibility, distractibility, entrainment and a Bereitschaftspotential preceding the movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608887/executive-functioning-and-its-relation-to-asd-and-adhd-symptomatology-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#19
Leo M J de Sonneville, Elske Hidding, Herman van Engeland, Jacob A S Vorstman, Monique E J Sijmens-Morcus, Hanna Swaab
Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial-syndrome) are at risk for the developmental disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, the relation between executive functioning (EF) and the severity of ADHD and ASD symptoms is examined, since EF is known to be important in relation to emotional and behavioral problems. The participants consist of 58 children (38 females) with a mean age of 13.5 years (SD 2.6). Standardized assessment was used to evaluate the severity of ASD and ADHD symptomatology...
September 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369683/-analyzing-the-wechsler-intelligence-scale-for-children-revised-wisc-r-in-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-predictive-value-of-subtests-kaufman-and-bannatyne-categories
#20
Selma Tural Hesapçıoğlu, Cihat Çelik, Sevim Özmen, İbrahim Yiğit
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of intelligence quotients scores (IQs), subtests of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Kaufman's and Bannatyne's categories scores which are the sums of subtests of WISC-R in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Another aim is to examine the difference of some neurocognitive skills between the children with ADHD and their unaffected peers by WISC-R subtests. METHOD: WISC-R's subtest and IQ scores, and scores of Kaufman's and Bannatyne's categories of the children who were diagnosed with only ADHD were compared with the same scores of the children who were in healthy control group (N= 111) and were in ADHD with co morbidity group (N= 82)...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
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