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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742361/a-kinetic-dominated-charging-mechanism-within-representative-aqueous-electrolyte-based-electric-double-layer-capacitors
#1
Huachao Yang, Jinyuan Yang, Zheng Bo, Xia Chen, Xiaorui Shuai, Jing Kong, Jianhua Yan, Kefa Cen
The chemical nature of electrolytes has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in charge storage of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), whereas primary mechanisms are still partially resolved but controversial. In this work, a systematic exploration into EDL structures and kinetics of representative aqueous electrolytes is performed with numerical simulation and experimental research. Unusually, a novel charging mechanism exclusively predominated by kinetics is recognized, going beyond traditional views of manipulating capacitances preferentially via interfacial structural variations...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742272/longitudinal-associations-between-exercise-identity-and-exercise-motivation-a-multilevel-growth-curve-model-approach
#2
Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Symeon Vlachopoulos, Magnus Lindwall, Daniel F Gucciardi, Christos Tsakonitis
OBJECTIVES: Past work linking exercise identity and exercise motivation has been cross-sectional. This is the first study to model the relations between different types of exercise identity and exercise motivation longitudinally. Understanding the dynamic associations between these sets of variables has implications for theory development and applied research. DESIGN: Longitudinal survey study. METHODS: Participants were 180 exercisers (79 men, 101 women) from Greece, who were recruited from fitness centres and were asked to complete questionnaires assessing exercise identity (exercise beliefs and role identity) and exercise motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external motivation, and amotivation) three times within a six month period...
July 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741845/self-regulation-shift-theory-a-dynamic-systems-approach-to-traumatic-stress
#3
Charles C Benight, Kotaro Shoji, Douglas L Delahanty
Self-regulation shift theory (SRST) is a threshold theory explaining self-regulation following trauma that utilizes nonlinear dynamics to capture systemic shifts in trauma adaptation. Cusp catastrophe modeling tests nonlinear changes in an outcome (e.g., posttraumatic distress) based on an identified bifurcation factor under specific conditions (i.e., asymmetry variables). We evaluated two cusp models in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) database and then confirmed findings within a similar dataset. Based on SRST, we tested coping self-efficacy (CSE) as the bifurcation factor and a set of asymmetry controlling variables...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738989/membrane-curvature-and-lipid-composition-synergize-to-regulate-n-ras-anchor-recruitment
#4
Jannik B Larsen, Celeste Kennard, Søren L Pedersen, Knud J Jensen, Mark J Uline, Nikos S Hatzakis, Dimitrios Stamou
Proteins anchored to membranes through covalently linked fatty acids and/or isoprenoid groups play crucial roles in all forms of life. Sorting and trafficking of lipidated proteins has traditionally been discussed in the context of partitioning to membrane domains of different lipid composition. We recently showed that membrane shape/curvature can in itself mediate the recruitment of lipidated proteins. However, exactly how membrane curvature and composition synergize remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated how three critical structural parameters of lipids, namely acyl chain saturation, headgroup size, and acyl chain length, modulate the capacity of membrane curvature to recruit lipidated proteins...
July 21, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738317/the-application-of-signalling-theory-to-health-related-trust-problems-the-example-of-herbal-clinics-in-ghana-and-tanzania
#5
Kate Hampshire, Heather Hamill, Simon Mariwah, Joseph Mwanga, Daniel Amoako-Sakyi
In contexts where healthcare regulation is weak and levels of uncertainty high, how do patients decide whom and what to trust? In this paper, we explore the potential for using Signalling Theory (ST, a form of Behavioural Game Theory) to investigate health-related trust problems under conditions of uncertainty, using the empirical example of 'herbal clinics' in Ghana and Tanzania. Qualitative, ethnographic fieldwork was conducted over an eight-month period (2015-2016) in eight herbal clinics in Ghana and ten in Tanzania, including semi-structured interviews with herbalists (N = 18) and patients (N = 68), plus detailed ethnographic observations and twenty additional key informant interviews...
July 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737703/autophagy-and-human-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-fly-s-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Myungjin Kim, Allison Ho, Jun Hee Lee
Neurodegenerative diseases in humans are frequently associated with prominent accumulation of toxic protein inclusions and defective organelles. Autophagy is a process of bulk lysosomal degradation that eliminates these harmful substances and maintains the subcellular environmental quality. In support of autophagy's importance in neuronal homeostasis, several genetic mutations that interfere with autophagic processes were found to be associated with familial neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, genetic mutations in autophagy-regulating genes provoked neurodegenerative phenotypes in animal models...
July 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737111/habit-in-personality-and-social-psychology
#7
Wendy Wood
Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues...
July 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736503/-do-you-see-what-i-mean-staff-collaboration-in-eating-disorder-units-during-mealtimes
#8
Trine Wiig Hage, Øyvind Rø, Anne Moen
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are psychiatric illnesses with potentially life-threatening consequences. Inpatient treatment is typically required for the most severely ill patients, who are often emaciated or significantly malnourished. A core therapeutic objective is to normalize eating patterns and facilitate weight gain. These goals guide the efforts of milieu therapeutic staff working with this patient group, who support renourishment through the positive manipulation of a structured environment, as well via relational aspects...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735646/hyperhomocysteinemia-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-role-of-inflammatory-mediators-and-pyroptosis-a-proposal
#9
Mahavir Singh, Suresh C Tyagi
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pyroptosis cause irreversible vascular changes in the eyes leading to central vision loss in patients. It is the most common eye disease affecting millions of people aged 50years or older, and is slowly becoming a major health problem worldwide. The disease mainly affects macula lutea, an oval-shaped pigmented area surrounding fovea near the center of retina, a region responsible for visual acuity. It is fairly a complex disease as genetics of patients, environmental triggers as well as risk factors such as age, family history of CVDs, diabetes, gender, obesity, race, hyperopia, iris color, smoking, diabetes, exposure to sun light and pyroptosis have all been clubbed together as probable causes of macular degeneration...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732852/investigating-the-h2o-o2-selective-permeability-from-a-view-of-multi-scale-structure-of-starch-sio2-nanocomposites
#10
Siyuan Liu, Xiaoxi Li, Ling Chen, Lin Li, Bing Li, Jie Zhu, Xiaoyun Liang
In order to control H2O/O2 selective permeability of starch based nanocompsites for food packaging, the addition of SiO2 nanoparticles was proven to be an effective method. The results suggested that the SiO2/hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) ratio was a feasible approach to regulate the film multi-scale structure. The H2O/O2 selective permeability was influenced by comprehensive factors including film short-range molecular conformation, crystalline structure and aggregated structure. The increase of micro-ordered region size was likely to favor the improvement of water vapor barrier property and the rise of compactness in this region seems to contribute to the oxygen prevention...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731566/heterogeneity-in-kinesin-function
#11
Babu J N Reddy, Suvranta Tripathy, Michael Vershinin, Marvin Tanenbaum, Jing Xu, Michelle Mattson-Hoss, Karim Arabi, Dail Chapman, Tory Doolin, Changbong Hyeon, Steven P Gross
The kinesin family proteins are often studied as prototypical molecular motors; a deeper understanding of them can illuminate regulation of intracellular transport. It is typically assumed that they function identically. Here we find that this assumption of homogeneous function appears incorrect: variation among motors' velocities in vivo and in vitro is larger than the stochastic variation expected for an ensemble of 'identical" motors. When moving on microtubules, slow and fast motors are persistently slow, and fast, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729927/fatigue-and-cognition-pupillary-responses-to-problem-solving-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#12
Sigrid A de Rodez Benavent, Gro O Nygaard, Hanne F Harbo, Siren Tønnesen, Piotr Sowa, Nils I Landrø, Marte Wendel-Haga, Lars Etholm, Kristian B Nilsen, Liv Drolsum, Emilia Kerty, Elisabeth G Celius, Bruno Laeng
INTRODUCTION: In early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, cognitive changes and fatigue are frequent and troublesome symptoms, probably related to both structural and functional brain changes. Whether there is a common cause of these symptoms in MS is unknown. In theory, an altered regulation of central neuropeptides can lead to changes in regulation of autonomic function, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue. Direct measurements of central neuropeptides are difficult to perform, but measurements of the eye pupil can be used as a reliable proxy of function...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729417/mathematical-modeling-of-tumor-tumor-distant-interactions%C3%A2-supports-a-systemic-control-of-tumor-growth
#13
Sebastien Benzekry, Clare Lamont, Dominique Barbolosi, Lynn Hlatky, Philip Hahnfeldt
Interactions between different tumors within the same organism have major clinical implications, especially in the context of surgery and metastatic disease. Three main explanatory theories (competition, angiogenesis inhibition and proliferation inhibition) have been proposed but precise determinants of the phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we formalized these theories into mathematical models and performed biological experiments to test them with empirical data. In syngeneic mice bearing two simultaneously implanted tumors, growth of only one of the tumors was significantly suppressed (61% size reduction at day 15, p<0...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728434/economic-model-predictive-control-of-bihormonal-artificial-pancreas-system-based-on-switching-control-and-dynamic-r-parameter
#14
Fengna Tang, Youqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Blood glucose (BG) regulation is a long-term task for people with diabetes. In recent years, more and more researchers have attempted to achieve automated regulation of BG using automatic control algorithms, called the artificial pancreas (AP) system. In clinical practice, it is equally important to guarantee the treatment effect and reduce the treatment costs. The main motivation of this study is to reduce the cure burden. METHODS: The dynamic R-parameter economic model predictive control (R-EMPC) is chosen to regulate the delivery rates of exogenous hormones (insulin and glucagon)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726316/deprotonation-states-of-the-two-active-site-water-molecules-regulate-the-binding-of-protein-phosphatase-5-with-its-substrate-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#15
Lingyun Wang, Feng Yan
Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), mainly localized in human brain, can dephosphorylate tau protein whose high level of phosphorylation is related to Alzheimer's disease. Similar to other protein phosphatases, PP5 has a conserved motif in the catalytic domain that contains two binding sites for manganese (Mn(2+) ) ions. Structural data indicate that two active site water molecules, one bridging the two Mn(2+) ions and the other terminally coordinated with one of the Mn(2+) ions (Mn1), are involved in catalysis. Recently, a density functional theory study revealed that the two water molecules can be both deprotonated to keep a neutral active site for catalysis...
July 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722217/personal-and-situational-predictors-of-everyday-snacking-an-application-of-temporal-self-regulation-theory
#16
Katherine G Elliston, Stuart G Ferguson, Benjamin Schüz
OBJECTIVES: This study aims at testing predictions derived from temporal self-regulation theory (TST) in relation to discretionary food choices (snacks). TST combines a motivational sphere of influence (cognitions and temporal valuations resulting in intentions) with a momentary sphere (encompassing social and physical environmental cues). This dual approach differs from current health behaviour theories, but can potentially improve our understanding of the interplay of personal and environmental factors in health behaviour self-regulation...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720520/neural-systems-mediating-the-inhibition-of-cocaine-seeking-behaviors
#17
REVIEW
Victória A Ewald, Ryan T LaLumiere
Over the past decades, research has targeted the neurobiology regulating cocaine-seeking behaviors, largely in the hopes of identifying potential targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Although much of this work has focused on those systems driving cocaine seeking, recently, studies examining the inhibition of cocaine-related behaviors have made significant progress in uncovering the neural systems that attenuate cocaine seeking. Such systems include the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and hypothalamus...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718752/the-impact-of-presentation-format-on-younger-and-older-adults-self-regulated-learning
#18
Jodi Price
Background/Study Context: Self-regulated learning involves deciding what to study and for how long. Debate surrounds whether individuals' selections are influenced more by item complexity, point values, or if instead people select in a left-to-right reading order, ignoring item complexity and value. The present study manipulated whether point values and presentation format favored selection of simple or complex Chinese-English pairs to assess the impact on younger and older adults' selection behaviors. METHODS: One hundred and five younger (Mage = 20...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713522/the-effect-of-motivational-interviewing-based-intervention-using-self-determination-theory-on-promotion-of-physical-activity-among-women-in-reproductive-age-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Nooshin Rouhani Tonekaboni, Rabiollah Farmanbar, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Tahereh Kamalikhah
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) prevents chronic diseases. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a useful framework to understand the nature of motivational interviewing (MI). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of MI-based intervention using SDT on the promotion of PA among women in reproductive age. METHODS: Seventy women in reproductive age were selected by clustering sampling method for this randomized controlled trial...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713310/an-examination-of-the-four-part-theory-of-the-chinese-self-the-differentiation-and-relative-importance-of-the-different-types-of-social-oriented-self
#20
Chien-Ru Sun
Because culture has a deep and far-reaching influence, individuals who grew up within different cultures tend to develop different basic self-constructions. With respect to the Chinese under the influence of Chinese culture, Yang proposed the concepts of individual-oriented self and social-oriented self. He argued that, besides the individual-oriented self, the social-oriented self of the Chinese contains three types of self: the relationship-oriented self, the familistic (group)-oriented self, and the other-oriented self...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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