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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164985/bio-soliton-model-that-predicts-non-thermal-electromagnetic-frequency-bands-that-either-stabilize-or-destabilize-living-cells
#1
J H Geesink, D K F Meijer
Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organization. A soliton model is able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields and is compatible with quantum coherence. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells...
2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164943/a-global-perspective-on-religious-participation-and-suicide
#2
Ning Hsieh
Although sociological research in the Durkheimian tradition has generally accepted that religious involvement protects against suicide, few studies have examined this theoretical proposition outside Western industrialized settings. Using multilevel models to analyze data from the World Health Organization Mortality Database and the World Values Survey (1981-2007) across 42 countries in seven geographical-cultural regions, this study explores whether religious participation is more protective against suicide in some regions than others and, if so, why...
September 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164305/nuclear-transport-of-the-human-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-subsequent-gene-induction-relies-on-its-residue-histidine-291
#3
A Tkachenko, M Bermudez, S Irmer-Stooff, D Genkinger, F Henkler-Stephani, G Wolber, A Luch
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor involved in the metabolism of physiological substances and xenobiotics, representing an interesting target in both toxicology and pharmacology. In this study, we investigated the ligand-dependent conjunction of nuclear import of the human AHR in living cells and target gene induction. Our findings strengthen the theory that the AHR triggers a precisely defined and rapid reaction upon binding to endogenous ligands, while the xenobiotic β-naphthoflavone only induces rather unspecific and slow effects...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164289/cell-membrane-biophysics-with-optical-tweezers
#4
H Moysés Nussenzveig
Membrane elastic properties play important roles in regulating cell shape, motility, division and differentiation. Here I review optical tweezer (OT) investigations of membrane surface tension and bending modulus, emphasizing didactic aspects and insights provided for cell biology. OT measurements employ membrane-attached microspheres to extract long cylindrical nanotubes named tethers. The Helfrich-Canham theory yields elastic parameters in terms of tether radius and equilibrium extraction force. It assumes initial point-like microsphere attachment and no cytoskeleton content within tethers...
November 21, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163063/acetylcholine-neuromodulation-in-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-vigilance-control-in-waking-sleep-autism-amnesia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Stephen Grossberg
Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, is a neural model that explains how normal and abnormal brains may learn to categorize and recognize objects and events in a changing world, and how these learned categories may be remembered for a long time. This article uses ART to propose and unify the explanation of diverse data about normal and abnormal modulation of learning and memory by acetylcholine (ACh). In ART, vigilance control determines whether learned categories will be general and abstract, or specific and concrete...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161526/individualism-collectivism-social-self-control-and-adolescent-substance-use-and-risky-sexual-behavior
#6
Pallav Pokhrel, Brooke L Bennett, Sakshi Regmi, Bulat Idrisov, Artur Galimov, Leila Akhmadeeva, Steve Sussman
Individualism and collectivism are cultural syndromes that have been associated with adolescent problem behavior in studies conducted in the U.S. and Southeast Asia. However, research investigating the mechanisms of how cultural orientation impacts health risk behaviors has been limited. This study tested a new model explaining the relationship between cultural orientation (i.e., individualism, collectivism) and adolescent problem behavior (i.e., substance use and risky sex) in terms of interpersonal self-regulation (i...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159135/the-influence-of-schizotypal-traits-on-attention-under-high-perceptual-load
#7
Hanne Stotesbury, Sebastian B Gaigg, Saim Kirhan, Corinna Haenschel
Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157254/the-implementation-of-medical-revalidation-an-assessment-using-normalisation-process-theory
#8
Abigail Tazzyman, Jane Ferguson, Charlotte Hillier, Alan Boyd, John Tredinnick-Rowe, Julian Archer, Sam Regan de Bere, Kieran Walshe
BACKGROUND: Medical revalidation is the process by which all licensed doctors are legally required to demonstrate that they are up to date and fit to practise in order to maintain their licence. Revalidation was introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2012, constituting significant change in the regulation of doctors. The governing body, the General Medical Council (GMC), envisages that revalidation will improve patient care and safety. This potential however is, in part, dependent upon how successfully revalidation is embedded into routine practice...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157216/breast-cancer-protection-by-genomic-imprinting-in-close-kin-families
#9
REVIEW
Srdjan Denic, Mukesh M Agarwal
Human inbreeding generally reduces breast cancer risk (BCR). When the parents are biologically related, their infants have a lower birth weight due to smaller body organs. The undersized breasts, because of fewer mammary stem cells, have a lower likelihood of malignant conversion. Fetal growth is regulated by genomically imprinted genes which are in conflict; they promote growth when derived from the father and suppress growth when derived from the mother. The kinship theory explicates that the intensity of conflict between these genes affects growth and therefore the size of the newborn...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154592/college-females-with-maltreatment-histories-have-atypical-autonomic-regulation-and-poor-psychological-wellbeing
#10
Lourdes P Dale, Samia K Shaikh, Laura C Fasciano, Vanessa D Watorek, Keri J Heilman, Stephen W Porges
OBJECTIVES: This study uniquely examined the impact of maltreatment (without a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) on physiological responses to a physical and an emotional stressor. The study sample was composed exclusively of women, because men may differ in maltreatment experience and neural regulation of physiological reactivity. METHOD: Participants were 60 female college students. A significant proportion of the participants reported experiencing childhood maltreatment without a history of PTSD...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154432/proposal-for-heart-failure-progression-based-on-the-chloride-theory-worsening-heart-failure-with-increased-vs-non-increased-serum-chloride-concentration
#11
Hajime Kataoka
AIMS: Chloride (Cl) is an established key electrolyte for the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent studies have shown the serum Cl as a key electrolyte for the regulation of body fluid distribution in heart failure (HF) patients. The clinical differences of worsening HF status according to the changes in serum Cl concentration are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 47 chronic HF patients were analysed. Upon worsening HF, each patient exhibited at least two HF-related signs...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146665/the-relative-effect-of-team-based-learning-on-motivation-and-learning-a-self-determination-theory-perspective
#12
Lucas M Jeno, Arild Raaheim, Sara Madeleine Kristensen, Kjell Daniel Kristensen, Torstein Nielsen Hole, Mildrid J Haugland, Silje Mæland
We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that the students' intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy support significantly increased going from lectures to TBL...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145497/rare-genetic-variants-in-the-endocannabinoid-system-genes-cnr1-and-dagla-are-associated-with-neurological-phenotypes-in-humans
#13
Douglas R Smith, Christine M Stanley, Theodore Foss, Richard G Boles, Kevin McKernan
Rare genetic variants in the core endocannabinoid system genes CNR1, CNR2, DAGLA, MGLL and FAAH were identified in molecular testing data from 6,032 patients with a broad spectrum of neurological disorders. The variants were evaluated for association with phenotypes similar to those observed in the orthologous gene knockouts in mice. Heterozygous rare coding variants in CNR1, which encodes the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1), were found to be significantly associated with pain sensitivity (especially migraine), sleep and memory disorders-alone or in combination with anxiety-compared to a set of controls without such CNR1 variants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145413/diffusion-based-neuromodulation-can-eliminate-catastrophic-forgetting-in-simple-neural-networks
#14
Roby Velez, Jeff Clune
A long-term goal of AI is to produce agents that can learn a diversity of skills throughout their lifetimes and continuously improve those skills via experience. A longstanding obstacle towards that goal is catastrophic forgetting, which is when learning new information erases previously learned information. Catastrophic forgetting occurs in artificial neural networks (ANNs), which have fueled most recent advances in AI. A recent paper proposed that catastrophic forgetting in ANNs can be reduced by promoting modularity, which can limit forgetting by isolating task information to specific clusters of nodes and connections (functional modules)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#15
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141742/characterizing-the-last-latrine-nonowners-in-rural-malawi
#16
Jurgita Slekiene, Hans-Joachim Mosler
Open defecation is a public health problem worldwide. NGOs in developing countries use various approaches to increase latrine coverage, but for little-understood reasons, some of the population does not adopt latrine construction. The objective of our research was to uncover which of the factors predicting latrine construction are relevant to the last nonowners of latrines, termed laggards in the diffusion of innovations theory. In a cross-sectional study, quantitative face-to-face interviews were conducted in households in rural Malawi (N = 824) to assess the behavioral determinants of latrine construction, mental health, and leadership...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140711/probing-the-surface-charge-on-the-basal-planes-of-kaolinite-particles-with-high-resolution-atomic-force-microscopy
#17
Naveen Kumar, Martin Peter Andersson, Dirk van den Ende, Frieder Mugele, Igor Siretanu
High resolution Atomic Force Microscopy is used to map the surface charge on the basal planes of kaolinite nanoparticles in an ambient solution of variable pH and NaCl or CaCl2 concentration. Using DLVO theory with charge regulation we determine from the measured force-distance curves the surface charge distribution on both the silica-like and the gibbsite-like basal plane of the kaolinite particles. We observe that both basal planes do carry charge that varies with pH and salt concentration. The silica facet was found to be negatively charged at pH 4 and above, whereas the gibbsite facet is positively charged at pH below 7, and negatively charged at pH above 7...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135752/experiences-and-shared-meaning-of-teamwork-and-interprofessional-collaboration-among-health-care-professionals-in-primary-health-care-settings-a-systematic-review
#18
Carine Sangaleti, Mariana Cabral Schveitzer, Marina Peduzzi, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone Zoboli, Cassia Baldini Soares
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, teamwork has been addressed under the rationale of interprofessional practice or collaboration, highlighted by the attributes of this practice such as: interdependence of professional actions, focus on user needs, negotiation between professionals, shared decision making, mutual respect and trust among professionals, and acknowledgment of the role and work of the different professional groups. Teamwork and interprofessional collaboration have been pointed out as astrategy for effective organization of health care services as the complexity of healthcare requires integration of knowledge and practices from differente professional groups...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134054/application-of-two-intervention-programs-in-order-to-optimize-motivation-and-to-improve-eating-habits-in-adult-and-elderly-women
#19
Marta Leyton, Marco Batista, Susana Lobato, Mª Isabel Aspano, Ruth Jiménez
The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two intervention programs: a physical exercise program with strategies to support the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness); and a physical exercise program with nutritional education in order to improve the lifestyles of adult and elderly women who practiced functional maintenance. The Self-Determination Theory was applied as the theoretical framework. A sample of 135 women aged between 40 and 88 years (59.66 ± 10...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132216/curcumin-decreases-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-by-down-regulating-caveolin-1-gsk-3%C3%AE-in-n2a-app695swe-cells-and-app-ps1-double-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#20
Jieyun Sun, Xiong Zhang, Chen Wang, Zhipeng Teng, Yu Li
Caveolin-1, the marker protein of membranal caveolae, is not only involved in cholesterol regulation, but also participates in the cleavage of amyloid [Formula: see text]-protein precursor (APP) and the generation of [Formula: see text]-amyloid peptide. It has been reported to be tightly related with Tau. In our previous studies, curcumin has been confirmed to play a neuroprotective role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its effects on Caveolin-1, Tau and their correlation, and the mechanism is still unknown...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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