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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340515/-illegitimate-patients-undocumented-immigrants-access-to-health-care-in-chile
#1
Nanette Liberona Concha, Miguel Ángel Mansilla
In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services - particularly the public health system - at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339309/late-chronotype-is-associated-with-enhanced-amygdala-reactivity-and-reduced-fronto-limbic-functional-connectivity-to-fearful-versus-happy-facial-expressions
#2
Charlotte Mary Horne, Ray Norbury
Increasing evidence suggests late chronotype individuals are at increased risk of developing depression. However, the underlying neural mechanisms that confer risk are not fully understood. Here, fifty healthy, right-handed individuals without a current or previous diagnosis of depression, family history of depression or sleep disorder underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Participants completed an implicit emotion processing task (gender discrimination) including happy and fearful facial expressions...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338699/assessing-predictors-of-intention-to-prescribe-sick-leave-among-primary-care-physicians-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#3
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Lei Hum Wee, Caryn Mei-Hsien Chan
BACKGROUND: Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians...
January 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338126/physical-exercise-and-glaucoma-a-review-on-the-roles-of-physical-exercise-on-intraocular-pressure-control-ocular-blood-flow-regulation-neuroprotection-and-glaucoma-related-mental-health
#4
REVIEW
Ming Ming Zhu, Jimmy Shiu Ming Lai, Bonnie Nga Kwan Choy, Jennifer Wei Huen Shum, Amy Cheuk Yin Lo, Alex Lap Ki Ng, Jonathan Cheuk Hung Chan, Kwok Fai So
The benefits of physical exercise on health and well-being have been studied in a wide range of systemic and ocular diseases, including glaucoma, a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by accelerated apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and insufficient ocular perfusion have been postulated to be the two main theories in glaucoma development and progression. The effects of exercise in these two aspects have been demonstrated by numerous researches. A review in 2009 focusing on these two theories concluded that exercise results in transient IOP reduction but an inconsistent elevation in ocular perfusion...
January 16, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338094/postnatal-experiences-knowledge-and-perceptions-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#5
C E Eades, E F France, J M M Evans
AIM: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to explore experiences, knowledge and perceptions of women with GDM to inform the design of interventions to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 16 women with GDM who were recruited from a clinic in one Scottish health board. A framework approach was used to manage and analyse data according to themes informed by psychological theory (self-regulation model and theory of planned behaviour)...
January 16, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336651/formal-and-informal-control-of-cannabis-regular-users-experience
#6
Serge Brochu, Patrice Lépine, Catherine Patenaude, Patricia Erickson
BACKGROUND: The debate on recreational use of cannabis, recently relaunched by the election of the Liberal Party of Canada that intends to legalize and regulate its use and access, implies a better understanding of social control mechanisms that are in place, and their influence on users' behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the issue of formal and informal controls by providing, first, a theoretical perspective of this concept, and, second, by illustrating its operation from the users' perspective...
January 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334935/adoption-and-diffusion-of-zoning-bylaws-banning-fast-food-drive-through-services-across-canadian-municipalities
#7
Candace I J Nykiforuk, Elizabeth J Campbell, Soultana Macridis, Daniel McKennitt, Kayla Atkey, Kim D Raine
BACKGROUND: Healthy public policy is an important tool for creating environments that support human health and wellbeing. At the local level, municipal policies, such as zoning bylaws, provide an opportunity for governments to regulate building location and the type of services offered. Across North America, there has been a recent proliferation of municipal bylaws banning fast food drive-through services. Research on the utilization of this policy strategy, including bylaw adopters and adopter characteristics, is limited within the Canadian context...
January 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332230/a-cardioid-oscillator-with-asymmetric-time-ratio-for-establishing-cpg-models
#8
Q Fu, D H Wang, L Xu, G Yuan
Nonlinear oscillators are usually utilized by bionic scientists for establishing central pattern generator models for imitating rhythmic motions by bionic scientists. In the natural word, many rhythmic motions possess asymmetric time ratios, which means that the forward and the backward motions of an oscillating process sustain different times within one period. In order to model rhythmic motions with asymmetric time ratios, nonlinear oscillators with asymmetric forward and backward trajectories within one period should be studied...
January 13, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329580/evidence-for-the-activation-of-pyroptotic-and-apoptotic-pathways-in-rpe-cells-associated-with-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-the-rodent-eye
#9
Jiangyuan Gao, Jing Z Cui, Eleanor To, Sijia Cao, Joanne A Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a devastating eye disease causing irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the primary cell type that is afflicted in AMD, undergoes programmed cell death in the late stages of the disease. However, the exact mechanisms for RPE degeneration in AMD are still unresolved. The prevailing theories consider that each cell death pathway works independently and without regulation of each other. Building upon our previous work in which we induced a short burst of inflammasome activity in vivo, we now investigate the effects of prolonged inflammasome activity on RPE cell death mechanisms in rats...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326279/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-heart-failure
#10
REVIEW
Takeshi Kitai, W H Wilson Tang
Accumulating evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the gut microbiota and host diseases. In addition to alterations in the gut microbial composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent technological developments of molecular and biochemical analyses enable us to detect and characterize the gut microbiota via assessment and classification of its genomes and corresponding metabolites. These advances have provided emerging data supporting the role of gut microbiota in various physiological activities including host metabolism, neurological development, energy homeostasis, and immune regulation...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324798/qualitative-metabolomics-profiling-of-serum-and-bile-from-dogs-with-gallbladder-mucocele-formation
#11
Jody L Gookin, Kyle G Mathews, John Cullen, Gabriela Seiler
Mucocele formation is characterized by secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium of dogs that may cause obstruction of the bile duct or rupture of the gallbladder. The disease is increasingly recognized and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. There is a strong breed predisposition and affected dogs have a high incidence of concurrent endocrinopathy or hyperlipidemia. These observations suggest a significant influence of both genetic and metabolic factors on disease pathogenesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323637/autocatalytic-microtubule-nucleation-determines-the-size-and-mass-of-xenopus-laevis-egg-extract-spindles
#12
Franziska Decker, David Oriola, Benjamin Dalton, Jan Brugues
Regulation of size and growth is a fundamental problem in biology. A prominent example is the formation of the mitotic spindle, where protein concentration gradients around chromosomes are thought to regulate spindle growth by controlling microtubule nucleation. Previous evidence suggests that microtubules nucleate throughout the spindle structure. However, the mechanisms underlying microtubule nucleation and its spatial regulation are still unclear. Here, we developed an assay based on laser ablation to directly probe microtubule nucleation events in Xenopuslaevis egg extracts...
January 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323397/spontaneous-symmetry-breaking-of-charge-regulated-surfaces
#13
Arghya Majee, Markus Bier, Rudolf Podgornik
The interaction between two chemically identical charge-regulated surfaces is studied using the classical density functional theory. In contrast to common expectations and assumptions, under certain realistic conditions we find a spontaneous emergence of disparate charge densities on the two surfaces. The surface charge densities can differ not only in their magnitude, but quite unexpectedly, even in their sign, implying that the electrostatic interaction between the two chemically identical surfaces can be attractive instead of repulsive...
January 11, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323182/thickness-control-of-the-spin-polarized-two-dimensional-electron-gas-in-laalo3-batio3-superlattices
#14
Chen Chen, Le Fang, Jihua Zhang, Guodong Zhao, Wei Ren
We explored the possibility of increasing the interfacial carrier quantum confinement, mobility and conductivity in the (LaAlO3)n/(BaTiO3)n superlattices by thickness regulation using the first-principles electronic structure calculations. Through constructing two different interfacial types of LaAlO3/BaTiO3 superlattices, we discovered that the LaO/TiO2 interface is preferred from cleavage energy consideration. We then studied the electronic characteristics of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) produced at the LaO/TiO2 interface in the LaAlO3/BaTiO3 superlattices via spin-polarized density functional theory calculations...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321872/relative-contribution-of-neutral-and-deterministic-processes-in-shaping-fruit-feeding-butterfly-assemblages-in-afrotropical-forests
#15
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316510/is-envy-harmful-to-a-society-s-psychological-health-and-wellbeing-a-longitudinal-study-of-18-000-adults
#16
Redzo Mujcic, Andrew J Oswald
Nearly 100 years ago, the philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell warned of the social dangers of widespread envy. One view of modern society is that it is systematically developing a set of institutions -- such as social media and new forms of advertising -- that make people feel inadequate and envious of others. If so, how might that be influencing the psychological health of our citizens? This paper reports the first large-scale longitudinal research into envy and its possible repercussions. The paper studies 18,000 randomly selected individuals over the years 2005, 2009, and 2013...
December 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315508/changing-prescribing-behavior-in-the-united-states-moving-upstream-in-opioid-prescription-education
#17
H Jean, C Wiese, Raven R Piercey, Claire D Clark
In the U.S., deaths from prescription opioids have quadrupled since 1999, prompting authorities to declare an "opioid abuse" crisis. Rising overdose deaths were attributed to trends in the over-prescription of opioids, specifically the strength and duration of the initial prescription. We describe educational interventions designed to control health care professionals' (HCP) opioid prescribing in the wake of this crisis. A review of relevant programs for practicing providers, medical residents, and medical students reveals a focus on educational interventions that we describe, borrowing from sociologist John McKinlay's metaphor for public health interventions, as "downstream...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309746/effects-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-or-meditation-on-emotional-regulation
#18
Meghan K Edwards, Ryan E Rhodes, Joshua R Mann, Paul D Loprinzi
Effective emotional regulation is critical for overall psychological well-being; as such, it is important to investigate potential methods to optimize emotion regulation abilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise and meditation on emotional regulation among young adults. Participants (N=63, mean age=21.3yrs) were randomly assigned to stretch (control group, n=21), walk (n=21), or meditate (n=21) for 10-min, after which they were exposed to a film clip (3min) intended to elicit a negative emotional state (e...
January 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309272/examining-affective-motivational-dynamics-and-behavioral-implications-within-the-interpersonal-context-of-pain
#19
Tine Vervoort, Zina Trost
Emotional, motivational, and interpersonal dimensions are considered integral to pain experience but have largely been examined separately. In this focus article, we argue that an integrative theoretical account that acknowledges each of these elements is a critical next step to capture the complexity and nuance of interpersonal pain dynamics and to shape future research. The aim of this focus article is to provide a foundation for such an account by drawing upon established insights from appraisal theory of emotion, influential behavioral models, empathy/interpersonal pain research, and social psychology literature to highlight conceptual relationships, potential mechanisms of action, and avenues of inquiry that have not previously been examined in the context of pain...
October 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308995/workplace-ostracism-self-regulation-and-job-performance-moderating-role-of-intrinsic-work-motivation
#20
Robert Steinbauer, Robert Renn, Shawna H Chen, Nicholas Rhew
Drawing from a self-regulation perspective, we examine how intrinsic work motivation changes the relation between workplace ostracism and employee job performance via self-leadership. We test a moderated mediated model with data collected from 101 employees at two points in time. Results provide support for the hypothesis that ostracized employees who are more intrinsically motivated use self-leadership strategies to a greater degree to improve their job performance than their counterparts who are not intrinsically motivated...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
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