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Interpersonal neurobiology

Katja Bertsch, Karen Hillmann, Sabine C Herpertz
One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotion dysregulation, which comprises emotion sensitivity, heightened and labile negative affect, deficient appropriate regulation strategies, and a surplus of maladaptive regulation strategies. Although earlier studies provided some evidence for threat hypersensitivity in terms of a negatively biased perception of other people ("negativity bias") and deficits in the recognition of full-blown anger, i.e., higher error rates and slower reaction times, researchers have only recently started studying effects of interindividual differences (e...
March 14, 2018: Psychopathology
Martin Klasen, Clara von Marschall, Güldehen Isman, Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Ruben C Gur, Klaus Mathiak
The neurobiology of emotional prosody production is not well investigated. In particular, the effects of cues and social context are not known. The present study sought to differentiate cued from free emotion generation and the effect of social feedback from a human listener. Online speech filtering enabled fMRI during prosodic communication in 30 participants. Emotional vocalizations were a) free, b) auditorily cued, c) visually cued, or d) with interactive feedback. In addition to distributed language networks, cued emotions increased activity in auditory and - in case of visual stimuli - visual cortex...
March 5, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Barbara Stanley, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Christa Labouliere, Steven Roose
Traditionally, the study of personality disorders had been based on psychoanalytic or behavioral models. Over the past two decades, there has been an emerging neuroscience model of borderline personality disorder (BPD) grounded in the concept of BPD as a condition in which dysfunctional neural circuits underlie its pathological dimensions, some of which include emotion dysregulation (broadly encompassing affective instability, negative affectivity, and hyperarousal), abnormal interpersonal functioning, and impulsive aggression...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Grace Morris, Amber Hamilton, Zola Mannie
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence...
February 19, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Ginger Polich, Mary Alexis Iaccarino, Ted J Kaptchuk, Leon Morales-Quezada, Ross Zafonte
In recent years, several randomized controlled trials evaluating pharmaceutical treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI) have failed to demonstrate efficacy over placebo, with both active and placebo arms improving at comparable rates. These findings could be viewed in opposing ways, suggesting on the one hand failure of the tested outcome, but representing on the other, evidence of robust placebo effects in TBI. In this article, we examine several of the primary psychological processes driving placebo effects (verbal suggestion, cognitive re-framing, interpersonal interactions, conditioning, therapeutic alliance, anxiety reduction) as well as placebo neurobiology (top-down cortical regulation, reward system activation, dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Randall Reitz, Stephen Mitchell, Shannon Keel
Attachment theory has been widely integrated into how clinicians view personal development and enduring relationships. Through the burgeoning field of interpersonal neurobiology, this model has also been applied to adult professional, training, and family relationships. However, the medical and integrated care literature currently lacks attempts to apply attachment principles to the mentorship relationships that are created between trainees and the faculty of a training program. Through this conceptual article, the authors introduce the attachment-informed mentorship model to bridge this gap...
December 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
R Andrew Chambers, Sue C Wallingford
Interpersonal attachment and drug addiction share many attributes across their behavioral and neurobiological domains. Understanding the overlapping brain circuitry of attachment formation and addiction illuminates a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of trauma-related mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders, and the extent to which ending an addiction is complicated by being a sort of mourning process. Attention to the process of addiction recovery-as a form of grieving-in which Kubler-Ross's stages of grief and Prochaska's stages of change are ultimately describing complementary viewpoints on a general process of neural network and attachment remodeling, could lead to more effective and integrative psychotherapy and medication strategies...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Dipanjan Ray, Dipanjan Roy, Brahmdeep Sindhu, Pratap Sharan, Arpan Banerjee
Contemporary mental health practice primarily centers around the neurobiological and psychological processes at the individual level. However, a more careful consideration of interpersonal and other group-level attributes (e.g., interpersonal relationship, mutual trust/hostility, interdependence, and cooperation) and a better grasp of their pathology can add a crucial dimension to our understanding of mental health problems. A few recent studies have delved into the interpersonal behavioral processes in the context of different psychiatric abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Dorota Łojko, Janusz K Rybakowski
The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD) is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Suena H Massey, Jean Decety, Katherine L Wisner, Lauren S Wakschlag
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) continues to be a leading modifiable risk factor for perinatal complications and a range of neurodevelopmental and cardio-metabolic outcomes across the lifespan. Despite 40 years of intervention research less than one in five pregnant smokers who receive an intervention quit by delivery. Within this context, recognition of pregnancy is commonly associated with abrupt suspension or reduction of smoking in the absence of intervention, yet has not been investigated as a volitional target...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Sabine C Herpertz, Katja Bertsch, Haang Jeung
The Criterion A of the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders follows a functional approach to personality disorders which can be effectively related to abnormalities in brain circuits that are involved in processes related to the self and others. While brain circuits related to the self and others highly overlap supporting the notion of inseparable constructs, structural and functional neuroimaging data point to rather specific deviations in brain processes among the various types of personality disorders, with a focus on borderline and antisocial personality disorders...
September 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Janice Ryan
This exploratory, evidence-based practice research study focuses on presenting a plausible mesoscopic brain dynamics hypothesis for the benefits of treating clients with psychosocial and cognitive challenges using a mindful therapeutic approach and multi-sensory environments. After an extensive neuroscientific review of the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness, a multi-sensory environment is presented as a window of therapeutic opportunity to more quickly and efficiently facilitate the neurobiological experience of becoming more mindful or conscious of self and environment...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Patrick Luyten
Sidney Blatt's seminal contributions in the domain of personality development, psychopathology, and health rank among the best researched and most empirically supported theories in psychoanalysis. Blatt is known primarily for his two-polarities model of personality development, which he viewed as evolving through a dialectical, synergistic interaction between two fundamental processes across the lifespan: the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand, and of self-definition on the other. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as an attempt to find a balance, however distorted, between relatedness and self-definition...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Filippo Turchi, Alessandro Cuomo, Giovanni Amodeo, Ettore Favaretto, Stefania Righini, Eugenia Mellina, Carmelo La Mela, Andrea Fagiolini
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significant impairment of social and interpersonal functioning. Several neuroimaging studies have evaluated social cognition, i.e. how people with MDD process, store and analyze information about other people and social situations. METHODS: We conducted a focused review and selected manuscript published until August 2016 indexed on PubMed and PsycINFO, searching for the following keywords: "major depressive disorder", "major depression", "unipolar depression", "clinical depression", "fMRI", "emotion comprehension", "emotion perception", "affect comprehension", "affect perception", "facial expression", "prosody", "theory of mind", "mentalizing", "empathy"...
July 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
Edda Bilek, Gabriela Stößel, Axel Schäfer, Laura Clement, Matthias Ruf, Lydia Robnik, Corinne Neukel, Heike Tost, Peter Kirsch, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Importance: Although borderline personality disorder (BPD)-one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric conditions-is characterized by repeated interpersonal conflict and instable relationships, the neurobiological mechanism of social interactive deficits remains poorly understood. Objective: To apply recent advancements in the investigation of 2-person human social interaction to investigate interaction difficulties among people with BPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-brain information flow in BPD was examined from May 25, 2012, to December 4, 2015, in pairs of participants studied in 2 linked functional magnetic resonance imaging scanners in a university setting...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Till Faehrmann, Gerald Zernig, Sergei Mechtcheriakov
One of the crucial purposes of treating alcohol-dependent patients is to enhance their ability to stay abstinent after detoxification therapy. Anxiety and stress vulnerability are the main factors provoking alcohol craving and relapse. In the first months of abstinence, alcohol-dependent patients frequently show sleep disturbances, irritability and depression, indicating chronic activation of stress pathways. In addition, the loss of confidence in interpersonal interactions results in social withdrawal and reduced willingness to participate in therapeutic programs...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Ann-Kathrin Kreuder, Dirk Scheele, Lea Wassermann, Michael Wollseifer, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Mary R Lee, Juergen Hennig, Wolfgang Maier, René Hurlemann
Humans belong to a minority of mammalian species that exhibit monogamous pair-bonds, thereby enabling biparental care of offspring. The high reward value of interpersonal closeness and touch in couples is a key proximate mechanism facilitating the maintenance of enduring romantic bonds. However, surprisingly, the neurobiological underpinnings mediating the unique experience of a romantic partner's touch remain unknown. In this randomized placebo (PLC)-controlled, between-group, pharmacofunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study involving 192 healthy volunteers (96 heterosexual couples), we intranasally administered 24 IU of the hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) to either the man or the woman...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Vedat Şar, Martin J Dorahy, Christa Krüger
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmentally stressful events in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal, and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression of DID. Memory and the construction of self-identity are cognitive processes that appear markedly and centrally disrupted in DID and are related to its etiology...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Louise K Newman
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to describe advances in neurosciences and their relationship to psychodynamic models of psychopathology and to present an integrative approach to psychodynamic formulation which incorporates the neurobiological underpinnings of self-functioning and a model of relational trauma. CONCLUSION: Developmental psychopathology is now better able to describe the significance of early developmental periods and the interpersonal context of self-development...
June 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
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