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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231640/mind-the-gap-mechanisms-regulating-the-endothelial-barrier
#1
REVIEW
Mariya Y Radeva, Jens Waschke
The endothelial barrier consists of intercellular contacts localized in the cleft between endothelial cells, which is covered by the glycocalyx in a sieve-like manner. Both types of barrier-forming junctions, i.e. the adherens junction (AJ) serving mechanical anchorage and mechanotransduction and the tight junction (TJ) sealing the intercellular space to limit paracelullar permeability, are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton. Under resting conditions, the endothelium thereby builds a selective layer controlling the exchange of fluid and solutes with the surrounding tissue...
February 23, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231611/leg-vascular-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-adaptations-to-aerobic-high-intensity-exercise-training-are-enhanced-in-the-early-postmenopausal-phase
#2
Michael Nyberg, Jon Egelund, Camilla M Mandrup, Caroline B Andersen, Karen M B E Hansen, Ida-Marie F Hergel, Nicholai Valbak-Andersen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Bente Stallknecht, Jens Bangsbo, Ylva Hellsten
Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1) years of age were included...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231564/mating-of-2-laboratory-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-resulted-in-enhanced-production-of-2-phenylethanol-by-biotransformation-of-l-phenylalanine
#3
Jolanta Mierzejewska, Aleksandra Tymoszewska, Karolina Chreptowicz, Kamil Krol
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an aromatic alcohol with a rosy scent which is widely used in the food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries. Promising sources of natural 2-PE are microorganisms, especially yeasts, which can produce 2-PE by biosynthesis and biotransformation. Thus, the first challenging goal in the development of biotechnological production of 2-PE is searching for highly productive yeast strains. In the present work, 5 laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested for the production of 2-PE...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231558/alleviating-effects-of-calcium-on-cobalt-toxicity-in-two-barley-genotypes-differing-in-cobalt-tolerance
#4
Jonas Lwalaba Wa Lwalaba, Gerald Zvobgo, Liangbo Fu, Xuelei Zhang, Theodore Mulembo Mwamba, Noor Muhammad, Robert Prince Mukobo Mundende, Guoping Zhang
Cobalt (Co) contamination in soils is becoming a severe issue in environment safety and crop production. Calcium (Ca)(,) as a macro-nutrient element, shows the antagonism with many divalent heavy metals and the capacity of alleviating oxidative stress in plants. In this study, the protective role of Ca in alleviating Co stress was hydroponically investigated using two barley genotypes differing in Co toxicity tolerance. Barley seedlings exposed to 100µM Co showed the significant reduction in growth and photosynthetic rate, and the dramatic increase in the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, with Ea52 (Co-sensitive) being much more affected than Yan66 (Co-tolerant)...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231554/design-of-elution-strategy-for-simultaneous-detection-of-chloramphenicol-and-gentamicin-in-complex-samples-using-surface-plasmon-resonance
#5
Yinqiang Xia, Rongxin Su, Renliang Huang, Li Ding, Libing Wang, Wei Qi, Zhimin He
For the analysis of massive samples containing multiple analytes, the enhancement of detection efficiency is crucial. In this study, a facile method was developed for sequential detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) and gentamicin (GEN) in complex samples, e.g. milk, using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor. Based on the immune inhibition format, two conjugates of antigen and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-denoted as CAP-BSA and GEN-BSA-were grafted on the same channel of the SPR sensor chip. Two standard curves for CAP and GEN were separately obtained by first mixing a single antibody with different concentrations of the relevant antigen...
February 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231553/a-reusable-aptasensor-of-thrombin-based-on-dna-machine-employing-resonance-light-scattering-technique
#6
Yining Hou, Jifeng Liu, Min Hong, Xia Li, Yanhua Ma, Qiaoli Yue, Chen-Zhong Li
The design of molecular nanodevices attracted great interest in these years. Herein, a reusable, sensitive and specific aptasensor was constructed based on an extension-contraction movement of DNA interconversion for the application of human thrombin detection. The present biosensor was based on resonance light scattering (RLS) using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the RLS probe. MNPs coated with streptavidin can combine with biotin labeled thrombin aptamers. The combined nanoparticles composite is monodispersed in aqueous medium...
February 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231550/short-term-particulate-matter-exposure-induces-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-overweight-subjects
#7
Matteo Bonzini, Laura Pergoli, Laura Cantone, Mirjam Hoxha, Andrea Spinazzè, Luca Del Buono, Chiara Favero, Michele Carugno, Laura Angelici, Lucia Broggi, Andrea Cattaneo, Angela C Pesatori, Valentina Bollati
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a plausible molecular mechanism linking particulate matter (PM) inhalation to its systemic effects. Microvesicles (MVs) are released from many cell types in response to various stimuli. Increased body mass index (BMI) could modify the response to PM exposure due to enhanced PM uptake and/or an underlying pro-oxidative state. We investigated the relationship between EV release and PM10/PM2.5 exposure in a cohort of 51 volunteers. Subjects were stratified based on their BMI to evaluate whether overweight BMI is a determinant of hypersusceptibility to PM effects...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231544/ginsenoside-rg3-promotes-cytotoxicity-of-paclitaxel-through-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-regulating-bax-bcl-2-expression-on-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#8
Zuguo Yuan, Hao Jiang, Xinhai Zhu, Xinge Liu, Jinhui Li
Taxane-based chemotherapy regimen is the most effective therapeutic strategy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) which is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with high rate of recurrence and distant metastasis. Ginsenoside Rg3 is isolated from Panax ginseng with anti-cancer activity against carcinomas. We aim to evaluate the chemosensitizing effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 on TNBC cells and xenograft and explore the underlying mechanism. Human triple-negative breast cancer lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453 and BT-549 were used...
February 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231542/in-vitro-biocompatibility-and-proliferative-effects-of-polar-and-non-polar-extracts-of-cucurbita-ficifolia-on-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Balakrishnan Aristatile, Ghedeir M Alshammari
Cucurbita ficifolia (C. ficifolia) has been traditionally known for its medicinal properties as an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, there has been an enduring attention towards the identification of unique method, to isolate the natural components for therapeutic applications. Our study focuses on different polar and non-polar solvents (methanol, hexane and chloroform) to extract the bioactive components from C. ficifolia (pumpkin) and to study the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity effects on human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs)...
February 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231538/biochars-with-excellent-pb-ii-adsorption-property-produced-from-fresh-and-dehydrated-banana-peels-via-hydrothermal-carbonization
#10
Nan Zhou, Honggang Chen, Junting Xi, Denghui Yao, Zhi Zhou, Yun Tian, Xiangyang Lu
Fresh and dehydrated banana peels were used as biomass feedstock to produce highly effective sorbent biochars through a facile one-step hydrothermal carbonization approach with 20%vol phosphoric acid as the reaction medium. The elemental ratio of oxygen content of the two as-prepared biochars were about 20%, and the FT-IR analysis confirmed the existence of abundant surface functional groups such as hydroxyl and carboxyl which greatly enhanced the adsorption performance. The sorbents showed excellent lead clarification capability of 359mg·g(-1) and 193mg·g(-1) for dehydrated and fresh banana peels based biochars, respectively...
February 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231533/synthesis-characterization-and-dna-binding-cleavage-protein-binding-and-cytotoxicity-studies-of-co-ii-ni-ii-cu-ii-and-zn-ii-complexes-of-aminonaphthoquinone
#11
A Kosiha, C Parthiban, Kuppanagounder P Elango
The Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of an aminonaphthoquinone ligand (L) have been prepared and characterized using analytical and spectral techniques. The structures of L and its Zn(II) complex are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The results indicate that Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes possess tetrahedral geometry while Cu(II) complex exhibits square planar structure. The interaction of L and its complexes with CT-DNA reveal that they could interact with CT-DNA through intercalation...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231532/paeonifiorin-sulfonate-as-a-characteristic-marker-for-specifically-inspecting-chinese-patent-medicine-liu-wei-di-huang-wan-contained-sulfur-fumigated-moutan-cortex
#12
Xiu-Yang Li, Fang Long, Jin-Di Xu, Hong Shen, Ming Kong, He Zhu, Ye-Qing Zhang, Song-Lin Li
Sulfur fumigation can induce chemical transformation of bioactive components, consequently the alteration of bioactivities or even toxicities of medicinal herbs. Inspecting Chinese patent medicines (CPM) contained sulfur-fumigated constituent herbs is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of CPM. Paeonifiorin sulfonate is a sulfur-fumigation induced compound of Moutan Cortex (MC), one of the main constituent herbs of a commonly used CPM Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan (LWDHW). Herein, we investigated the approach of paeonifiorin sulfonate as a characteristic marker for specifically inspecting LWDHW potentially contained sulfur-fumigated MC (SFMC)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231526/enhanced-identification-of-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-its-classes-using-sequence-physicochemical-and-evolutionary-information-with-sequence-feature-characterization-of-the-classes
#13
Abhigyan Nath, S Karthikeyan
β-lactamases provides one of the most successful means of evading the therapeutic effects of β lactam class of antibiotics by many gram positive and gram negative bacteria. On the basis of sequence identity, β-lactamases have been identified into four distinct classes- A, B, C and D. The classes A, C and D are the serine β-lactamases and class B is the metallo-lactamse. In the present study, we developed a two stage cascade classification system. The first-stage performs the classification of β-lactamases from non-β-lactamases and the second-stage performs the further classification of β-lactamases into four different β-lactamase classes...
February 14, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231513/increasing-ascorbate-levels-in-crops-to-enhance-human-nutrition-and-plant-abiotic-stress-tolerance
#14
REVIEW
Richard C Macknight, William A Laing, Sean M Bulley, Ronan C Broad, Alexander At Johnson, Roger P Hellens
Ascorbate (or vitamin C) is an essential human micronutrient predominantly obtained from plants. In addition to preventing scurvy, it is now known to have broader roles in human health, for example as a cofactor for enzymes involved in epigenetic programming and as regulator of cellular iron uptake. Furthermore, ascorbate is the major antioxidant in plants and underpins many environmentally induced abiotic stress responses. Biotechnological approaches to enhance the ascorbate content of crops therefore have potential to improve both human health and abiotic stress tolerance of crops...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231510/lipopolyplex-potentiates-anti-tumor-immunity-of-mrna-based-vaccination
#15
Stefano Persano, Maria L Guevara, Zhaoqi Li, Junhua Mai, Mauro Ferrari, Pier Paolo Pompa, Haifa Shen
mRNA-based vaccines have the benefit of triggering robust anti-cancer immunity without the potential danger of genome integration from DNA vaccines or the limitation of antigen selection from peptide vaccines. Yet, a conventional mRNA vaccine comprising of condensed mRNA molecules in a positively charged protein core structure is not effectively internalized by the antigen-presenting cells. It cannot offer sufficient protection for mRNA molecules from degradation by plasma and tissue enzymes either. Here, we have developed a lipopolyplex mRNA vaccine that consists of a poly-(β-amino ester) polymer mRNA core encapsulated into a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)-2000 (EDOPC/DOPE/DSPE-PEG) lipid shell...
February 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231508/regulating-dynamic-signaling-between-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-niche-cells-via-a-hydrogel-matrix
#16
Bhushan P Mahadik, Narayanan A K Bharadwaj, Randy H Ewoldt, Brendan A C Harley
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reside in unique bone marrow niches and are influenced by signals from surrounding cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM), ECM-bound or diffusible biomolecules. Here we describe the use of a three-dimensional hydrogel to alter the balance of HSC-generated autocrine feedback and paracrine signals generated by co-cultured niche-associated cells. We report shifts in HSC proliferation rate and fate specification in the presence of lineage positive (Lin(+)) niche cells. Hydrogels promoting autocrine feedback enhanced expansion of early hematopoietic progenitors while paracrine signals from Lin(+) cells increased myeloid differentiation...
February 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231500/silver-nanoparticle-embedded-graphene-oxide-methotrexate-for-targeted-cancer-treatment
#17
Raj Kumar Thapa, Jae Hee Kim, Jee-Heon Jeong, Beom Soo Shin, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
Combination therapies are widely investigated cancer treatment modalities. Carbon based systems such as graphene oxide (GO), plasmonic nanoparticles such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and the folate analog, methotrexate (MTX), have been separately studied for their potential anticancer effects. In this study, we combined these systems to develop AgNPs-embedded GO with conjugated MTX (MTX-GO/AgNPs) and studied their folate receptor-targeted anticancer effects. Results revealed successful formation of AgNPs on GO along with MTX conjugation as suggested by UV/visible, TEM, AFM, FTIR, and XRD analysis...
February 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231486/coded-excitation-waveform-engineering-for-high-frame-rate-synthetic-aperture-ultrasound-imaging
#18
Bahman Lashkari, Kaicheng Zhang, Edem Dovlo, Andreas Mandelis
Coded excitation was initially introduced to ultrasound imaging as a method for enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, this method was also shown to be helpful in conjunction with synthetic aperture transmission for high frame rate imaging. Recently, we introduced two families of mismatched coded excitations based on frequency modulation chirp and combined frequency modulation and Golay code. Here "mismatched" indicates that the coded excitations generate very small cross-correlations among themselves while each has a very strong autocorrelation...
February 12, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231483/a-novel-redox-regulator-mntnbuoe-2-pyp-5-enhances-normal-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-function
#19
Y Zhao, D W Carroll, Y You, L Chaiswing, R Wen, I Batinic-Haberle, S Bondada, Y Liang, D K St Clair
The signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for the maintenance of normal cellular function. However, whether and how ROS regulate stem cells are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that, in transgenic mice expressing the human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, a scavenger of ROS in mitochondria, the number and function of mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) under physiological conditions are enhanced. Importantly, giving MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+)(MnP), a redox- active MnSOD mimetic, to mouse primary bone marrow cells or to C57B/L6 mice significantly enhances the number of HSPCs...
February 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231477/effects-of-tdcs-on-motor-learning-and-memory-formation-a-consensus-and-critical-position-paper
#20
REVIEW
Ethan R Buch, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Antal, Jan Born, Pablo A Celnik, Joseph Classen, Christian Gerloff, Mark Hallett, Friedhelm C Hummel, Michael A Nitsche, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Walter J Paulus, Janine Reis, Edwin M Robertson, John C Rothwell, Marco Sandrini, Heidi M Schambra, Eric M Wassermann, Ulf Ziemann, Leonardo G Cohen
Motor skills are required for activities of daily living. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied in association with motor skill learning has been investigated as a tool for enhancing training effects in health and disease. Here, we review the published literature investigating whether tDCS can facilitate the acquisition, retention or adaptation of motor skills. Work in multiple laboratories is underway to develop a mechanistic understanding of tDCS effects on different forms of learning and to optimize stimulation protocols...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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