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Regulation theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926148/biodiversity-and-species-competition-regulate-the-resilience-of-microbial-biofilm-community
#1
Kai Feng, Zhaojing Zhang, Weiwei Cai, Wenzong Liu, Meiying Xu, Huaqun Yin, Aijie Wang, Zhili He, Ye Deng
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability is poorly understood in microbial communities. Biofilm communities in small bioreactors called microbial electrolysis cells (MEC) contain moderate species numbers and easy tractable functional traits, thus providing an ideal platform for verifying ecological theories in microbial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the resilience of biofilm communities with a gradient of diversity, and explored the relationship between biodiversity and stability in response to a pH shock...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925704/ict-isomerization-induced-turn-on-fluorescence-probe-with-a-large-emission-shift-for-mercury-ion-application-in-combinational-molecular-logic
#2
Sushil Ranjan Bhatta, Bijan Mondal, Gonela Vijaykumar, Arunabha Thakur
A unique turn-on fluorescent device based on a ferrocene-aminonaphtholate derivative specific for Hg(2+) cation was developed. Upon binding with Hg(2+) ion, the probe shows a dramatic fluorescence enhancement (the fluorescence quantum yield increases 58-fold) along with a large red shift of 68 nm in the emission spectrum. The fluorescence enhancement with a red shift may be ascribed to the combinational effect of C═N isomerization and an extended intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism. The response was instantaneous with a detection limit of 2...
September 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925547/biogeographic-conservation-of-the-cytosine-epigenome-in-the-globally-important-marine-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-trichodesmium
#3
Nathan G Walworth, David A Hutchins, Egor Dolzhenko, Michael D Lee, Feixue Fu, Andrew D Smith, Eric A Webb
Cytosine methylation has been shown to regulate essential cellular processes and impact biological adaptation. Despite its evolutionary importance, only a handful of bacterial, genome-wide cytosine studies have been conducted, with none for marine bacteria. Here, we examine the genome-wide, C(5) -Methyl-cytosine (m5C) methylome and its correlation to global transcription in the marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. We characterize genome-wide methylation and highlight conserved motifs across 3 Trichodesmium isolates and 2 Trichodesmium metagenomes, thereby identifying highly conserved, novel genomic signatures of potential gene regulation in Trichodesmium...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921043/slow-wave-activity-and-executive-dysfunction-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#4
Jessica A Christiansz, Chloe R Lappin, Aidan J Weichard, Gillian M Nixon, Margot J Davey, Rosemary S C Horne, Sarah N Biggs
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine slow wave activity (SWA), a marker of homeostatic regulation, as a potential mechanism linking sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with executive dysfunction in children. METHODS: Executive function domains of working memory, spatial planning, information processing, and sustained attention were assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in children (N = 40; 5-12 years) referred for clinical diagnosis of SDB...
September 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918418/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-1-theoretical-background-of-a-hypothesis
#5
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913421/curvature-and-rho-activation-differentially-control-the-alignment-of-cells-and-stress-fibers
#6
Nathan D Bade, Randall D Kamien, Richard K Assoian, Kathleen J Stebe
In vivo, cells respond to a host of physical cues ranging from substrate stiffness to the organization of micro- and nanoscale fibrous networks. We show that macroscale substrates with radii of curvature from tens to hundreds of micrometers influence cell alignment. In a model system of fibroblasts, isolated cells aligned strongly in the axial direction on cylinders with radii similar to the cell length and more weakly on cylinders of much larger radius. Isolated vascular smooth muscle cells did not align as effectively as fibroblasts...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912685/neural-code-neural-self-information-theory-on-how-cell-assembly-code-rises-from-spike-time-and-neuronal-variability
#7
Meng Li, Joe Z Tsien
A major stumbling block to cracking the real-time neural code is neuronal variability - neurons discharge spikes with enormous variability not only across trials within the same experiments but also in resting states. Such variability is widely regarded as a noise which is often deliberately averaged out during data analyses. In contrast to such a dogma, we put forth the Neural Self-Information Theory that neural coding is operated based on the self-information principle under which variability in the time durations of inter-spike-intervals (ISI), or neuronal silence durations, is self-tagged with discrete information...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903812/the-capability-and-constraint-model-of-recoverability-an-integrated-theory-of-continuity-planning
#8
David Lindstedt
While there are best practices, good practices, regulations and standards for continuity planning, there is no single model to collate and sort their various recommended activities. To address this deficit, this paper presents the capability and constraint model of recoverability - a new model to provide an integrated foundation for business continuity planning. The model is non-linear in both construct and practice, thus allowing practitioners to remain adaptive in its application. The paper presents each facet of the model, outlines the model's use in both theory and practice, suggests a subsequent approach that arises from the model, and discusses some possible ramifications to the industry...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903694/attachment-and-self-regulation
#9
Edward Orehek, Anna Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Ellen Quick, G Casey Weaverling
Close relationships and self-regulation are inextricably intertwined, yet many of the details regarding how interpersonal processes influence self-regulation are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of this link, we investigated the association between attachment styles and self-regulatory mode orientations. According to regulatory mode theory, locomotors are concerned with initiating goal-directed movement, whereas assessors are concerned with appraising potential means and goals. We predicted that the presence of an attachment figure with whom one has an anxious attachment would be associated with higher assessment tendencies...
March 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902394/quantity-and-quality-limit-detritivore-growth-mechanisms-revealed-by-ecological-stoichiometry-and-co-limitation-theory
#10
Halvor M Halvorson, Erik Sperfeld, Michelle A Evans-White
Resource quantity and quality are fundamental bottom-up constraints on consumers. Best understood in autotroph-based systems, co-occurrence of these constraints may be common but remains poorly studied in detrital-based systems. Here, we used a laboratory growth experiment to test limitation of the detritivorous caddisfly larvae Pycnopsyche lepida across a concurrent gradient of oak litter quantity (food supply) and quality (phosphorus:carbon, P:C ratios). Growth increased simultaneously with quantity and quality, indicating co-limitation across the resource gradients...
September 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898662/size-dependent-variation-in-plant-form
#11
Karl J Niklas, Edward D Cobb
The study of organic form has a long and distinguished history going at least as far back as Aristotle's Historia Anima¯lium, wherein he identified five basic biological processes that define the forms of animals (metabolism, temperature regulation, information processing, embryo development, and inheritance). Unfortunately, all of Aristotle's writings about plant forms are lost. We know of them only indirectly from his student Theophrastus's companion books, collectively called Historia Plantarum, wherein plant forms are categorized into annual herbs, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and trees...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898616/the-calcium-phosphorus-homeostasis-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-clinical-epidemiology-to-pathophysiology
#12
Ana Pires, Luis Sobrinho, Hugo Gil Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: A simple data filtering process together with some basic concepts of control theory applied to electronically stored clinical data were used to identify some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the perturbations of the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective data (a set per patient of serum single value concentrations of creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) from 2507 patients with stable chronic kidney disease not on renal replacement therapy were studied...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898296/characterizing-the-interaction-between-physicians-pharmacists-and-pharmaceutical-representatives-in-a-middle-income-country-a-qualitative-study
#13
Rima Hajjar, Aya Bassatne, Mohamad Ali Cheaito, Rabie Naser El Dine, Sarah Traboulsy, Fadi Haddadin, Gladys Honein-AbouHaidar, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Studies around the world have shown that interactions between pharmaceutical companies, pharmacists and physicians have a great influence on prescribing and drug dispensing practices. In middle-income countries, the nature and extent of these interactions have not been well researched. Our objectives were to qualitatively explore the nature of the interactions between pharmaceutical companies, physicians and pharmacists, their impact on drug prescription and dispensing practices in Lebanon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891635/the-combination-of-superhalogens-and-br%C3%A3-nsted-acids-hx-x-f-cl-br-an-effective-strategy-for-designing-strong-superacids
#14
Fu-Qiang Zhou, Wen-Hua Xu, Jin-Feng Li, Ru-Fang Zhao, Bing Yin
A series of 27 composite structures, consisting of superhalogen and Brønsted acid, is designed and systematically studied based on combined ab initio and DFT calculations focusing on their potentials as novel superacids. As indicated by high-level CCSD(T) results, all the composites here fulfill the theoretical criterion for superacid and the acidities of two of them are close to the strongest superacid ever reported. The influences of various factors on the superacid properties of these composites were analyzed in detail...
September 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891207/stable-li-metal-anodes-via-regulating-lithium-plating-stripping-in-vertically-aligned-microchannels
#15
Shu-Hua Wang, Ya-Xia Yin, Tong-Tong Zuo, Wei Dong, Jin-Yi Li, Ji-Lei Shi, Chang-Huan Zhang, Nian-Wu Li, Cong-Ju Li, Yu-Guo Guo
Li anodes have been rapidly developed in recent years owing to the rising demand for higher-energy-density batteries. However, the safety issues induced by dendrites hinder the practical applications of Li anodes. Here, Li metal anodes stabilized by regulating lithium plating/stripping in vertically aligned microchannels are reported. The current density distribution and morphology evolution of the Li deposits on porous Cu current collectors are systematically analyzed. Based on simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics, the tip effect leads to preferential deposition on the microchannel walls, thus taking full advantage of the lightening rod theory of classical electromagnetism for restraining growth of Li dendrites...
September 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890446/my-time-in-medicine
#16
Joseph J Fins
Through this autobiographical reflection on a life in medicine and bioethics, the author discovers that time is a unifying theme in his work. From his early writing on the regulation of house staff work hours and his abandonment of essentialism and the development of clinical pragmatism as a method of moral problem-solving to his scholarship on end-of-life care and disorders of consciousness, time has been a central heuristic in an effort to bridge ethical theory and clinical practice.
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887176/ecoacoustic-codes-and-ecological-complexity
#17
Almo Farina
Multi-layer communication and sensing network assures the exchange of relevant information between animals and their umwelten, imparting complexity to the ecological systems. Individual soniferous species, the acoustic community, and soundscape are the three main operational levels that comprise this multi-layer network. Acoustic adaptation and acoustic niche are two more important mechanisms that regulate the acoustic performances at the first level while the acoustic community model explains the complexity of the interspecific acoustic network at the second level...
September 5, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885167/event-triggered-distributed-control-of-nonlinear-interconnected-systems-using-online-reinforcement-learning-with-exploration
#18
Vignesh Narayanan, Sarangapani Jagannathan
In this paper, a distributed control scheme for an interconnected system composed of uncertain input affine nonlinear subsystems with event triggered state feedback is presented by using a novel hybrid learning scheme-based approximate dynamic programming with online exploration. First, an approximate solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is generated with event sampled neural network (NN) approximation and subsequently, a near optimal control policy for each subsystem is derived. Artificial NNs are utilized as function approximators to develop a suite of identifiers and learn the dynamics of each subsystem...
September 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883785/early-postnatal-but-not-late-adult-neurogenesis-is-impaired-in-the-pitx3-mutant-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Moritz D Brandt, Diana Krüger-Gerlach, Andreas Hermann, Anne K Meyer, Kwang-Soo Kim, Alexander Storch
The generation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus has functional implications for hippocampal formation. Reduced hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in various animal models of hippocampal dysfunction such as dementia and depression, which are both common non-motor-symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). As dopamine plays an important role in regulating precursor cell proliferation, the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in PD may be related to the reduced neurogenesis observed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain: subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883020/increased-gsnor-expression-during-aging-impairs-cognitive-function-and-decreases-s-nitrosation-of-camkii%C3%AE
#20
Yuying Zhang, Kaiyuan Wu, Wenting Su, Deng-Feng Zhang, Ping Wang, Xinhua Qiao, Qin Yao, Zengqiang Yuan, Yong-Gang Yao, Guanghui Liu, Chen Zhang, Limin Liu, Chen Chang
As the population ages, an increasing number of people suffer from age-related cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, we found that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), the key enzyme that metabolizes intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and regulates S-nitrosation, was significantly increased in the hippocampus of both aging humans and mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing GSNOR exclusively in neurons showed cognitive impairment in behavioral tests, including the Morris water maze, fear conditioning and the Y-maze test...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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