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Elisabet Lundmark, Arne Stenberg, Bruno Hägglöf, Tryggve Nevéus
INTRODUCTION: A significant minority of children with enuresis do not respond to either desmopressin or the enuresis alarm. Anticholinergics have not proven as successful as expected. The fourth evidence-based treatment, the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, is cardiotoxic when overdosed, which has led to diminished use. AIM: The aim was to determine whether there is a role for the noradrenergic antidepressant reboxetine, as monotherapy or combined with desmopressin, in the treatment of enuresis in children who have not responded to standard therapy, and whether there are side effects involved...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Toshi A Furukawa, Georgia Salanti, Lauren Z Atkinson, Stefan Leucht, Henricus G Ruhe, Erick H Turner, Anna Chaimani, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Hissei Imai, Kiyomi Shinohara, Aya Suganuma, Norio Watanabe, Sarah Stockton, John R Geddes, Andrea Cipriani
INTRODUCTION: Many antidepressants are indicated for the treatment of major depression. Two network meta-analyses have provided the most comprehensive assessments to date, accounting for both direct and indirect comparisons; however, these reported conflicting interpretation of results. Here, we present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis aimed at updating the evidence base and comparing all second-generation as well as selected first-generation antidepressants in terms of efficacy and acceptability in the acute treatment of major depression...
2016: BMJ Open
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Laura Micheli, Letizia Crocetti, Maria Paola Giovannoni, Claudia Vergelli, Carla Ghelardini
Neuropathic pain is originated from different alterations of the nervous system. The difficulty of treatment strongly impairs quality of life of affected people. It is associated with severe, chronic sensory disturbances characterized by spontaneous pain, increased responsiveness to painful stimuli and pain perceived in response to normally non-noxious stimuli. The underlying mechanisms are complex and involve both peripheral and central nervous components.The noradrenergic system plays a pivotal role in the control of pain since its widespread distribution in the "pain matrix" representing a valuable therapeutic target...
June 8, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Christina Rami-Mark, Nadine Eberherr, Neydher Berroterán-Infante, Thomas Vanicek, Lukas Nics, Rupert Lanzenberger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser
INTRODUCTION: The norepinephrine transporter (NET) presents an important target for therapy and diagnosis of ADHD and other neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Thus, PET is the diagnostic method of choice, using radiolabeled NET-ligands derived from reboxetine. So far, [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 showed best pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties. However, the disadvantage of reboxetine derived PET tracers is their high metabolic cleavage-resulting in impeding signals in the PET scans, which hamper a proper quantification of the NET in cortical areas...
August 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Guoxun Zheng, Weiwei Xue, Panpan Wang, Fengyuan Yang, Bo Li, Xiaofeng Li, Yinghong Li, Xiaojun Yao, Feng Zhu
Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (sNRIs) provide an effective class of approved antipsychotics, whose inhibitory mechanism could facilitate the discovery of privileged scaffolds with enhanced drug efficacy. However, the crystal structure of human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) has not been determined yet and the inhibitory mechanism of sNRIs remains elusive. In this work, multiple computational methods were integrated to explore the inhibitory mechanism of approved sNRIs (atomoxetine, maprotiline, reboxetine and viloxazine), and 3 lines of evidences were provided to verify the calculation results...
2016: Scientific Reports
A Tammimaki, A Aonurm-Helm, M Kaenmaki, P T Mannisto
We have shown in a previous study that in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of Comt knockout animals, uptake1 followed by oxidation accounts for approximately 50% and uptake2 followed by O-methylation for the remaining 50% of dopamine clearance. However, compensatory mechanisms in genetically modified animals may have affected the result. Therefore, in the present study, we gave a high dose (30 mg/kg) of tolcapone in combination with pargyline and reboxetine to C57BL/6J mice to see whether the earlier findings could be confirmed...
April 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Tingxu Yan, Mengjie Xu, Bo Wu, Zhengzheng Liao, Zhi Liu, Xu Zhao, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i...
June 15, 2016: Food & Function
Christian Schmidt, Judith Leibiger, Markus Fendt
One of the major symptoms of narcolepsy is cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone. Despite the advances in understanding the neuropathology of narcolepsy, cataplexy is still treated symptomatically with antidepressants. Here, we investigate in a murine narcolepsy model the hypothesis that the antidepressants specifically blocking norepinephrine reuptake are more potent in treating narcoleptic episodes than the antidepressants blocking of serotonin reuptake. Furthermore, we tested the effects of α1 receptor stimulation and blockade, respectively, on narcoleptic episodes...
July 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Alonso Montoya, Robert Bruins, Martin A Katzman, Pierre Blier
Both major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are major causes of disability and markedly contribute to a significant global burden of the disease worldwide. In part because of the significant socioeconomic burden associated with these disorders, theories have been developed to specifically build clinical treatment approaches. One such theory, the monoaminergic hypothesis, has led to the development of several generations of selective and nonselective inhibitors of transporters of serotonin and norepinephrine, with the goal of augmenting monoaminergic transmission...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Joseph Mergui, Sol Jaworowski
There are few reports in the literature and scarce research on the topic and the treatment of antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence or nocturnal enuresis (NE) despite the significant frequency of these adverse effects.Treatment for antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence has been reported in relation to clozapine with response to numerous pharmacological strategies such as ephedrine, oxybutynin, intranasal desmopressin, trihexyphenidyl, and amitriptyline.We report a case of NE induced by risperidone which has been successfully treated with reboxetine...
May 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Terry S Viramontes, Havan Truong, Sunny A Linnebur
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hyponatremia in older adults related to antidepressive agents and identify potential alternative options in older adults with a low-baseline serum sodium concentration and/or when a patient has experienced hyponatremia as a result of taking an antidepressant. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was conducted on November 10, 2015. Search terms included: antidepressive agents, antidepressive agents second-generation, bupropion, citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, hyponatremia, milnacipran, mirtazapine, paroxetine, reboxetine, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, sertraline, trazodone, venlafaxine, and vilazodone...
March 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Ewa Poleszak, Weronika Stasiuk, Aleksandra Szopa, Elżbieta Wyska, Anna Serefko, Anna Oniszczuk, Sylwia Wośko, Katarzyna Świąder, Piotr Wlaź
One of the newest substances, whose antidepressant activity was shown is traxoprodil, which is a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of traxoprodil on animals' behavior using the forced swim test (FST), as well as the effect of traxoprodil (10 mg/kg) on the activity of antidepressants, such as imipramine (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), escitalopram (2 mg/kg) and reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg). Serotonergic lesion and experiment using the selective agonists of serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 was conducted to evaluate the role of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant action of traxoprodil...
August 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Aet O'Leary, Kadri Kõiv, Karita Raudkivi, Jaanus Harro
In the studies of depression pathogenesis and antidepressant action, the monoaminergic hypothesis of depression has mainly focused on the serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. However, dopaminergic neurotransmission is also linked to both depressive symptomatology as well as antidepressant effects. We have previously shown that persistent inter-individual differences in the rat behavioural activity in novel environments is associated with differences in the striatal extracellular levels of dopamine and serotonin, depressive-like behaviour and the expression of several depression-related genes...
February 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Chao Dong, Ji-chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Qian Ren, Chun Yang, Min Ma, Mei Han, Ryo Saito, Kenji Hashimoto
Inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram, its inactive enantiomer R-citalopram, and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine, show anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced model of depression. Pretreatment with escitalopram (1, 3, or 10mg/kg, i.p.) markedly blocked an increase in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), after a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0...
May 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Hasan Bozkurt, Serkan Şahin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Cafer Saka
Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that act as reuptake inhibitors for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine. The present review provides an account of analytical methods published in recent years for the determination of NRI drugs. NRIs are atomoxetine, reboxetine, viloxazine and maprotiline. NRIs with less activity at other sites are mazindol, bupropion, tapentadol, and teniloxazine. This review focuses on the analytical methods including chromatographic, spectrophotometric, electroanalytical, and electrophoresis techniques for NRI analysis from pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples...
2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Udaya Kumar, Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Hannah M Redwine, Don Shin, Julie G Hensler, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
OBJECTIVE: Examine therapeutic potential of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NERI) in an animal model of comorbidity between epilepsy, depression-like, and impulsive-like impairments. METHODS: Epilepsy was induced in male Wistar rats by LiCl and pilocarpine. An SSRI fluoxetine (FLX), and an NERI reboxetine (RBX) were administered either alone or as a combination over 1 week. Depressive-like and impulsive-like behaviors were examined using the forced swim test...
March 2016: Epilepsia
Malgorzata Klass, Jacques Duchateau, Samuel Rabec, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: To assess the neural mechanisms that limit endurance time, we compared a fatiguing task performed under the influence of reboxetine (REB), a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and placebo (PLA). METHODS: Nine male subjects (age = 24 ± 2 yr) participated in this study. The fatiguing task involved repeated 3-s submaximal isometric contractions of the knee extensors (∼33% maximal voluntary contraction) with a 2-s rest between each contraction and performed until task failure...
June 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Dominika Narowska, Milena Bożek, Katarzyna Krysiak, Jakub Antczak, Justyna Holka-Pokorska, Wojciech Jernajczyk, Adam Wichniak
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most common sleep disorders. The purpose of this paper is a case description of the patient suffering from RLS, concurrent with numerous clinical problems. In our patient, during long-term therapy with a dopamine agonist (ropinirole), the phenomenon of the augmentation, defined as an increase in the severity of the RLS symptoms, was observed. The quality of life of the patient was significantly deteriorated. Due to the augmentation of RLS symptoms the dopaminergic drug was gradually withdrawn, and the gabapentin as a second-line drug for the treatment of RLS was introduced...
2015: Psychiatria Polska
Rafael C Freire, Morena M Zugliani, Rafael F Garcia, Antonio E Nardi
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of panic disorder (PD) in the population is high and these patients have work impairment, high unemployment rates, seek medical treatment more frequently and have more hospitalizations than people without panic symptoms. Despite the availability of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments, approximately one-third of all PD patients have persistent panic attacks and other PD symptoms after treatment. AREAS COVERED: MEDLINE/Pubmed, CENTRAL, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials in treatment-resistant PD...
2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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