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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926930/cytomegalovirus-specific-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells-are-governed-by-type-i-ifn-induced-il-27-and-promote-virus-persistence
#1
Mathew Clement, Morgan Marsden, Maria A Stacey, Juneid Abdul-Karim, Silvia Gimeno Brias, Diana Costa Bento, Martin J Scurr, Peter Ghazal, Casey T Weaver, Gianluca Carlesso, Simon Clare, Simon A Jones, Andrew Godkin, Gareth W Jones, Ian R Humphreys
CD4+ T cells support host defence against herpesviruses and other viral pathogens. We identified that CD4+ T cells from systemic and mucosal tissues of hosts infected with the β-herpesviridae human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) express the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. IL-10+CD4+ T cells co-expressed TH1-associated transcription factors and chemokine receptors. Mice lacking T cell-derived IL-10 elicited enhanced antiviral T cell responses and restricted MCMV persistence in salivary glands and secretion in saliva...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926868/cmyc-regulates-the-size-of-the-premigratory-neural-crest-stem-cell-pool
#2
Laura Kerosuo, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a transient embryonic population that originates within the central nervous system (CNS) and then migrates into the periphery and differentiates into multiple cell types. The mechanisms that govern neural crest stem-like characteristics and self-renewal ability are poorly understood. Here, we show that the proto-oncogene cMyc is a critical factor in the chick dorsal neural tube, where it regulates the size of the premigratory neural crest stem cell pool. Loss of cMyc dramatically decreases the number of emigrating neural crest cells due to reduced self-renewal capacity, increased cell death, and shorter duration of the emigration process...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926866/inflammation-induced-oxidative-stress-mediates-gene-fusion-formation-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Ram S Mani, Mohammad A Amin, Xiangyi Li, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Brendan A Veeneman, Lei Wang, Aparna Ghosh, Adam Aslam, Susmita G Ramanand, Bradley J Rabquer, Wataru Kimura, Maxwell Tran, Xuhong Cao, Sameek Roychowdhury, Saravana M Dhanasekaran, Nallasivam Palanisamy, Hesham A Sadek, Payal Kapur, Alisa E Koch, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Approximately 50% of prostate cancers are associated with gene fusions of the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 to the oncogenic erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor ERG. The three-dimensional proximity of TMPRSS2 and ERG genes, in combination with DNA breaks, facilitates the formation of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions. However, the origins of DNA breaks that underlie gene fusion formation in prostate cancers are far from clear. We demonstrate a role for inflammation-induced oxidative stress in the formation of DNA breaks leading to recurrent TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926865/tenascin-c-orchestrates-glioblastoma-angiogenesis-by-modulation-of-pro-and-anti-angiogenic-signaling
#4
Tristan Rupp, Benoit Langlois, Maria M Koczorowska, Agata Radwanska, Zhen Sun, Thomas Hussenet, Olivier Lefebvre, Devadarssen Murdamoothoo, Christiane Arnold, Annick Klein, Martin L Biniossek, Vincent Hyenne, Elise Naudin, Ines Velazquez-Quesada, Oliver Schilling, Ellen Van Obberghen-Schilling, Gertraud Orend
High expression of the extracellular matrix component tenascin-C in the tumor microenvironment correlates with decreased patient survival. Tenascin-C promotes cancer progression and a disrupted tumor vasculature through an unclear mechanism. Here, we examine the angiomodulatory role of tenascin-C. We find that direct contact of endothelial cells with tenascin-C disrupts actin polymerization, resulting in cytoplasmic retention of the transcriptional coactivator YAP. Tenascin-C also downregulates YAP pro-angiogenic target genes, thus reducing endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and tubulogenesis...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926863/chronic-infection-depletes-hematopoietic-stem-cells-through-stress-induced-terminal-differentiation
#5
Katie A Matatall, Mira Jeong, Siyi Chen, Deqiang Sun, Fengju Chen, Qianxing Mo, Marek Kimmel, Katherine Y King
Chronic infections affect a third of the world's population and can cause bone marrow suppression, a severe condition that increases mortality from infection. To uncover the basis for infection-associated bone marrow suppression, we conducted repeated infection of WT mice with Mycobacterium avium. After 4-6 months, mice became pancytopenic. Their hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) were severely depleted and displayed interferon gamma (IFN-γ) signaling-dependent defects in self-renewal. There was no evidence of increased HSPC mobilization or apoptosis...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926818/disruption-of-miaa-provides-insights-into-the-regulation-of-phenazine-biosynthesis-under-suboptimal-growth-conditions-in-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-30-84
#6
Jun Myoung Yu, Donping Wang, Leland S Pierson, Elizabeth A Pierson
Many products of secondary metabolism are activated by quorum sensing (QS), yet even at cell densities sufficient for QS, their production may be repressed under suboptimal growth conditions via mechanisms that still require elucidation. For many beneficial plant-associated bacteria, secondary metabolites such as phenazines are important for their competitive survival and plant-protective activities. Previous work established that phenazine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84 is regulated by the PhzR/PhzI QS system, which in turn is regulated by transcriptional regulator Pip, two-component system RpeA/RpeB, and stationary-phase/stress sigma factor RpoS...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926792/the-transcription-factor-pparalpha-is-overexpressed-and-is-associated-with-a-favourable-prognosis-in-idh-wildtype-primary-glioblastoma
#7
H R Haynes, P White, K M Hares, J Redondo, K C Kemp, W G B Singleton, C L Killick-Cole, J R Stevens, K Garadi, S Guglani, A Wilkins, K M Kurian
AIMS: PPARα agonists are in current clinical use as hypolipidaemic agents and show significant antineoplastic effects in human glioblastoma models. To date however, the expression of PPARα in large-scale glioblastoma data sets has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the expression of the transcription factor PPARα in primary glioblastoma, the relationship between PPARα expression and patients' clinicopathological features and other molecular markers associated with gliomagenesis...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926791/high-prevalence-of-mitf-staining-in-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-caution-in-use-of-melanocytic-markers-in-sarcoma
#8
Bonnie Choy, Elizabeth Hyjek, Anthony G Montag, Peter Pytel, Rex Haydon, Hue H Luu, Chao Jie Zhen, Bradley C Long, Sabah Kadri, Jeremy P Segal, Larissa V Furtado, Nicole A Cipriani
AIMS: Diagnosis of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) may be challenging, as other lesions with undifferentiated spindle cell morphology must be excluded, including melanoma. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) stains nevi and epithelioid melanomas, as well as some mesenchymal neoplasms. We evaluated the prevalence of MiTF and melanocytic markers in UPS and a subset of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX). METHODS AND RESULTS: MiTF, SOX10, Melan-A, HMB45, and S100 immunostains were performed on resection specimens from 19 UPS and 5 AFX...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926740/a-17-gene-stemness-score-for-rapid-determination-of-risk-in-acute-leukaemia
#9
Stanley W K Ng, Amanda Mitchell, James A Kennedy, Weihsu C Chen, Jessica McLeod, Narmin Ibrahimova, Andrea Arruda, Andreea Popescu, Vikas Gupta, Aaron D Schimmer, Andre C Schuh, Karen W Yee, Lars Bullinger, Tobias Herold, Dennis Görlich, Thomas Büchner, Wolfgang Hiddemann, Wolfgang E Berdel, Bernhard Wörmann, Meyling Cheok, Claude Preudhomme, Herve Dombret, Klaus Metzeler, Christian Buske, Bob Löwenberg, Peter J M Valk, Peter W Zandstra, Mark D Minden, John E Dick, Jean C Y Wang
Refractoriness to induction chemotherapy and relapse after achievement of remission are the main obstacles to cure in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). After standard induction chemotherapy, patients are assigned to different post-remission strategies on the basis of cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities that broadly define adverse, intermediate and favourable risk categories. However, some patients do not respond to induction therapy and another subset will eventually relapse despite the lack of adverse risk factors...
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926523/long-non-coding-rna-neat1-overexpression-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Chao Yang, Zhuo Li, Yajun Li, Rui Xu, Yongfeng Wang, Yu Tian, Wei Chen
OBJECTIVES: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are playing important roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Recent studies have demonstrated that the lncRNA, nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1), was aberrantly up-regulated in various types of cancers and was reported to be associated with unfavorable prognosis in cancer patients. This study examined the relationship between NEAT1 and relevant clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1354 patients from 11 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926517/suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-induced-specific-epigenetic-regulation-controls-leptin-induced-proliferation-of-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#11
Xiuyan Feng, Han Han, Dan Zou, Jiaming Zhou, Weiqiang Zhou
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in the world, investigating the characteristics and special transduction pathways is important for better understanding breast development and tumorigenesis. Leptin, a peptide hormone secreted from white adipocytes, may be an independent risk factor for breast cancer.Here, we treated suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on Leptin-induced cell proliferation and invasion in the estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926504/the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitors-on-human-th17-cells-via-ror%C3%AE-t-histone-acetylation
#12
Yi-Ching Lin, Yu-Chih Lin, Cheng-Chin Wu, Ming-Yii Huang, Wen-Chan Tsai, Chih-Hsing Hung, Po-Lin Kuo
The presence of interleukin (IL)-17-related cytokines correlates with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Epigenetic modifications, including histone acetylation, regulate gene expression in RA pathogenesis. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors such as etanercept and adalimumab, represent a breakthrough in RA treatment. We aimed to investigate the effects of etanercept and adalimumab on human Th17-polarized cells and the possible intracellular regulators of these effects, including the Th17-specific transcription factors signal transducer, activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), retinoid-related orphan receptor γ-T (RORγt) and epigenetic modification...
December 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926494/p38-and-jnk-pathways-control-e-selectin-dependent-extravasation-of-colon-cancer-cells-by-modulating-mir-31-transcription
#13
Liang Zhong, Bryan Simoneau, Jacques Huot, Martin J Simard
Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells. It requires the interaction between adhesion receptors such as E-selectin present on endothelial cells and their ligands on cancer cells. Notably, E-selectin influences the metastatic potential of breast, bladder, gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal carcinoma as well as of leukemia and lymphoma. Here, we show that E-selectin expression induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is directly and negatively regulated by miR-31...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926489/suppression-of-immune-regulatory-cells-with-combined-therapy-of-celecoxib-and-sunitinib-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#14
Qi Zhao, Jianming Guo, Guomin Wang, Yiwei Chu, Xiaoyi Hu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the the potential benefit of sunitinib in combination with cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) inhibitor in renal cell carcinoma therapy. METHODS: 769-p cell lines were treated with sunitinib, celecoxib, or in combination at different concentrations respectively. We investigated the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in 769-p and cell proliferation in vitro. BALB/c mice implanted with Renca cells were divided into 4 groups and administered orally by gavage with sunitinib, COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) monotherapy or combination, and PBS respectively...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926480/calcium-dependent-binding-of-myc-to-calmodulin
#15
Philipp Raffeiner, Andrea Schraffl, Thomas Schwarz, Ruth Röck, Karin Ledolter, Markus Hartl, Robert Konrat, Eduard Stefan, Klaus Bister
The bHLH-LZ (basic region/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper) oncoprotein Myc and the bHLH-LZ protein Max form a binary transcription factor complex controlling fundamental cellular processes. Deregulated Myc expression leads to neoplastic transformation and is a hallmark of most human cancers. The dynamics of Myc transcription factor activity are post-translationally coordinated by defined protein-protein interactions. Here, we present evidence for a second messenger controlled physical interaction between the Ca2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM) and all Myc variants (v-Myc, c-Myc, N-Myc, and L-Myc)...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926473/growth-differentiation-factor-15-increases-following-oral-glucose-ingestion-effect-of-meal-composition-and-obesity
#16
Marie Helene Schernthaner-Reiter, Dominik Kasses, Christina Tugendsam, Michaela Riedl, Slobodan Peric, Gerhard Prager, Michael Krebs, Miriam Promintzer-Schifferl, Martin Clodi, Anton Luger, Greisa Vila
OBJECTIVE: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a cardiovascular biomarker belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Increased GDF15 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity. We investigated the physiological effects of meal composition and obesity on the regulation of systemic GDF15 levels. DESIGN: Lean (n = 8) and obese (n = 8) individuals received a carbohydrate- or fat-rich meal, a 75 g oral glucose load (OGTT) or short-term fasting...
December 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926461/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-regulation-of-ppars-signaling-relationship-to-tissue-development-and-aging
#17
REVIEW
Francisca Echeverría, Macarena Ortiz, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that function as ligand-dependent transcription factors that can be activated by different types of fatty acids (FAs). Three isoforms of PPARs have been identify, namely, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, which are able to bind long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs), n-3 LCPUFAs being bound with greater affinity to achieve activation. FA binding induces a conformational change of the nuclear receptors, triggering the transcription of specific genes including those encoding for various metabolic and cellular processes such as FA β-oxidation and adipogenesis, thus representing key mediators of lipid homeostasis...
November 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925633/shock-wave-enhances-angiogenesis-through-vegfr2-activation-and-recycling
#18
Tien-Hung Huang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Yi-Ling Chen, Ching-Jen Wang, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
Although low-energy shock wave (SW) is adopted to treat ischemic diseases because of its pro-angiogenic properties, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed at testing whether SW-induced angiogenesis may be through endothelial vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling and trafficking. Phosphorylation of VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS axis and production of nitric oxide (NO) were determined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with SW. Carotid artery in ob/ob mice was treated with SW before evaluation with sprouting assay...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925372/cyp19a1-mif-and-abca1-genes-are-targets-of-the-ror%C3%AE-in-monocyte-and-endothelial-cells
#19
Neslihan Coban, Cagri Gulec, Bilge Ozsait Selcuk, Nihan Erginel-Unaltuna
RORα is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors which has a vital role in the regulation of various physiological processes. Cholesterol is a known ligand of RORα and is one of the key components that take part in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is possible that RORα might have a role in the development of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of novel RORα response elements (ROREs) located in the promoter of CYP19A1, MIF and ABCA1 genes...
December 7, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925358/castration-induced-changes-in-the-expression-profiles-and-promoter-methylation-of-the-ghr-gene-in-huainan-male-pigs
#20
Jing Wang, Junfeng Chen, Jiaqing Zhang, Binwen Gao, Xianxiao Bai, Yali Lan, Ping Lin, Hongxia Guo, Yuan Gao, Baosong Xing
Castration plays a regulatory role in growth and carcass traits, particularly in fat deposition, but its molecular mechanisms are still not clear. The present study showed that castration significantly reduced the serum growth hormone and the responses of the growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), IGF-IR and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to castration were similar in different adipose tissues. However, the GHR expression trends were opposite between the liver and the adipose tissues; bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) showed that its methylation in these two tissues was different...
December 7, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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