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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214892/baicalin-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-remodeling-in-a-chronic-pressure-overload-mice-model
#1
Yanqing Zhang, Pingping Liao, Meng'en Zhu, Wei Li, Dan Hu, Siming Guan, Long Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Baicalin has been shown to be effective for various animal models of cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemic injury. However, whether baicalin plays a role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Here we investigated the protective effects of baicalin on cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and explored the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: C57BL/6J-mice were treated with baicalin or vehicle following transverse aortic constriction or Sham surgery for up to 8 weeks, and at different time points, cardiac function and heart size measurement and histological and biochemical examination were performed...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214881/attenuation-of-low-ambient-temperature-induced-myocardial-hypertrophy-by-atorvastatin-via-promoting-bcl-2-expression
#2
Jing Liang, Kun Yin, Xuefeng Cao, Zhenbo Han, Qi Huang, Lai Zhang, Wenya Ma, Fengzhi Ding, Chongwei Bi, Dan Feng, Zhenwei Pan, Yu Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is well documented that myocardial hypertrophy is associated with low ambient temperature. Atorvastatin (Atv) has been shown to protect against atherosclerosis, cardiac fibrosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, etc. In this study, we aim to determine whether atorvastatin is effective in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy induced by cold exposure and to shed light on underlying mechanism. METHODS: The mice aged 4-week were randomized to Control (Ctl) group (raised at room temperature), Cold group (raised at 3-5ºC) and Atv treatment group (raised at 3-5ºC followed by 10mg/kg/day Atv infusion)...
January 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214792/suppression-of-tumorigenicity-2-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#3
Omar F AbouEzzeddine, Paul M McKie, Shannon M Dunlay, Susanna R Stevens, G Michael Felker, Barry A Borlaug, Horng H Chen, Russell P Tracy, Eugene Braunwald, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) receptor is a biomarker that is elevated in certain systemic inflammatory diseases. Comorbidity-driven microvascular inflammation is postulated to play a key role in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) pathophysiology, but data on how sST2 relates to clinical characteristics or inflammatory conditions or biomarkers in HFpEF are limited. We sought to determine circulating levels and clinical correlates of sST2 in HFpEF...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214509/haplodeficiency-of-activin-receptor-like-kinase-4-alleviates-myocardial-infarction-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-and-preserves-cardiac-function
#4
Yi-He Chen, Qian Wang, Chang-Yi Li, Jian-Wen Hou, Xiao-Meng Chen, Qing Zhou, Jie Chen, Yue-Peng Wang, Yi-Gang Li
Cardiac fibrosis (CF), a repairing process following myocardial infarction (MI), is characterized by abnormal proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) resulting in inevitable resultant heart failure. TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β)/ALK5 (Activin receptor-like kinase 5)/Smad2/3/4 pathways have been reported to be involved in the process. Recent studies have implicated both activin and its specific downstream component ALK4 in stimulating fibrosis in non-cardiac organs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213948/hourglass-shaped-right-ventricle-and-localized-constrictive-pericarditis
#5
Alper Karakus, Hasan Ari, Sencer Camci, Selma Ari, Ahmet Tutuncu, Mehmet Melek
Constrictive pericarditis is characterized by thick pericardial fibrosis and frequent calcification that progressively impairs diastolic filling of the heart. The diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis has been challenging even though multiple diagnostic modalities have been developed. The diagnosis of constructive pericarditis is especially difficult in localized constrictive pericarditis which is extremely rare. We report a case of localized constrictive pericarditis with a 3D multislice cardiac computed tomography (CT) finding of the constrictive band causing strangulation and hourglass shaping of the right ventricle...
February 18, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213819/conditional-knockout-of-activin-like-kinase-1-alk-1-leads-to-heart-failure-without-maladaptive-remodeling
#6
Kevin J Morine, Xiaoying Qiao, Vikram Paruchuri, Mark J Aronovitz, Emily E Mackey, Lyanne Buiten, Jonathan Levine, Keshan Ughreja, Prerna Nepali, Robert M Blanton, Richard H Karas, S Paul Oh, Navin K Kapur
Activin like kinase-1 (AlK-1) mediates signaling via the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) family of ligands. AlK-1 activity promotes endothelial proliferation and migration. Reduced AlK-1 activity is associated with arteriovenous malformations. No studies have examined the effect of global AlK-1 deletion on indices of cardiac remodeling. We hypothesized that reduced levels of AlK-1 promote maladaptive cardiac remodeling. To test this hypothesis, we employed AlK-1 conditional knockout mice (cKO) harboring the ROSA26-CreER knock-in allele, whereby a single dose of intraperitoneal tamoxifen triggered ubiquitous Cre recombinase-mediated excision of floxed AlK-1 alleles...
February 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211974/whole-exome-sequencing-identified-1-base-pair-novel-deletion-in-bcl2-associated-athanogene-3-bag3-gene-associated-with-severe-dilated-cardiomyopathy-dcm-requiring-heart-transplant-in-multiple-family-members
#7
Muhammad Arshad Rafiq, Ayeshah Chaudhry, Melanie Care, Danna A Spears, Chantal F Morel, Robert M Hamilton
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by dilation and impaired contraction of the left ventricle or both ventricles. Among hereditary DCM, the genetic causes are heterogeneous, and include mutations encoding cytoskeletal, nucleoskeletal, mitochondrial, and calcium-handling proteins. We report three severely affected males, in a four-generation pedigree, with DCM phenotype who underwent cardiac transplant. Cardiomegaly with marked biventricular dilation and fibrosis were noticeable histopathological findings...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210941/b-lymphocytes-in-renal-interstitial-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Fengge Zhu, Xueyuan Bai, Xiangmei Chen
Fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which leads to the destruction of organ structure and impairment of organ function. Fibrosis occurs not only in kidney but also in lung, liver, heart, and skin. Common pathways of fibrosis are thought to exist. Renal interstitial fibrosis is a complex process that involves multiple molecular signaling and multiple cellular components, in which B cells appear to be one of the emerging important players. B cells may affect fibrosis through cytokine production and through interaction with other cells including fibroblasts, macrophages and T cells...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210939/deep-phenotyping-of-systemic-arterial-hemodynamics-in-hfpef-part-1-physiologic-and-technical-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Julio A Chirinos
A better understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is important. Detailed phenotyping of pulsatile hemodynamics has provided important insights into the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodeling and fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, microvascular disease, and impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral skeletal muscle, all of which contribute to exercise intolerance, the cardinal feature of HFpEF. Furthermore, arterial pulsatile hemodynamic mechanisms likely contribute to the frequent presence of comorbidities, such as renal failure and dementia, in this population...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204916/-remodeling-of-the-aging-heart-sinus-node-dysfunction-and-atrial-fibrillation
#10
Jörg Weirich
The incidence of both sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrial fibrillation (AF) increases with age. SND and AF frequently coexist. Likewise, they are often associated with cardiovascular diseases. Both arrhythmias share similar pathomechanisms such as structural and functional remodeling, i. e., degenerative fibrosis and altered Ca(2+) handling, respectively. A growing body of evidence suggests an important role for the CamKII (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) in structural as well as in functional remodeling...
February 15, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203568/mirna-sequence-indicates-that-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-exosomes-have-similar-mechanism-to-enhance-cardiac-repair
#11
Lianbo Shao, Yu Zhang, Beibei Lan, Juanjuan Wang, Zhiwei Zhang, Lulu Zhang, Pengli Xiao, Qingyou Meng, Yong-Jian Geng, Xi-Yong Yu, Yangxin Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) repair infarcted heart through paracrine mechanism. We sought to compare the effectiveness of MSCs and MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) in repairing infarcted hearts and to identify how MSC-Exo mediated cardiac repair is regulated. In a rat myocardial infarction model, we found that MSC-Exo inhibited cardiac fibrosis, inflammation, and improved cardiac function. The beneficial effects of MSC-Exo were significantly superior compared to that of MSCs. To explore the potential mechanisms underlying MSC-Exo's effects, we performed several in vitro experiments and miRNA-sequence analysis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202417/triptolide-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-myocardial-remodeling-in-mice-via-the-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-expression
#12
Rujun Li, Kuiying Lu, Yao Wang, Mingxing Chen, Fengyu Zhang, Hui Sheng, Deshan Yao, Kaizheng Gong, Zhengang Zhang
Triptolide is the predominant active component of the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) that has been widely used to treat several chronic inflammatory diseases due to its immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. In the present study, we elucidated the cardioprotective effects of triptolide against cardiac dysfunction and myocardial remodeling in chronic pressure-overloaded hearts. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of triptolide were investigated. For this purpose, C57/BL6 mice were anesthetized and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation...
February 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198439/miat-is-a-pro-fibrotic-long-non-coding-rna-governing-cardiac-fibrosis-in-post-infarct-myocardium
#13
Xuefeng Qu, Yue Du, You Shu, Ming Gao, Fei Sun, Shenjian Luo, Ti Yang, Linfeng Zhan, Yin Yuan, Wenfeng Chu, Zhenwei Pan, Zhiguo Wang, Baofeng Yang, Yanjie Lu
A long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), named myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT), has been documented to confer risk of myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study is to elucidate the pathophysiological role of MIAT in regulation of cardiac fibrosis. In a mouse model of MI, we found that MIAT was remarkably up-regulated, which was accompanied by cardiac interstitial fibrosis. MIAT up-regulation in MI was accompanied by deregulation of some fibrosis-related regulators: down-regulation of miR-24 and up-regulation of Furin and TGF-β1...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196902/hyaluronidase-2-deficiency-causes-increased-mesenchymal-cells-congenital-heart-defects-and-heart-failure
#14
Biswajit Chowdhury, Bo Xiang, Michelle Liu, Richard Hemming, Vernon W Dolinsky, Barbara Triggs-Raine
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan (HA) is required for endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and normal heart development in the mouse. Heart abnormalities in hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2)-deficient (Hyal2(-)(/-) ) mice and humans suggested removal of HA is also important for normal heart development. We have performed longitudinal studies of heart structure and function in Hyal2(-/-) mice to determine when, and how, HYAL2 deficiency leads to these abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography revealed atrial enlargement, atrial tissue masses, and valvular thickening at 4 weeks of age, as well as diastolic dysfunction that progressed with age, in Hyal2(-/-) mice...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194437/mitochondrial-quality-control-dysregulation-in-conditional-ho-1-mice
#15
Hagir B Suliman, Jeffrey E Keenan, Claude A Piantadosi
The heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1; HO-1) pathway was tested for defense of mitochondrial quality control in cardiomyocyte-specific Hmox1 KO mice (HO-1[CM](-/-)) exposed to oxidative stress (100% O2). After 48 hours of exposure, these mice showed persistent cardiac inflammation and oxidative tissue damage that caused sarcomeric disruption, cardiomyocyte death, left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiomyopathy, while control hearts showed minimal damage. After hyperoxia, HO-1(CM)(-/-) hearts showed suppression of the Pgc-1α/nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) axis, swelling, low electron density mitochondria by electron microscopy (EM), increased cell death, and extensive collagen deposition...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193640/grk2-mediates-arginine-vasopressin-induced-il-6-production-via-nf-kb-signaling-in-neonatal-rat-cardiac-fibroblast
#16
Feifei Xu, Suzhen Sun, Xiaojun Wang, Eran Ni, Lingling Zhao, Weizhong Zhu
: Elevated interleukin 6(IL-6) levels in congestive heart failure are associated with myocardial damage during acute exacerbation and with chronic inflammation. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a hormone released in response to cardiac stress, could be a factor of inflammation and fibrosis in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recently, we have shown that AVP promotes the proliferation of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) through a V1Avasopressin receptor-mediated G protein-coupled receptor kinase2 (GRK2) signaling...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192475/adverse-cardiac-effects-of-exogenous-angiotensin-1-7-in-rats-with-subtotal-nephrectomy-are-prevented-by-ace-inhibition
#17
Louise M Burrell, Daniel Gayed, Karen Griggs, Sheila K Patel, Elena Velkoska
We previously reported that exogenous angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 has adverse cardiac effects in experimental kidney failure due to its action to increase cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. This study investigated if the addition of an ACE inhibitor (ACEi) to Ang 1-7 infusion would unmask any beneficial effects of Ang 1-7 on the heart in experimental kidney failure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent subtotal nephrectomy (STNx) and were treated with vehicle, the ACEi ramipril (oral 1mg/kg/day), Ang 1-7 (subcutaneous 24 μg/kg/h) or dual therapy (all groups, n = 12)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191909/the-influence-of-chemotherapy-on-the-right-ventricle-did-we-forget-something
#18
REVIEW
Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Dagmara Hering, Lucia Venneri, Oleksandr Danylenko
BACKGROUND: A large number of chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular complications were discovered in studies over the last several decades. The focus of the majority of these studies was left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The aim of this article was to provide a comprehensive overview of potential mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced right ventricular (RV) remodeling and summarize clinical studies on this topic. HYPOTHESIS: Chemotherapy induces RV structural, functional, and mechanical changes...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191635/the-role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-cardiac-biology-classic-concepts-and-emerging-roles
#19
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades
Classic concepts about the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT) in heart physiology include its role in cardiac metabolism, the mechanical protection of coronaries, the innervation and possibly cryoprotection of the heart too. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed that epicardial adipose tissue regulates multiple aspects of cardiac biology including myocardial redox state, intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, the electrophysiological (EP) and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibrosis as well as coronary atherosclerosis progression...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188010/the-1-min-sit-to-stand-test-in-cystic-fibrosis-insights-into-cardiorespiratory-responses
#20
Thomas Radtke, Helge Hebestreit, Milo A Puhan, Susi Kriemler
BACKGROUND: We aimed to characterize the cardiopulmonary response during a 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test and compare peak exercise cardiorespiratory variables to a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in cystic fibrosis (CF). We further aimed to assess the validity of the STS power index (PowerSTS) as a measure of exercise capacity. METHODS: Fifteen adult CF patients performed spirometry, CPET and the 1-min STS test with respiratory gas analysis. RESULTS: Peak-exercise cardiorespiratory variables during the 1-min STS test correlated strongly (r=0...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
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