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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108804/antigenic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-rabies-virus-isolated-from-bats-mammalia-chiroptera-from-municipalities-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-southeastern-brazil
#1
Benedito Donizete Menozzi, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Laís Moraes Paiz, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Helio Langoni
Bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in the Americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. Antigenic and genetic studies of RABV isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. This study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 RABV isolates from central nervous system samples of non-hematophagous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera)...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108010/from-avoidance-to-approach-the-influence-of-threat-of-shock-on-reward-based-decision-making
#2
Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers, Andre Pittig
Potential threat can prime defensive responding and avoidance behavior, which may result in the loss of rewards. When aversive consequences do not occur, avoidance should, thus, be quickly overcome in healthy individuals. This study examined the impact of threat anticipation on reward-based decisions. Sixty-five participants completed a decision-making task in which they had to choose between high- and low-reward options. To model an approach-avoidance conflict, the high-reward option was contingent with a threat-of-shock cue; the low-reward option was contingent with a safety cue...
January 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107727/neural-correlates-of-subliminally-presented-visual-sexual-stimuli
#3
Martina Wernicke, Corinna Hofter, Kirsten Jordan, Peter Fromberger, Peter Dechent, Jürgen L Müller
In the context of forensic psychiatry, it is crucial that diagnoses of deviant sexual interests are resistant to manipulation. In a first attempt to promote the development of such tools, the current fMRI study focusses on the examination of hemodynamic responses to preferred, in contrast to non-preferred, sexual stimuli with and without explicit sexual features in 24 healthy heterosexual subjects. The subliminal stimulus presentation of sexual stimuli could be a new approach to reduce vulnerability to manipulation...
January 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107726/how-much-does-emotional-valence-of-action-outcomes-affect-temporal-binding
#4
Joshua Moreton, Mitchell J Callan, Gethin Hughes
Temporal binding refers to the compression of the perceived time interval between voluntary actions and their sensory consequences. Research suggests that the emotional content of an action outcome can modulate the effects of temporal binding. We attempted to conceptually replicate these findings using a time interval estimation task and different emotionally-valenced action outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2) than used in previous research. Contrary to previous findings, we found no evidence that temporal binding was affected by the emotional valence of action outcomes...
January 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107110/we-need-to-talk-disclosure-of-sexual-problems-is-associated-with-depression-sexual-functioning-and-relationship-satisfaction-in-women
#5
Kathleen E Merwin, Lucia F O'Sullivan, Natalie O Rosen
Women with sexual problems (e.g., difficulties with desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and pain during sexual activity) experience more depressive symptoms, and poorer sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction compared with unaffected women. A robust literature highlights the importance of sexual communication, and sexual self-disclosures in particular, for the well-being of individuals in romantic relationships. However, little is known about the disclosure of sexual problems to romantic partners and its association with women's psychological, sexual, and relationship well-being...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103480/adrenergic-gate-release-for-spike-timing-dependent-synaptic-potentiation
#6
Yanling Liu, Lei Cui, Martin K Schwarz, Yan Dong, Oliver M Schlüter
Spike timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) serves as a key cellular correlate of associative learning, which is facilitated by elevated attentional and emotional states involving activation of adrenergic signaling. At cellular levels, adrenergic signaling increases dendrite excitability, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that activation of β2-adrenoceptors promoted STD long-term synaptic potentiation at mouse hippocampal excitatory synapses by inactivating dendritic Kv1.1-containing potassium channels, which increased dendrite excitability and facilitated dendritic propagation of postsynaptic depolarization, potentially improving coincidental activation of pre- and postsynaptic terminals...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103267/retro-active-emotion-do-negative-emotional-stimuli-disrupt-consolidation-in-working-memory
#7
Güven Kandemir, Elkan G Akyürek, Mark R Nieuwenstein
While many studies have shown that a task-irrelevant emotionally arousing stimulus can interfere with the processing of a shortly following target, it remains unclear whether an emotional stimulus can also retro-actively interrupt the ongoing processing of an earlier target. In two experiments, we examined whether the presentation of a negative emotionally arousing picture can disrupt working memory consolidation of a preceding visual target. In both experiments, the effects of negative emotional pictures were compared with the effects of neutral pictures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102087/relationship-quality-of-persons-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-syndrome
#8
Francesco Tramonti, Michelangelo Maestri, Luca Carnicelli, Giulia Fava, Valentina Lombardi, Martina Rossi, Monica Fabbrini, Elisa Di Coscio, Elena Iacopini, Enrica Bonanni
In the field of sleep disorders, the quality of couple relationship is arousing increasing attention, given its implications for quality of life and treatment adherence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship quality in a sample of treated or untreated patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome. Eighty-seven patients were recruited in a hospital-based Centre for Sleep Medicine. Subjects were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) to evaluate relationship quality, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099875/sustained-attention-and-heart-rate-variability-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd
#9
Kristi R Griffiths, Daniel S Quintana, Daniel F Hermens, Chris Spooner, Tracey W Tsang, Simon Clarke, Michael R Kohn
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in attention and self-regulation by modulating physiological arousal to meet environmental demands. Core symptoms of ADHD such as inattention and behavioral disinhibition may be related to dysregulation of the ANS, however previous findings have been equivocal. We examined autonomic activity and reactivity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of un-medicated children and adolescents (6-19 years) with ADHD (n=229) compared to typically-developing controls (n=244) during rest and sustained attention...
January 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099757/quality-of-memories-in-women-abused-by-their-intimate-partner-analysis-of-traumatic-and-nontraumatic-narratives
#10
Violeta Fernández-Lansac, María Crespo
Traditional models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) claim that the high emotional intensity of traumatic events leads to deficits in the voluntary access of traumatic memories. This may result in disorganized narratives, with a high sense of emotional and sensory reliving. Alternatively, the basic mechanisms view suggests that high arousal leads to more available involuntary and voluntary memories. Traumatic narratives would not be impaired; indeed, they would be immersive and rich in detail. To test this perspective, this study compared the trauma narratives of 50 battered women (trauma-exposed group) with narratives about positive experiences and narratives of 50 nonexposed women (controls), and analyzed the relationship between trauma narrative aspects and the severity of PTSD...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099246/paradoxical-emergence-administration-of-subanesthetic-ketamine-during-isoflurane-anesthesia-induces-burst-suppression-but-accelerates-recovery
#11
Viviane S Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Duan Li, George A Mashour
BACKGROUND: Promoting arousal by manipulating certain brain regions and/or neurotransmitters has been a recent research focus, with the goal of trying to improve recovery from general anesthesia. The current study tested the hypothesis that a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine during isoflurane anesthesia would increase cholinergic tone in the prefrontal cortex and accelerate recovery. METHODS: Adult male rats were implanted with electroencephalography electrodes (frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex) and a microdialysis guide cannula targeted for the prefrontal cortex...
January 18, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097876/the-relationship-of-perfectionism-with-psychological-symptoms-in-cancer-patients-and-the-contributing-role-of-hyperarousability-and-coping
#12
Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald, Josée Savard, Lisa-Maria Slim, Renée-Claude Roy, Gordon L Flett, Paul L Hewitt, Hans Ivers
OBJECTIVE: Significant levels of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms are found in cancer patients. Perfectionism, arousability and coping have been associated with these psychological symptoms in the general population but their role among cancer patients remains to be assessed. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between perfectionism and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, insomnia), and the intermediate role of the arousability trait and coping strategies...
January 18, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096637/prevalence-of-female-sexual-dysfunction-among-indian-fertile-females
#13
Vineet V Mishra, Sakshi Nanda, Bhumika Vyas, Rohina Aggarwal, Sumesh Choudhary, Suwa Ram Saini
BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016...
October 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096583/addition-of-clonidine-to-bupivacaine-in-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-prolongs-postoperative-analgesia-after-cesarean-section
#14
Ranju Singh, Nishant Kumar, Aruna Jain, Sudipta Joy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim was to compare duration of postoperative analgesia with addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after lower segment cesarean section (LSCS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I and II pregnant patients undergoing LSCS under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided to receive either 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% (Group B; n = 50) or 20 ml bupivacaine+1ug/kg clonidine bilaterally (Group BC; n = 50) in TAP block in a double-blind fashion...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095617/probing-forebrain-to-hindbrain-circuit-functions-in-xenopus
#15
REVIEW
Darcy B Kelley, Taffeta M Elliott, Ben J Evans, Ian C Hall, Elizabeth C Leininger, Heather J Rhodes, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
The vertebrate hindbrain includes neural circuits that govern essential functions including breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Hindbrain circuits also participate in generating rhythmic motor patterns for vocalization. In most tetrapods, sound production is powered by expiration and the circuitry underlying vocalization and respiration must be linked. Perception and arousal are also linked; acoustic features of social communication sounds - e.g. a baby's cry - can drive autonomic responses. The close links between autonomic functions that are essential for life and vocal expression have been a major in vivo experimental challenge...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095602/age-and-adaptation-stronger-decision-updating-about-real-world-risks-in-older-age
#16
Jonathan J Rolison, Stacey Wood, Yaniv Hanoch
In later life, people are faced with a multitude of risky decisions that concern their health, finance, and personal security. Older adults often exercise caution in situations that involve risk. In this research, we asked whether older adults are also more responsive to warnings about potential risk. An answer to this question could reveal a factor underlying increased cautiousness in older age. In Study 1, participants decided whether they would engage in risky activities (e.g., using an ATM machine in the street) in four realistic scenarios about which participants could be expected to have relevant knowledge or experience...
January 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095004/correction-to-mandel-et-al-2015
#17
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity" by Tobey Mandel, David M. Dunkley and Molly Moroz (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 62[4], 703-717). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-32534-001.) This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093731/sexual-activity-among-nigerian-women-following-successful-obstetric-fistula-repair
#18
Stephen A Anzaku, Sunday J Lengmang, Samaila Mikah, Steven N Shephard, Bassey E Edem
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate post-operative sexual activity among women who have undergone obstetric fistula repair. METHODS: The present descriptive cross-sectional study recruited married women who had undergone successful obstetric fistula repair who were attending reunion activities at Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria, between March 13 and March 15, 2014. Participants were interviewed regarding penetrative vaginal intercourse after surgery, and any changes in sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, sexual satisfaction, and the presence of coital pain compared with before they experienced obstetric fistula...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093373/improved-arousal-and-motor-function-using-zolpidem-in-a-patient-with-space-occupying-intracranial-lesions-a-case-report
#19
Martin Nicholas Bomalaski, Sean Robinson Smith
Patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) have profound functional limitations with few treatment options for improving arousal and quality of life. Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic used to treat insomnia that has also been observed to paradoxically improve arousal in those with DOC, such as the vegetative or minimally conscious states (MCS). There is little information on its use in DOC patients with intracranial space occupying lesions. We present a case of a 24year old man in a MCS due to CNS lymphoma who was observed to have increased arousal and improved motor function following administration of zolpidem...
January 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093358/mapping-the-functional-connectome-traits-of-levels-of-consciousness
#20
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
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