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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108306/bone-remodeling-as-a-spatial-evolutionary-game
#1
Marc D Ryser, Kevin A Murgas
Bone remodeling is a complex process involving cell-cell interactions, biochemical signaling and mechanical stimuli. Early models of the biological aspects of remodeling were non-spatial and focused on the local dynamics at a fixed location in the bone. Several spatial extensions of these models have been proposed, but they generally suffer from two limitations: first, they are not amenable to analysis and are computationally expensive, and second, they neglect the role played by bone-embedded osteocytes. To address these issues, we developed a novel model of spatial remodeling based on the principles of evolutionary game theory...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108004/nonlinear-svm-dtc-for-induction-motor-drive-using-input-output-feedback-linearization-and-high-order-sliding-mode-control
#2
Abdelkarim Ammar, Amor Bourek, Abdelhamid Benakcha
This paper presents a nonlinear Direct Torque Control (DTC) strategy with Space Vector Modulation (SVM) for an induction motor. A nonlinear input-output feedback linearization (IOFL) is implemented to achieve a decoupled torque and flux control and the SVM is employed to reduce high torque and flux ripples. Furthermore, the control scheme performance is improved by inserting a super twisting speed controller in the outer loop and a load torque observer to enhance the speed regulation. The combining of dual nonlinear strategies ensures a good dynamic and robustness against parameters variation and disturbance...
January 17, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105477/the-role-of-tachysterol-in-vitamin-d-photosynthesis-a-non-adiabatic-molecular-dynamics-study
#3
Cecilia Cisneros, Travis Thompson, Noel Baluyot, Adam C Smith, Enrico Tapavicza
To investigate the role of tachysterol in the photophysical/photochemical regulation of vitamin D photosynthesis, we studied its electronic absorption properties and excited state dynamics using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), second-order approximate coupled cluster theory (CC2), and non-adiabatic surface hopping molecular dynamics in the gas phase. In excellent agreement with experiments, the simulated electronic spectrum shows a broad absorption band with a remarkably higher extinction coefficient than the other vitamin D photoisomers provitamin D, lumisterol, and previtamin D...
January 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099875/sustained-attention-and-heart-rate-variability-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd
#4
Kristi R Griffiths, Daniel S Quintana, Daniel F Hermens, Chris Spooner, Tracey W Tsang, Simon Clarke, Michael R Kohn
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in attention and self-regulation by modulating physiological arousal to meet environmental demands. Core symptoms of ADHD such as inattention and behavioral disinhibition may be related to dysregulation of the ANS, however previous findings have been equivocal. We examined autonomic activity and reactivity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of un-medicated children and adolescents (6-19 years) with ADHD (n=229) compared to typically-developing controls (n=244) during rest and sustained attention...
January 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095026/self-regulation-of-driving-speed-among-distracted-drivers-an-application-of-driver-behavioural-adaptation-theory
#5
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Md Mazharul Haque, Mark King, Simon Washington
OBJECTIVE: The adaptive behaviour of mobile phone distracted drivers has been a topic of much discussion in the recent literature. Both simulator and naturalistic studies suggests that distracted drivers generally select lower driving speeds; however, speed adaptation is not observed among all drivers, and the mechanisms of speed selection are not well understood. The aim of this research was to apply a driver behavioural adaptation model to investigate the speed adaptation of mobile phone distracted drivers...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095003/cocaine-addiction-as-a-homeostatic-reinforcement-learning-disorder
#6
Mehdi Keramati, Audrey Durand, Paul Girardeau, Boris Gutkin, Serge H Ahmed
Drug addiction implicates both reward learning and homeostatic regulation mechanisms of the brain. This has stimulated 2 partially successful theoretical perspectives on addiction. Many important aspects of addiction, however, remain to be explained within a single, unified framework that integrates the 2 mechanisms. Building upon a recently developed homeostatic reinforcement learning theory, the authors focus on a key transition stage of addiction that is well modeled in animals, escalation of drug use, and propose a computational theory of cocaine addiction where cocaine reinforces behavior due to its rapid homeostatic corrective effect, whereas its chronic use induces slow and long-lasting changes in homeostatic setpoint...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092430/optimal-reactivity-and-improved-self-healing-capability-of-structurally-dynamic-polymers-grafted-on-janus-nanoparticles-governed-by-chain-stiffness-and-spatial-organization
#7
Guoxi Xu, Zihan Huang, Pengyu Chen, Tianqi Cui, Xinghua Zhang, Bing Miao, Li-Tang Yan
Structurally dynamic polymers are recognized as a key potential to revolutionize technologies ranging from design of self-healing materials to numerous biomedical applications. Despite intense research in this area, optimizing reactivity and thereby improving self-healing ability at the most fundamental level pose urgent issue for wider applications of such emerging materials. Here, the authors report the first mechanistic investigation of the fundamental principle for the dependence of reactivity and self-healing capabilities on the properties inherent to dynamic polymers by combining large-scale computer simulation, theoretical analysis, and experimental discussion...
January 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092192/do-i-feel-ill-because-i-crave-for-work-or-do-i-crave-for-work-because-i-feel-ill-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-work-craving-self-regulation-and-health
#8
Kamila Wojdylo, Wilhelm Karlsson, Nicola Baumann
Background The theory of work craving defines workaholism as a pathological work addiction which comprises: (a) obsessive-compulsive desire to work, (b) anticipation of self-worth compensatory incentives from working, (c) anticipation of reduction of negative emotions or withdrawal symptoms from working, and (d) neurotic perfectionism. Research has shown that workaholism is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the antecedents of workaholism and the causal direction of the relationship with health have been largely neglected...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090678/the-epileptic-and-nonepileptic-spectrum-of-paroxysmal-dyskinesias-channelopathies-synaptopathies-and-transportopathies
#9
REVIEW
Roberto Erro, Kailash P Bhatia, Alberto J Espay, Pasquale Striano
Historically, the syndrome of primary paroxysmal dyskinesias was considered a group of disorders as a result of ion channel dysfunction. This proposition was primarily based on the discovery of mutations in ion channels, which caused other episodic neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine and also supported by the frequent association between paroxysmal dyskinesias and epilepsy. However, the discovery of the genes responsible for the 3 classic forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias disproved this ion channel theory...
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#10
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088208/stirring-the-motivational-soup-within-person-latent-profiles-of-motivation-in-exercise
#11
Magnus Lindwall, Andreas Ivarsson, Karin Weman-Josefsson, Linus Jonsson, Nikos Ntoumanis, Heather Patrick, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, David Markland, Pedro Teixeira
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to use a person-oriented analytical approach to identify latent motivational profiles, based on the different behavioural regulations for exercise, and to examine differences in satisfaction of basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) and exercise behaviour across these motivational profiles. METHODS: Two samples, consisting of 1084 and 511 adults respectively, completed exercise-related measures of behavioural regulation and psychological need satisfaction as well as exercise behaviour...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#12
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087100/-improving-prevention-integrative-model-and-recommendations-intended-for-public-health-professionals
#13
REVIEW
G Broc, A Edjolo
Public health policies aim to diminish people's exposure to negative factors, behaviors or determinants of health. Despite awareness-raising campaigns, health recommendations are still not sufficiently followed. First, the article wondered the reasons behind this observation. In order to do this, we present a theoretical model incorporating: (a) the motivational theories of communication processing; (b) the theories of motivation and volition; (c) self-regulation and self-determination theories. In a second part, the paper describes five principles for improving communication...
January 10, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086869/evaluation-of-an-aged-care-nurse-practitioner-service-quality-of-care-within-a-residential-aged-care-facility-hospital-avoidance-service
#14
Trudy Dwyer, Alison Craswell, Dolene Rossi, Darren Holzberger
BACKGROUND: Reducing avoidable hospitialisation of aged care facility (ACF) residents can improve the resident experience and their health outcomes. Consequently many variations of hospital avoidance (HA) programs continue to evolve. Nurse practitioners (NP) with expertise in aged care have the potential to make a unique contribution to hospital avoidance programs. However, little attention has been dedicated to service evaluation of this model and the quality of care provided. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of an aged care NP model of care situated within a HA service in a regional area of Australia...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080969/an-active-inference-theory-of-allostasis-and-interoception-in-depression
#15
Lisa Feldman Barrett, Karen S Quigley, Paul Hamilton
In this paper, we integrate recent theoretical and empirical developments in predictive coding and active inference accounts of interoception (including the Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding model) with working hypotheses from the theory of constructed emotion to propose a biologically plausible unified theory of the mind that places metabolism and energy regulation (i.e. allostasis), as well as the sensory consequences of that regulation (i.e. interoception), at its core. We then consider the implications of this approach for understanding depression...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079977/psychosocial-changes-as-correlates-of-weight-regain-vs-continued-loss-within-2-year-trials-of-a-self-regulation-focused-community-based-intervention
#16
J J Annesi, N Mareno
Although health-enhancing weight reductions are associated with behavioural treatments initially, a trajectory towards full regain typically begins within 6-9 months. Women with obesity (body mass index = 30-40 kg m(-2) ) who lost at least 3% of their baseline weight within two trials of a new cognitive-behavioural treatment incorporating physical activity prior to changes in eating behaviours, and either regained ≥50% of that weight over 2 years (Regain group, n=32) or continued to lose weight (ContinuedLoss group, n = 34), were assessed from months 6 to 24 on changes in weight-loss behaviours and psychosocial predictors of those behaviours derived from established behavioural theories...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078476/children-with-social-anxiety-and-other-anxiety-disorders-show-similar-deficits-in-habitual-emotional-regulation-evidence-for-a-transdiagnostic-phenomenon
#17
Verena Keil, Julia Asbrand, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Julian Schmitz
Deficits in emotion regulation (ER) are an important factor in maintaining social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults. As SAD and ER problems typically develop during childhood and adolescence, and are maintained dynamically within the parent-child dyad, research on families can help to reveal the role ER plays in the early development of SAD. The current study assessed self-reported habitual ER in dyads of children with SAD (n = 31), children with mixed anxiety disorders (MAD; n = 41) and healthy control children (HC; n = 36), and their parents...
January 11, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068379/the-firepower-of-work-craving-when-self-control-is-burning-under-the-rubble-of-self-regulation
#18
Kamila Wojdylo, Nicola Baumann, Julius Kuhl
Work craving theory addresses how work-addicted individuals direct great emotion-regulatory efforts to weave their addictive web of working. They crave work for two main emotional incentives: to overcompensate low self-worth and to escape (i.e., reduce) negative affect, which is strategically achieved through neurotic perfectionism and compulsive working. Work-addicted individuals' strong persistence and self-discipline with respect to work-related activities suggest strong skills in volitional action control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067612/is-there-a-paradox-of-aging-when-the-negative-aging-stereotype-meets-the-positivity-effect-in-older-adults
#19
Liqing Zhou, Jia Lu, Guopeng Chen, Li Dong, Yujia Yao
: Background/Study Context: Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) states that the positivity effect is a result of older adults' emotion regulation and that older adults derive more emotional satisfaction from prioritizing positive information processing. The authors explored whether the positivity effect appeared when the negative aging stereotype was activated in older adults and also whether the effect differed between mixed and unmixed valence conditions. METHODS: Sixty younger (18-23 years of age) and 60 older (60-87 years of age) adults were randomly assigned to a control group and a priming group, in which the negative aging stereotype was activated...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065593/effortful-control-as-a-moderator-in-the-association-between-punishment-and-reward-sensitivity-and-eating-styles-in-adolescent-boys-and-girls
#20
Annelies Matton, Lien Goossens, Myriam Vervaet, Caroline Braet
The reactive traits of Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) are assumed to be involved in the development of Eating Disorders (EDs). Most studies examine whether levels of these traits differ between ED diagnoses, without taking other variables into account. However, vulnerability theories of psychopathology posit that the risk for psychopathology depends on the interaction between reactive traits and self-regulatory traits such as Effortful Control (EC). As such, the present objective was to examine the moderating role of EC in the association between SP, SR and the eating styles restrained eating, emotional eating and external eating as possible ED precursors in adolescents...
January 5, 2017: Appetite
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