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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644868/electrophysiological-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-chronic-coxsackievirus-b3-myocarditis
#1
Sven Kaese, Robert Larbig, Matthias Rohrbeck, Gerrit Frommeyer, Dirk Dechering, Jan Olligs, Sabine Schönhofer-Merl, Rainer Wessely, Karin Klingel, Guiscard Seebohm, Lars Eckardt
INTRODUCTION: Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is known to induce acute and chronic myocarditis. Most infections are clinically unapparent but some patients suffer from ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Studies showed that acute CVB3 infection may cause impaired function of cardiac ion channels, creating a proarrhythmic substrate. However, it is unknown whether low level CVB3+ expression in myocytes may cause altered cardiac electrophysiology leading to VA. METHODS: Cellular electrophysiology was used to analyze cellular action potentials (APs) and occurrence of afterdepolarizations from isolated cardiomyocytes of wildtype (WT) and transgenic CVB3ΔVP0 (CVB3+) mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642994/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-assess-myocardial-fibrosis-in-valvular-heart-disease
#2
Tomaz Podlesnikar, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
The left ventricular (LV) remodeling process associated with significant valvular heart disease (VHD) is characterized by an increase of myocardial interstitial space with deposition of collagen and loss of myofibers. These changes occur before LV systolic function deteriorates or the patient develops symptoms. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) permits assessment of reactive fibrosis, with the use of T1 mapping techniques, and replacement fibrosis, with the use of late gadolinium contrast enhancement...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642329/experimental-and-computational-insight-into-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-paracrine-signaling-and-heterocellular-coupling-effects-on-cardiac-contractility-and-arrhythmogenicity
#3
Joshua Mayourian, Timothy J Cashman, Delaine K Ceholski, Bryce V Johnson, David Sachs, Deepak A Kaji, Susmita Sahoo, Joshua M Hare, Roger J Hajjar, Eric A Sobie, Kevin D Costa
Rationale: Myocardial delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is an emerging therapy for treating the failing heart. However, the relative effects of hMSC-mediated heterocellular coupling (HC) and paracrine signaling (PS) on human cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenicity remain unresolved. Objective: To better understand hMSC PS and HC effects on human cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenicity by integrating experimental and computational approaches. Methods and Results: : Extending our previous hMSC-cardiomyocyte HC computational model, we incorporated experimentally calibrated hMSC PS effects on cardiomyocyte L-type calcium channel/SERCA activity and cardiac tissue fibrosis...
June 22, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640873/healthy-aging-of-the-left-ventricle-in-relationship-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#4
Chia-Ying Liu, Shenghan Lai, Nadine Kawel-Boehm, Harjit Chahal, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Joao A C Lima, David A Bluemke
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship of cardiovascular structure and function to age is confounded by the high prevalence of traditional risk factors in the United States. The purpose of the study is to compare left ventricular (LV) and aortic structural, and functional parameters in individuals with and without traditional risk factors in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: 3015 study participants (48% men, age 55-94, mean 69.01±9.17 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging from 2010-2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639369/a-network-analysis-to-compare-biomarker-profiles-in-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-mellitus-in-acute-heart-failure
#5
Abhinav Sharma, Biniyam G Demissei, Jasper Tromp, Hans L Hillege, John G Cleland, Christopher M O'Connor, Marco Metra, Piotr Ponikowski, John R Teerlink, Beth A Davison, Michael M Givertz, Daniel M Bloomfield, Howard Dittrich, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Gad Cotter, Justin A Ezekowitz, Mohsin A F Khan, Adriaan A Voors
AIMS: It is unclear whether distinct pathophysiological processes are present among patients with acute heart failure (AHF), with and without diabetes. Network analysis of biomarkers may identify correlative associations that reflect different pathophysiological pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed a panel of 48 circulating biomarkers measured within 24 h of admission for AHF in a subset of patients enrolled in the PROTECT trial. In patients with and without diabetes, we performed a network analysis to identify correlations between measured biomarkers...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639234/novel-biomarkers-of-subclinical-cardiac-dysfunction-in-the-general-population
#6
REVIEW
Kamal Shemisa, Anish Bhatt, Daniel Cheeran, Ian J Neeland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recognition of subclinical myocardial dysfunction offers clinicians and patients an opportunity for early intervention and prevention of symptomatic cardiovascular disease. We review the data on novel biomarkers in subclinical heart disease in the general population with a focus on pathophysiology, recent observational or trial data, and potential applicability and pitfalls for clinical use. RECENT FINDINGS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptide assays are powerful markers of subclinical cardiac disease...
June 21, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637928/the-long-noncoding-rna-wisper-controls-cardiac-fibrosis-and-remodeling
#7
Rudi Micheletti, Isabelle Plaisance, Brian J Abraham, Alexandre Sarre, Ching-Chia Ting, Michael Alexanian, Daniel Maric, Damien Maison, Mohamed Nemir, Richard A Young, Blanche Schroen, Arantxa González, Samir Ounzain, Thierry Pedrazzini
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as powerful regulators of cardiac development and disease. However, our understanding of the importance of these molecules in cardiac fibrosis is limited. Using an integrated genomic screen, we identified Wisper (Wisp2 super-enhancer-associated RNA) as a cardiac fibroblast-enriched lncRNA that regulates cardiac fibrosis after injury. Wisper expression was correlated with cardiac fibrosis both in a murine model of myocardial infarction (MI) and in heart tissue from human patients suffering from aortic stenosis...
June 21, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637706/endothelial-mineralocorticoid-receptor-contributes-to-systolic-dysfunction-induced-by-pressure-overload-without-modulating-cardiac-hypertrophy-or-inflammation
#8
Ane M Salvador, M Elizabeth Moss, Mark Aronovitz, Kathleen B Mueller, Robert M Blanton, Iris Z Jaffe, Pilar Alcaide
Heart Failure (HF) is associated with increased circulating levels of aldosterone and systemic inflammation. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists block aldosterone action and decrease mortality in patients with congestive HF However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits of MR antagonists remain unclear. MR is expressed in all cell types in the heart, including the endothelial cells (EC), in which aldosterone induces the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637704/the-structure-function-remodeling-in-rabbit-hearts-of-myocardial-infarction
#9
Haotian Wu, Li Li, Pei Niu, Xu Huang, Jinyi Liu, Fengshun Zhang, Wenzeng Shen, Wenchang Tan, Yiling Wu, Yunlong Huo
Animal models are of importance to investigate basic mechanisms for ischemic heart failure (HF). The objective of the study was to create a rabbit model through multiple coronary artery ligations to investigate the postoperative structure-function remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) and coronary arterial trees. Here, we hypothesize that the interplay of the degenerated coronary vasculature and increased ventricle wall stress relevant to cardiac fibrosis in vicinity of myocardial infarction (MI) precipitates the incidence and progression of ischemic HF Echocardiographic measurements showed an approximately monotonic drop of fractional shortening and ejection fraction from 40% and 73% down to 28% and 58% as well as persistent enlargement of LV cavity and slight mitral regurgitation at postoperative 12 weeks...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637011/mir-487b-mitigates-chronic-heart-failure-through-inhibition-of-the-il-33-st2-signaling-pathway
#10
En-Wei Wang, Xu-Sheng Jia, Chang-Wu Ruan, Zhi-Ru Ge
We investigated the effects of microRNA-587b (miR-487b) in a rat model of chronic heart failure (CHF). Wistar rats were assigned to 10 groups (n=8 per group). Expression of interleukin-33 (IL-33), somatostatin 2 (ST2), IL-6, and TNF-α was higher in the CHF group than the control group. In the CHF, negative control (NC) for si-IL-33, NC for miR-487b mimic, NC for miR-487b inhibitor, and miR-487b inhibitor + si IL-33 groups, as compared to the blank and sham groups: steroid binding protein (SBP), D binding protein (DBP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), ± dp/dtmax, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were all lower; myocardial fibrosis, MDA, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), myocardial apoptosis rate, IL-6, and TNF-α were all higher; levels of IL-33 and ST2 mRNA and protein were higher; and levels of miR-487b were lower...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636290/sulforaphane-protection-against-the-development-of-doxorubicin-induced-chronic-heart-failure-is-associated-with-nrf2-upregulation
#11
Yang Bai, Qiang Chen, Yun-Peng Sun, Xuan Wang, Li Lv, Li-Ping Zhang, Jin-Sha Liu, Song Zhao, Xiao-Lu Wang
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline anti-tumor drug. However, its clinical use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity, and even progresses to chronic heart failure (CHF). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether the Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane (SFN), can prevent DOX-induced CHF. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats who received treatment for six weeks were divided into four groups (n=30 per group): control, SFN, DOX, and DOX plus SFN group. RESULTS: Results revealed that DOX induced progressive cardiac damage as indicated by increased cardiac injury markers, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress...
June 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636071/the-role-of-homocysteine-in-seminal-vesicles-remodeling-in-rat
#12
Adel Ghoul, Elara Moudilou, Mohamed El Hadi Cherifi, Fouzia Zerrouk, Billel Chaouad, Anissa Moulahoum, Souhila Aouichat-Bouguerra, Khira Othmani, Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Yasmina Benazzoug
INTRODUCTION: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been associated with several tissue injuries including heart and liver fibrosis. In these diseases, hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) plays a major role in modulating the alteration of the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), leading to the pathological accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Since the effect of Hhcy on ECM of seminal vesicle was not studied, the aim of our research was to check if Hcy can induce a remodeling within seminal vesicles ECM...
June 21, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635904/-myocardial-fibrosis-current-aspects-of-the-problem
#13
V N Karetnikova, V V Kashtalap, S N Kosareva, O L Barbarash
Fibrosis is one of the main components in the progression of most cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, by causing structural changes in the myocardium and vascular wall. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of fibrosis of the myocardium are responsible for decreasing its elastic properties, developing diastolic dysfunction, impairing myocardial contractility, developing systolic dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, and worsening coronary blood flow in patients with heart failure of different etiologies...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633090/pulmonary-and-cardiac-pathology-in-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep
#14
REVIEW
Fábio A Nascimento, Zian H Tseng, Cristian Palmiere, Joseph J Maleszewski, Takayuki Shiomi, Aileen McCrillis, Orrin Devinsky
OBJECTIVE: To review studies on structural pulmonary and cardiac changes in SUDEP cases as well as studies showing pulmonary or cardiac structural changes in living epilepsy patients. METHODS: We conducted electronic literature searches using the PubMed database for articles published in English, regardless of publication year, that included data on cardiac and/or pulmonary structural abnormalities in SUDEP cases or in living epilepsy patients during the postictal period...
June 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632653/imaging-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease-part-ii-advanced-cmr-techniques
#15
Anurag Sahu, Timothy C Slesnick
Because of great strides in medical care, survival into adulthood has become a common expectation in patients suffering from nearly all forms of congenital heart disease. As this aging population expands, the utilization of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in their care continues to grow. Magnetic resonance technology has developed exponentially over the last 2 decades, and several advanced techniques for imaging adults with congenital heart disease have moved from the purely research arena into routine clinical care...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631819/protective-effects-of-tannic-acid-on-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-underlying-mechanisms-in-rats
#16
Li Chu, Pinya Li, Tao Song, Xue Han, Xuan Zhang, Qiongtao Song, Tao Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Jianping Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the cardioprotective effects and latent mechanism of tannic acid (TA) on cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS: Abdominal aortic banding (AAB) was used to induce pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in male Wistar rats, sham-operated rats served as controls. AAB rats were treated with TA (20 and 40 mg/kg) or captoril. KEY FINDINGS: Abdominal aortic banding rats that received TA showed ameliorated pathological changes in cardiac morphology and coefficients, decreased cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis, a reduction in over expressions of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1 R), angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2 R), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA, and modified expression of matrix metal proteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA in AAB rat hearts...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630605/xinfuli-granule-improves-post-myocardial-infarction-ventricular-remodeling-and-myocardial-fibrosis-in-rats-by-regulating-tgf-%C3%AE-smads-signaling-pathway
#17
Jie Ma, Zhi-Yuan Li, Xiao-Peng Liang, Cai-Xia Guo, Pei-Pei Lu, Li-Hong Ma
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical and experimental studies have confirmed the effects of Xinfuli Granule (XG), a compound Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of heart failure (HF). This study aimed to investigate the effects and the mechanisms of XG on ventricular reconstruction in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending branch ligation. The rats that survived 24 h were randomly assigned to five groups: medium-dose of XG group (MI+XGM), high-dose of XG group (MI+XGH), carvedilol group (MI+C), medium-dose of XG + carvedilol group (MI+C+XGM)...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629818/corydalis-hendersonii-hemsl-protects-against-myocardial-injury-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-fibrosis-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathways
#18
Ruifeng Bai, Xu Yin, Xiao Feng, Yuan Cao, Yan Wu, Zhixiang Zhu, Chun Li, Pengfei Tu, Xingyun Chai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Corydalis hendersonii Hemsl. (CH) with heat clearing and detoxifying effects are well described in Tibetan folk medicine. It has been used for centuries in China largely for the treatment of high altitude polycythemia, a pathophysiological condition referred to "plethora" in Tibetan medicine, hypertension, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, and other infectious diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of Corydalis hendersonii extract in an ICR mouse model of myocardial ischemic injury...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#19
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626076/cardiac-fibroblast-transcriptome-analyses-support-a-role-for-interferogenic-profibrotic-and-inflammatory-genes-in-anti-ssa-ro-associated-congenital-heart-block
#20
Robert M Clancy, Androo J Markham, Tanisha Jackson, Sara E Rasmussen, Miroslav Blumenberg, Jill P Buyon
The signature lesion of SSA/Ro autoantibody-associated congenital heart block (CHB) is fibrosis and a macrophage infiltrate, supporting an experimental focus on cues influencing the fibroblast component. The transcriptomes of human fetal cardiac fibroblasts were analyzed using two complementary approaches. Cardiac injury conditions were simulated in vitro by incubating human fetal cardiac fibroblasts with supernatants from macrophages transfected with the SSA/Ro-associated hY3. The top ten upregulated transcripts in the stimulated fibroblasts reflected a type I interferon (IFN) response (e...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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