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T regulatory cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786112/ctla%C3%A2-4-interferes-with-the-hbv%C3%A2-specific-t-cell-immune-response-review
#1
Hui Cao, Ruiwen Zhang, Wei Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute hepatitis B, chronic HBV infection is associated with the depletion of T cells, resulting in weak or absent virus‑specific T cells reactivity, which is described as 'exhaustion'. This exhaustion is characterized by impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple coinhibitory molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte‑associated antigen‑4 (CTLA‑4) is one of many coinhibitory molecules that can attenuate T cell activation by inhibiting costimulation and transmitting inhibitory signals to T cells...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785960/reduction-in-regulatory-t-cells-in-early-pregnancy-causes-uterine-artery-dysfunction-in-mice
#2
Alison S Care, Stephane L Bourque, Jude S Morton, Emma P Hjartarson, Sarah A Robertson, Sandra T Davidge
Preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and miscarriage remain important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications are associated with reduced numbers of a specialized T lymphocyte subset called regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the maternal circulation, decidua, and placenta. Treg cells suppress inflammation and prevent maternal immunity toward the fetus, which expresses foreign paternal alloantigens. Treg cells are demonstrated to contribute to vascular homeostasis, but whether Treg cells influence the vascular adaptations essential for a healthy pregnancy is unknown...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785863/hyperbaric-oxygen-inhibits-production-of-cd3-t-cells-in-the-thymus-and-facilitates-malignant-glioma-cell-growth
#3
Yong-Gang Wang, Jiang Long, Dong-Chuan Shao, Hai Song
Objective Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is an emerging complementary alternative medical approach in glioma treatment. However, its mode of action is unknown, so this was investigated in the present study. Methods We constructed an intracranial glioma model of congenic C57BL/6J mice. Glioma growth under HBO stimulation was assessed by bioluminescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Flow cytometry assessed direct effects of HBO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling of transplanted glioma cells and organs, and quantified mature T cells and subgroups in tumors, the brain, and blood...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785404/enhanced-suppressive-activity-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-microenvironment-of-malignant-pleural-effusions
#4
Joanna Budna, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Agata Kolecka-Bednarczyk, Łukasz Spychalski, Piotr Zawierucha, Joanna Goździk-Spychalska, Michał Nowicki, Halina Batura-Gabryel, Jan Sikora
Cancer metastatic spread to serous cavity causes malignant pleural effusions (MPEs), indicating dismal prognosis. Tumor microenvironment can implement suppressive activity on host immune responses. Thus, we investigated the prevalence of Tregs and the relationship between them and TGF- β and IL-10 concentrations and measured expression of FOXP3 , CTLA-4 , CD28 , and GITR genes, as well as protein expression of selected genes in benign effusions and MPEs. The percentage of Tregs was determined by means of multicolor flow cytometry system...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784854/molecular-subtype-specific-immunocompetent-models-of-high-grade-urothelial-carcinoma-reveal-differential-neoantigen-expression-and-response-to-immunotherapy
#5
Ryoichi Saito, Christof C Smith, Takanobu Utsumi, Lisa M Bixby, Jordan Kardos, Sara E Wobker, Kyle G Stewart, Shengjie Chai, Ujjawal Manocha, Kevin Matthew Byrd, Jeffrey S Damrauer, Scott E Williams, Benjamin G Vincent, William Y Kim
High-grade urothelial cancer contains intrinsic molecular subtypes that exhibit differences in underlying tumor biology and can be divided into luminal-like and basal-like subtypes. We describe here the first subtype-specific murine models of bladder cancer and show that Upk3a-CreERT2; Trp53L/L; PtenL/L; Rosa26LSL-Luc (UPPL: luminal-like) and BBN (basal-like) tumors are more faithful to human bladder cancer than the widely-used MB49 cells. Following engraftment into immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, BBN tumors were more responsive to PD-1 inhibition than UPPL tumors...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784651/immune-recognition-of-%C3%AE-cells-neoepitopes-as-key-players-in-the-loss-of-tolerance
#6
Eddie A James, Massimo Pietropaolo, Mark J Mamula
Prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes, there is progressive loss of immune self-tolerance, evidenced by the accumulation of islet autoantibodies and emergence of autoreactive T cells. Continued autoimmune activity leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin secretion. Studies of samples from patients with type 1 diabetes and of murine disease models have generated important insights about genetic and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility and immune pathways that are important for pathogenesis...
June 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784636/adaptive-nk-cells-resist-regulatory-t-cell-suppression-driven-by-il-37
#7
Dhifaf Sarhan, Keli L Hippen, Amanda Lemire, Skyler Hying, Xianghua Luo, Todd Lenvik, Julie Curtsinger, Zachary Davis, Bin Zhang, Sarah Cooley, Frank Cichocki, Bruce R Blazar, Jeffrey S Miller
Natural Killer (NK) cells are capable of fighting viral infections and cancer. However, these responses are inhibited by immune suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor progression promotes the recruitment and generation of intratumoral regulatory T cells (Tregs), associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here, we show that canonical NK cells are highly susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression, in contrast to highly resistant CD57+ FcεRγ-NKG2C+ adaptive (CD56+CD3-) NK cells that expand in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-exposed individuals...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783997/graft-protective-effect-and-induction-of-cd4-foxp3-cell-by-thrombomodulin-on-allograft-arteriosclerosis-in-mice
#8
Enzhi Yin, Shigefumi Matsuyama, Masateru Uchiyama, Kento Kawai, Masanori Niimi
BACKGROUND: Thrombomodulin (TM) is a promising therapeutic natural anti-coagulant, which exerts the effects to control disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, little is known whether TM on micro-vessels could play an important role in the regulation of intimal hyperplasia. We investigated the vessel-protective effect of TM in the survival of fully major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched murine cardiac allograft transplantation. METHODS: CBA recipients transplanted with a C57BL/6 heart received intraperitoneal administration of normal saline or 0...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783988/tolerogenic-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-induce-neuroprotective-regulatory-t-cells-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Charles R Schutt, Howard E Gendelman, R Lee Mosley
BACKGROUND: Administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases regulatory T cell (Treg) number and function with control of neuroinflammation and neuronal protection in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated in an early phase 1 clinical trial that GM-CSF also improves motor skills in PD patients. However, the mechanisms of Treg induction and its effects on neuroprotective responses remain unknown...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783736/revisiting-cd28-superagonist-tgn1412-as-potential-therapeutic-for-pediatric-b-cell-leukemia-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Katelyn E Brown
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents the most common pediatric cancer diagnosis, with numbers rising gradually every year. This paper proposes a novel therapeutic agent for pediatric ALL on the basis of a failed clinical drug trial in 2006. TGN1412 was a promising therapeutic agent that yielded outstanding results in both in vitro studies and animal trials. It is a CD28 superagonist monoclonal antibody that activates T regulatory (TReg ) cells in the absence of costimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) by an antigen-presenting cell...
May 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782555/langerin-dcs-regulate-innate-il-17-production-in-the-oral-mucosa-during-candida-albicans-mediated-infection
#11
Florian Sparber, Tamas Dolowschiak, Sarah Mertens, Laura Lauener, Björn E Clausen, Nicole Joller, Patrizia Stoitzner, Roxane Tussiwand, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans frequently causes diseases such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in immunocompromised individuals. Although it is well appreciated that the cytokine IL-17 is crucial for protective immunity against OPC, the cellular source and the regulation of this cytokine during infection are still a matter of debate. Here, we directly visualized IL-17 production in the infected tongue of experimentally infected mice, thereby demonstrating that this key cytokine is expressed by three complementary subsets of CD90+ leukocytes: RAG-dependent αβ and γδ T cells, as well as RAG-independent ILCs...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782498/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites-integrate-sterol-and-phospholipid-regulation
#12
Evan Quon, Yves Y Sere, Neha Chauhan, Jesper Johansen, David P Sullivan, Jeremy S Dittman, William J Rice, Robin B Chan, Gilbert di Paolo, Christopher T Beh, Anant K Menon
Tether proteins attach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other cellular membranes, thereby creating contact sites that are proposed to form platforms for regulating lipid homeostasis and facilitating non-vesicular lipid exchange. Sterols are synthesized in the ER and transported by non-vesicular mechanisms to the plasma membrane (PM), where they represent almost half of all PM lipids and contribute critically to the barrier function of the PM. To determine whether contact sites are important for both sterol exchange between the ER and PM and intermembrane regulation of lipid metabolism, we generated Δ-super-tether (Δ-s-tether) yeast cells that lack six previously identified tethering proteins (yeast extended synatotagmin [E-Syt], vesicle-associated membrane protein [VAMP]-associated protein [VAP], and TMEM16-anoctamin homologues) as well as the presumptive tether Ice2...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782055/clinical-and-immunological-effects-of-adsorptive-myeloid-lineage-leukocyte-apheresis-in-patients-with-immune-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Takuro Kanekura
Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) with the Adacolumn® is an extracorporeal treatment, which uses cellulose acetate (CA) beads as adsorptive leukocytapheresis carriers designed to remove elevated and potentially activated myeloid lineage leukocytes. Reports on the clinical efficacy of GMA in patients with skin lesions have appeared in the published work. Dermatological diseases, which are known to respond to GMA, include pyoderma gangrenosum, skin lesions of Behçet's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, pustular psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, Sweet's syndrome, cutaneous allergic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus rashes...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780367/expression-of-mir-34a-in-t-cells-infected-by-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-1
#14
Varun K Sharma, Vittoria Raimondi, Katia Ruggero, Cynthia A Pise-Masison, Ilaria Cavallari, Micol Silic-Benussi, Vincenzo Ciminale, Donna M D'Agostino
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) immortalizes T-cells and is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). HTLV-1 replication and transformation are governed by multiple interactions between viral regulatory proteins and host cell factors that remain to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the impact of HTLV-1 infection on the expression of miR-34a, a microRNA whose expression is downregulated in many types of cancer. Results of RT-PCR assays showed that five out of six HTLV-1-positive cell lines expressed higher levels of miR-34a compared to normal PBMC or purified CD4+ T-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778842/curcumin-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-organ-dysfunction-by-preventing-inflammation-and-enhancing-the-suppressive-function-of-tregs
#15
Longwang Chen, Yang Lu, Linjun Zhao, Lili Hu, Qiaomeng Qiu, Zhuoling Zhang, Mengfang Li, Guangliang Hong, Bing Wu, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators. It results in a dysregulated immune response and can lead to organ damage and death. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and immunoregulation functions in various disorders such as sepsis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, lung fibrosis, gallstone formation, and diabetes. This paper investigates the effects of curcumin on immune status and inflammatory response in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
May 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778661/epigenetic-dysregulation-of-zeb1-is-involved-in-lmo2-promoted-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-leukaemogenesis
#16
Chao Wu, Jianjun Li, Chenchen Tian, Wen Shi, Huimin Jiang, Zhen Zhang, Hang Wang, Quansheng Zhang, Wei Sun, Peiqing Sun, Rong Xiang, Shuang Yang
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) is a hematological malignancy caused by the accumulation of genomic lesions that affect the development of T-cells. ZEB1, a member of zinc finger-homeodomain family transcription factor, exhibits crucial function in promoting T-cell differentiation and potentially acts as a tumor suppressor in T-ALL. However, the molecular mechanism by which ZEB1 regulates T-ALL leukaemogenesis remains obscure. Here, we showed that oncogenic LIM only 2 (LMO2) could recruit Sap18 and HDAC1 to assemble an epigenetic regulatory complex, thus inducing histone deacetylation in ZEB1 promoter and chromatin remodeling to achieve transcriptional repression...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778505/novel-peptide-nanoparticle-biased-antagonist-of-ccr3-blocks-eosinophil-recruitment-and-airway-hyperresponsiveness
#17
Milica Grozdanovic, Kimberly G Laffey, Hazem Abdelkarim, Ben Hitchinson, Anantha Harijith, Hyung-Geon Moon, Gye Young Park, Lee K Rousslang, Joanne C Masterson, Glenn T Furuta, Nadya I Tarasova, Vadim Gaponenko, Steven J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Chemokine signaling through CCR3 is a key regulatory pathway for eosinophil recruitment into tissues associated with allergic inflammation and asthma. To date, none of the CCR3 antagonists have shown efficacy in clinical trials. One reason may be their unbiased mode of inhibition that prevents receptor internalization, leading to drug tolerance. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a novel peptide nanoparticle CCR3 inhibitor (R321) with a biased mode of inhibition that would block G-protein signaling, but enable or promote receptor internalization...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777913/the-tp53-induced-glycolysis-and-apoptosis-regulator-mediates-cooperation-between-htlv-1-p30-ii-and-the-retroviral-oncoproteins-tax-and-hbz-and-is-highly-expressed-in-an-in-vivo-xenograft-model-of-htlv-1-induced-lymphoma
#18
Tetiana Hutchison, Aditi Malu, Laçin Yapindi, Rachel Bergeson, Kendra Peck, Megan Romeo, Carolyn Harrod, Jordan Pope, Louisa Smitherman, Wesleigh Gwinn, Lee Ratner, Courtney Yates, Robert Harrod
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects and transforms CD4+ T-cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) -an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease that is highly refractive to most anticancer therapies. The HTLV-1 proviral genome encodes several regulatory products within a conserved 3' nucleotide sequence, known as pX; however, it remains unclear how these factors might cooperate or dynamically interact in virus-infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 latency-maintenance factor p30II induces the TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and counters the oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and cytotoxicity caused by the viral oncoproteins Tax and HBZ...
May 16, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777794/regulatory-t-cell-targeted-hybrid-nanoparticles-combined-with-immuno-checkpoint-blockage-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
Wenquan Ou, Raj Kumar Thapa, Liyuan Jiang, Soe Zar Chi, Milan Gautam, Jae-Hoon Chang, Jee-Heon Jeong, Sae Kwang Ku, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
Immunosuppression in tumor microenvironments induced by regulatory T (Treg) cells is regarded a critical mechanism of tumor immune escape and poses a major impediment to cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we developed tLyp1 peptide-conjugated hybrid nanoparticles for targeting Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment. The tLyp1 peptide-modified hybrid nanoparticles presented good stability and effective targeting to Treg cells, and they enhanced the effect of imatinib in downregulating Treg cell suppression through inhibition of STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777027/t-cell-proliferation-and-colitis-are-initiated-by-defined-intestinal-microbes
#20
Pailin Chiaranunt, Justin T Tometich, Junyi Ji, Timothy W Hand
Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with the dysregulation of T cells specific to Ags derived from the intestinal microbiota. How microbiota-specific T cells are regulated is not completely clear but is believed to be mediated by a combination of IgA, regulatory T cells, and type 3 innate lymphoid cells. To test the role of these regulatory components on microbiota-specific T cells, we bred CBir1 TCR transgenic (CBir1Tg) mice (specific to flagellin from common intestinal bacteria) onto a lymphopenic Rag1-/- background...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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