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Transcription factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434151/cbf2a-cbf4b-genomic-region-copy-numbers-alongside-the-circadian-clock-play-key-regulatory-mechanisms-driving-expression-of-fr-h2-cbfs
#1
Taniya Dhillon, Kengo Morohashi, Eric J Stockinger
The C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that were identified using Arabidopsis thaliana. In barley, Hordeum vulgare, a cluster of CBF genes reside at FROST RESISTANCE-H2, one of two loci having major effects on winter-hardiness. FR-H2 was revealed in a population derived from the winter barley 'Nure' and the spring barley 'Trèmois'. 'Nure' harbors two to three copies of CBF2A and CBF4B as a consequence of tandem iteration of the genomic region encompassing these genes whereas 'Trèmois' harbors single copies, and these copy number differences are associated with their transcript level differences...
April 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434086/the-inability-of-bacillus-licheniformis-perr-mutant-to-grow-is-mainly-due-to-the-lack-of-perr-mediated-fur-repression
#2
Jung-Hoon Kim, Yoon-Mo Yang, Chang-Jun Ji, Su-Hyun Ryu, Young-Bin Won, Shin-Yeong Ju, Yumi Kwon, Yeh-Eun Lee, Hwan Youn, Jin-Won Lee
PerR, a member of Fur family protein, is a metal-dependent H2O2 sensing transcription factor that regulates genes involved in peroxide stress response. Industrially important bacterium Bacillus licheniformis contains three PerR-like proteins (PerRBL, PerR2, and PerR3) compared to its close relative Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, unlike other bacteria including B. subtilis, no authentic perR BL null mutant could be established for B. licheniformis. Thus, we constructed a conditional perR BL mutant using a xylose-inducible promoter, and investigated the genes under the control of PerRBL...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434038/emerging-potential-of-gene-silencing-approaches-targeting-anti-chondrogenic-factors-for-cell-based-cartilage-repair
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Lolli, Letizia Penolazzi, Roberto Narcisi, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Roberta Piva
The field of cartilage repair has exponentially been growing over the past decade. Here, we discuss the possibility to achieve satisfactory regeneration of articular cartilage by means of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) depleted of anti-chondrogenic factors and implanted in the site of injury. Different types of molecules including transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, secreted proteins, and microRNAs have recently been identified as negative modulators of chondroprogenitor differentiation and chondrocyte function...
April 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434031/fkbp51s-signature-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-melanoma-patients-as-a-possible-predictive-factor-for-immunotherapy
#4
Simona Romano, Ester Simeone, Anna D'Angelillo, Paolo D'Arrigo, Michele Russo, Mario Capasso, Vito Alessandro Lasorsa, Nicola Zambrano, Paolo A Ascierto, Maria Fiammetta Romano
The inhibitory immune checkpoint PD-L1/PD1 promotes the alternative splicing of the FKBP5 gene, resulting in increased expression of its variant 4 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of melanoma patients. The variant 4 transcript is translated into the truncated FKBP51s protein. Given the importance of co-inhibitory signalling in tumour immune escape, here we tested the potential for using FKBP51s expression to predict immunotherapy outcomes. To do this, we immunophenotyped PBMCs from 118 melanoma patients and 77 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
April 22, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434000/apolipoprotein-a1-inhibits-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#5
Juling Feng, Jingjing Zhang, Ampadu O Jackson, Xiao Zhu, Hainan Chen, Wen Chen, Qingjun Gui, Kai Yin
OBJECTIVE: Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is the major cytokine for stimulating endothelial cells (ECs) to transdifferentiate to mesenchymal cells (MCs) in the process known as endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Recently, TGF-β1-induced EndMT has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). It has been identified that apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-I) obstructs TGF-β1-induced endothelial dysfunction, providing a protective effect for ECs and also anti-AS activity...
April 22, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433946/the-activities-of-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-cop1-spa-a-key-repressor-in-light-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Ute Hoecker
Light is a critical signal to integrate plant growth and development with the environment. Downstream of photoreceptors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA is a key repressor of photomorphogenesis which targets many positive regulators of light signaling, mainly transcription factors, for degradation in darkness. In light-grown plants COP1/SPA activity is repressed, allowing light responses to occur. This review provides an overview on our current knowledge on COP1/SPA repressor function, focusing in particular on the roles of the respective protein domains and the mechanisms of light-induced inactivation of COP1/SPA...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433812/the-perlecan-interacting-growth-factor-progranulin-regulates-ubiquitination-sorting-and-lysosomal-degradation-of-sortilin
#7
Ryuta Tanimoto, Chiara Palladino, Shi-Qiong Xu, Simone Buraschi, Thomas Neill, Leonard G Gomella, Stephen C Peiper, Antonino Belfiore, Renato V Iozzo, Andrea Morrione
Despite extensive clinical and experimental studies over the past decades, the pathogenesis and progression to the castration-resistant stage of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Progranulin, a secreted growth factor, strongly binds the heparin-sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, and counteracts its biological activity. We established that progranulin acts as an autocrine growth factor and promotes prostate cancer cell motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin was overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues vis-à-vis non-neoplastic tissues supporting the hypothesis that progranulin may play a key role in prostate cancer progression...
April 20, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433751/elevated-chaperone-proteins-are-a-feature-of-winter-freeze-avoidance-by-larvae-of-the-goldenrod-gall-moth-epiblema-scudderiana
#8
Guijun Zhang, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey
Winter survival for many insect species includes a need to maintain metabolic homeostasis and structural/functional integrity of macromolecules not only over a wide range of cold temperatures but also in response to rapid temperature change. Chaperones are well-known to protect/stabilize protein structure with regard to heat stress but less is known about their potential involvement in long-term protection of the proteome at subzero temperatures. The present study assessed the participation of chaperone proteins in the cold hardiness of larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae), monitoring changes in nine proteins over the winter months as well as their responses to laboratory cold acclimation or anoxia exposure...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433712/common-phox2b-poly-alanine-contractions-impair-ret-gene-transcription-predisposing-to-hirschsprung-disease
#9
Eleonora Di Zanni, Annalisa Adamo, Elga Belligni, Margherita Lerone, Giuseppe Martucciello, Girolamo Mattioli, Alessio Pini Prato, Roberto Ravazzolo, Margherita Silengo, Tiziana Bachetti, Isabella Ceccherini
HSCR is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by the absence of neurons along a variable length of the gut resulting from loss-of-function RET mutations. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) is a rare neurocristopathy characterized by impaired response to hypercapnia and hypoxemia caused by heterozygous mutations of the PHOX2B gene, mostly polyalanine (polyA) expansions but also missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations, while polyA contractions are common in the population and believed neutral...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433684/activating-transcription-factor-6-dependent-sestrin-2-induction-ameliorates-er-stress-mediated-liver-injury
#10
Kyung Hwan Jegal, Sang Mi Park, Sam Seok Cho, Sung Hui Byun, Sae Kwang Ku, Sang Chan Kim, Sung Hwan Ki, Il Je Cho
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is characterized by an accumulation of misfolded proteins, and ER stress reduction is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that protect cells from ER stress are not completely understood. The present study investigated the role of sestrin 2 (SESN2) on ER stress and sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the hepatoprotective effect of SESN2 in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with tunicamycin (Tm) increased SESN2 protein and mRNA levels and reporter gene activity...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433662/iron-and-thiol-redox-signaling-in-cancer-an-exquisite-balance-to-escape-ferroptosis
#11
REVIEW
Shinya Toyokuni, Fumiya Ito, Kyoko Yamashita, Yasumasa Okazaki, Shinya Akatsuka
Epidemiological data indicate a constant worldwide increase in cancer mortality, although the age of onset is increasing. Recent accumulation of genomic data on human cancer via next-generation sequencing confirmed that cancer is a disease of genome alteration. In many cancers, the Nrf2 transcription system is activated via mutations either in Nrf2 or Keap1 ubiquitin ligase, leading to persistent activation of the genes with antioxidative functions. Furthermore, deep sequencing of passenger mutations is clarifying responsible cancer causative agent(s) in each case, including aging, APOBEC activation, smoking and UV...
April 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433654/high-molecular-weight-fgf2-isoforms-demonstrate-canonical-receptor-mediated-activity-and-support-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#12
Denis Kole, Alexandra Grella, David Dolivo, Lucia Shumaker, William Hermans, Tanja Dominko
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006), and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011). A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18kDa low molecular weight (LMW) isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms (Arese et al...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433632/role-of-microrna-130b-in-placental-pgc-1%C3%AE-tfam-mitochondrial-biogenesis-pathway
#13
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Steven D Chernausek
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433077/development-and-clinical-utility-of-a-blood-based-test-service-for-the-rapid-identification-of-actionable-mutations-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#14
Hestia Mellert, Trudi Foreman, Leisa Jackson, Dianna Maar, Scott Thurston, Kristina Koch, Amanda Weaver, Samantha Cooper, Nicholas Dupuis, Ubaradka G Sathyanarayana, Jakkie Greer, Westen Hahn, Dawne Shelton, Paula Stonemetz, Gary A Pestano
Nearly 80% of cancer patients do not have genetic mutation results available at initial oncology consultation; up to 25% of patients begin treatment before receiving their results. These factors hinder the ability to pursue optimal treatment strategies. This study validates a blood-based genome-testing service that provides accurate results within 72 hours. We focused on targetable variants in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma-epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) variant L858R, exon 19 deletion (ΔE746-A750), and T790M; GTPase Kirsten ras gene (KRAS) variants G12C/D/V; and echinoderm microtubule associated protein like and 4 anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase fusion (EML4-ALK) transcripts 1/2/3...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432817/factors-involved-in-early-polarization-of-the-anterior-posterior-axis-in-the-milkweed-bug-oncopeltus-fasciatus
#15
Neta Ginzburg, Mira Cohen, Ariel D Chipman
The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found that none of them are expressed asymmetrically in the early blastoderm. We then used an RNA-Seq approach to identify novel candidate genes that might be involved in early polarization in Oncopeltus...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432761/protein-s-sulfhydration-by-hydrogen-sulfide-in-cardiovascular-system
#16
REVIEW
Guoliang Meng, Shuang Zhao, Liping Xie, Yi Han, Yong Ji
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), independent on any specific transporters, plays a number of biological effects on cardiovascular systems. However, the detailed mechanism of H2 S is not yet clear until now. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is a chemical modification on specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H2 S. There are several methods for S-sulfhydration detection, such as modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432720/androgen-receptor-dysfunction-as-a-prevalent-manifestation-in-young-male-carriers-of-a-flna-gene-mutation
#17
Laura Carrera-García, Maximiliano Francisco Rivas-Crespo, María Soledad Fernández García
Androgenic actions require the proper signal transmission by the androgen receptor (AR), a nuclear transcription factor. This is initially located in the cell cytoplasm and should translocates to the nucleus to interact with DNA. AR functional impairment causes diverse blockage degrees of androgenic steroid action, known as androgen insensitivity syndromes. Filamin A, a protein coded by the FLNA gene, is a co-activator of various cytoplasmic factors, including AR. The mutational inactivation of the FLNA gene induces insufficiency of translocation and activation of AR...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432716/deciphering-tacrolimus-induced-toxicity-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#18
J Triñanes, A E Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Y Brito, A Wagner, A P J De Vries, G Cuesto, A Acebes, E Salido, A Torres, E Porrini
β-cell transcription factors like: FoxO1, MafA, PDX-1, NeuroD, are dysfunctional in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PTDM resembles T2DM and reflects interaction between pre-transplant insulin resistance and immunosuppressants, mainly calcineurin inhibitors. We evaluated the effect of tacrolimus, cyclosporine-A and metabolic stressors (glucose+palmitate) on insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) in vitro and in pancreata of obese and lean Zucker rats. Cells were cultured for five days with 100μM palmitate and 22mM glucose; cyclosporin-A (250ng/mL) or tacrolimus (15ng/mL) were added the last 48h...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432711/vdr-gene-methylation-as-a-molecular-adaption-to-light-exposure-historic-recent-and-genetic-influences
#19
Emma L Beckett, Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
OBJECTIVES: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects. METHODS: Eighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Photoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r(2)  = 0...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432529/ginseng-derived-panaxadiol-saponins-promote-hematopoiesis-recovery-in-cyclophosphamide-induced-myelosuppressive-mice-potential-novel-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-cytopenias
#20
Xin Sun, Yan-Na Zhao, Song Qian, Rui-Lan Gao, Li-Ming Yin, Li-Pei Wang, Beng-Hock Chong, Su-Zhan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential efficacy of panaxadiol saponins component (PDS-C), a biologically active fraction isolated from total ginsenosides, to reverse chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression and pancytopenia caused by cyclophamide (CTX). METHODS: Mice with myelosuppression induced by CTX were treated with PDS-C at a low- (20 mg/kg), moderate- (40 mg/kg), or high-dose (80 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The level of peripheral white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEU) and platelet (PLT) were measured, the histopathology and colony formation were observed, the protein kinase and transcription factors in hematopoietic cells were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot...
April 22, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
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