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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#1
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544163/the-impact-of-clinical-practice-on-the-outcome-of-central-venous-access-devices-in-children-with-haemophilia
#2
K Khair, S Ranta, A Thomas, K Lindvall
INTRODUCTION: Central venous access devices facilitate home treatment in boys with haemophilia. These are usually fully implanted lines, referred to as ports. Caregivers are taught to manage the port using sterile techniques and maintaining patency by flushing with saline or heparin solution. National and international guidelines for the home care of ports are lacking. AIM: To evaluate if infection or occlusion rates differ between home care regimens used for ports in children with haemophilia...
May 24, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543052/norepinephrine-reduces-arterial-compliance-less-than-phenylephrine-when-treating-general-anesthesia-induced-arterial-hypotension
#3
F Vallée, O Passouant, A Le Gall, J Joachim, J Mateo, A Mebazaa, E Gayat
INTRODUCTION: During general anesthesia, arterial hypotension is frequent and may be an important contributor to perioperative morbidity. We assessed the effect of a 5 μg bolus of Norepinephrine (NA) when compared with 50 μg bolus of Phenylephrine (PE) administered to treat hypotension during maintenance anesthesia, on MAP, derived cardiac output and arterial stiffness parameters. METHODS: Patients scheduled for a neurosurgical procedure under general anesthesia were prospectively included...
May 22, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542929/the-immune-response-to-prevotella-bacteria-in-chronic-inflammatory-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jeppe Madura Larsen
The microbiota plays a central role in human health and disease by shaping immune development, immune responses, metabolism, and protecting from invading pathogens. Technical advances that allow comprehensive characterization of microbial communities by genetic sequencing have sparked the hunt for disease modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, and low-grade systemic inflammation...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542671/folfoxiri-plus-bevacizumab-as-conversion-therapy-for-patients-with-initially-unresectable-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis
#5
Gianluca Tomasello, Fausto Petrelli, Michele Ghidini, Alessandro Russo, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Sandro Barni
Importance: The combination of fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan plus bevacizumab (FOLFOXIRI-Bev) is an established and effective first-line chemotherapy regimen for metastatic colorectal cancer. However, resection rates of metastases and overall survival with this schedule have never been systematically evaluated in published studies including, but not limited to, the TRIBE (TRIplet plus BEvacizumab) trial. Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of FOLFOXIRI-Bev, including outcomes and rates of surgical conversions...
May 25, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541603/comparison-of-first-line-chemotherapy-including-escalated-beacopp-versus-chemotherapy-including-abvd-for-people-with-early-unfavourable-or-advanced-stage-hodgkin-lymphoma
#6
REVIEW
Nicole Skoetz, Andrea Will, Ina Monsef, Corinne Brillant, Andreas Engert, Bastian von Tresckow
BACKGROUND: There are two different international standards for the treatment of early unfavourable and advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): chemotherapy with escalated BEACOPP (bleomycin/etoposide/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide/vincristine/procarbazine/prednisone) regimen and chemotherapy with ABVD (doxorubicin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine) regimen. OBJECTIVES: To determine the advantages and disadvantages of chemotherapy including escalated BEACOPP compared to chemotherapy including ABVD in the treatment of early unfavourable or advanced stage HL as first-line treatment...
May 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541542/reducing-stock-outs-of-essential-tuberculosis-medicines-a-system-dynamics-modelling-approach-to-supply-chain-management
#7
L Bam, Z M McLaren, E Coetzee, K H von Leipzig
The under-performance of supply chains presents a significant hindrance to disease control in developing countries. Stock-outs of essential medicines lead to treatment interruption which can force changes in patient drug regimens, drive drug resistance and increase mortality. This study is one of few to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of supply chain policies in reducing shortages and costs. This study develops a systems dynamics simulation model of the downstream supply chain for amikacin, a second-line tuberculosis drug using 10 years of South African data...
May 24, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539631/phylogeography-of-the-tyrrhenian-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-corsicanus-resolved-using-ancient-dna-of-radiocarbon-dated-subfossils
#8
K Doan, F E Zachos, B Wilkens, J-D Vigne, N Piotrowska, A Stanković, B Jędrzejewska, K Stefaniak, M Niedziałkowska
We present ancient mitochondrial DNA analyses of 31 complete cytochrome b gene sequences from subfossil red deer remains from the Tyrrhenian islands (Corsica and Sardinia) and mainland Italy in a European-wide phylogeographic framework. Tyrrhenian and North African red deer, both going back to human introductions, were previously the only red deer to harbour the mitochondrial B lineage whose origin, however, remained unknown. Our ancient Italian samples from the central part of the peninsula that were radiocarbon-dated to an age of ca...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539366/proteolytic-cleavage-orchestrates-cofactor-insertion-and-protein-assembly-in-nife-hydrogenase-biosynthesis
#9
Moritz Senger, Sven T Stripp, Basem Soboh
Metalloenzymes catalyze complex and essential processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen fixation. For example, bacteria and archaea use [NiFe]-hydrogenases to catalyze the uptake and release of molecular hydrogen (H2). [NiFe]-hydrogenases are redox enzymes composed of a large subunit that harbors a NiFe(CN)2CO metallo-center and a small subunit with three iron-sulfur clusters. The large subunit is synthesized with a C-terminal extension, cleaved off by a specific endopeptidase during maturation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538464/decreasing-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-use-with-ultrasound-guided-peripheral-intravenous-lines-a-quality-improvement-project-in-the-acute-care-setting
#10
Lauren Morata, Carrie Ogilvie, Jackie Yon, Allison Johnson
An ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous (UGPIV) quality improvement project occurred in an 849-bed tertiary care hospital with a goal to reduce the use of central lines, in particular, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Since implementation, PICCs have decreased by 46.7% overall, and 59 nurses in-hospital are competent in placing UGPIVs. Placement of UGPIVs by the bedside nurse is a key initiative in decreasing PICC use and, potentially, infections.
June 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538370/radiographic-anatomical-relationship-between-spinous-process-and-pedicle-in-thoracolumbar-and-lumbar-spine
#11
Xingang Cui, Guodong Wang
Pedicle screws are widely used in spinal surgeries, but it remains technically demanding to place. There are numerous studies on the anatomy of pedicle; however, there is very little insight on the relationship between the pedicle and the spinous process, which is an important part of the spinal posterior column.The aim of the study was to investigate the radiographic anatomical relationship between spinous processes and pedicles in the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine, in order to reveal a novel entrance point for pedicle screw insertion...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537967/nortriptyline-enhances-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-neuropathic-rats-role-of-the-central-noradrenergic-system
#12
Wenli Mi, Shuxing Wang, Zerong You, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Hyangin Kim, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao
BACKGROUND: Combination drug therapy is commonly used to treat chronic pain conditions such as neuropathic pain, and antidepressant is often used together with opioid analgesics. While rewarding is an intrinsic property of opioid analgesics, it is unknown whether the use of an antidepressant would influence opioid reward, which may contribute to opioid addiction. In this study, we examined whether nortriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant and a first-line medication for neuropathic pain) would enhance the morphine rewarding property in both naive and chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI) rats...
May 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537810/incidence-and-characteristics-of-venous-thrombotic-events-in-pediatric-cancer-patients-a-20-year-experience-in-the-maritimes-canada
#13
Zeina Asyyed, Tamara MacDonald, Carol Digout, Ketan Kulkarni
OBJECTIVE: Venous thrombotic events (VTE) are a well-recognized complication in pediatric cancer patients. Population-based data on the incidence and characteristics of VTE in all pediatric cancer patients are limited. This information is crucial to identify patients at high risk and design targeted interventions accordingly. The present study was designed to determine the incidence and characteristics of VTE in the pediatric oncology population. PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cohort study of patients treated in the Maritimes, Canada between 1995 and 2015...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536426/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-lewis-lung-carcinoma-induced-muscle-wasting-via-coordinate-activation-of-protein-degradation-pathways
#14
Guohua Zhang, Zhelong Liu, Hui Ding, Hongyu Miao, Jose M Garcia, Yi-Ping Li
Cancer-induced cachexia, characterized by muscle wasting, is a lethal metabolic syndrome with undefined etiology. Current consensus is that multiple factors contribute to cancer-induced muscle wasting, and therefore therapy requires combinational strategies. Here, we show that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates cancer-induced muscle wasting by directly activating muscle catabolism as well as stimulating an innate immune response in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and targeting TLR4 alone effectively abrogate muscle wasting...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536367/a-brief-review-of-the-pharmacology-of-amitriptyline-and-clinical-outcomes-in-treating-fibromyalgia
#15
REVIEW
Kim Lawson
Fibromyalgia is a complex chronic condition characterized by pain, physical fatigue, sleep disorder and cognitive impairment. Evidence-based guidelines recommend antidepressants as treatments of fibromyalgia where tricyclics are often considered to have the greatest efficacy, with amitriptyline often being a first-line treatment. Amitriptyline evokes a preferential reduction in pain and fatigue of fibromyalgia, and in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) score, which is a quality of life assessment. The multimodal profile of the mechanisms of action of amitriptyline include monoamine reuptake inhibition, receptor modulation and ion channel modulation...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536102/spa-proteins-affect-the-subcellular-localization-of-cop1-in-the-cop1-spa-ubiquitin-ligase-complex-during-photomorphogenesis
#16
Martin Balcerowicz, Konstantin Kerner, Christian Schenkel, Ute Hoecker
The Arabidopsis COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase is a central repressor which suppresses light signaling in darkness by targeting positive regulators of the light response, mainly transcription factors, for degradation. Light inactivates COP1/SPA, in part by excluding COP1 from the nucleus. SPA proteins are essential cofactors of COP1, but their exact role in the COP1/SPA complex is thus far unknown. To unravel a potential role of SPA proteins in COP1 nucleocytoplasmic partitioning, we monitored the subcellular localization of COP1 in a spa1234 quadruple mutant (spaQn)...
May 23, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535315/early-career-outcomes-of-family-medicine-residency-graduates-exposed-to-innovative-flexible-longitudinal-tracks
#17
Richard A Young, Dan Casey, Diana Singer, Elaine Waller, Patricia A Carney
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) project used a case series design to study innovations in the content, length, structure, and location of residency training in 14 geographically diverse family medicine programs between 2007 and 2012. We aimed to explore how offering flexible longitudinal tracks (FLT) affected graduates' scope of practice, particularly in maternal child health (MCH), which included at least 17 months of focused training that increased each year over 4 years...
May 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535181/everolimus-with-paclitaxel-and-carboplatin-as-first-line-treatment-for-metastatic-large-cell-neuroendocrine-lung-carcinoma-a-multicenter-phase-ii-trial
#18
P Christopoulos, W Engel-Riedel, C Grohé, C Kropf-Sanchen, J von Pawel, S Gütz, J Kollmeier, W Eberhardt, D Ukena, V Baum, I Nimmrich, C Sieder, P A Schnabel, M Serke, M Thomas
Background: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) is a rare disease with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Neuroendocrine tumors frequently show overactivation of the mTOR pathway. Based on the good activity of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in different types of neuroendocrine tumors and the results of a previous phase I trial we evaluated the efficacy and safety of everolimus in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel as upfront treatment for patients with advanced LCNEC...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533810/tc003132-is-essential-for-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-in-telotrophic-tribolium-oogenesis
#19
Matthias Teuscher, Nadi Ströhlein, Markus Birkenbach, Dorothea Schultheis, Michael Schoppmeier
BACKGROUND: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with a potential for self-renewal, which are essential to support normal development and homeostasis. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying adult stem cell biology and organ evolution, we use the telotrophic ovary of the beetle Tribolium. To this end, we participated in a large-scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium, which identified functions in embryonic and postembryonic development for more than half of the Tribolium genes...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533776/reactivity-to-novel-autoantigens-in-patients-with-coexisting-central-nervous-system-demyelinating-disease-and-autoimmune-thyroid-disease
#20
Judith M Greer, Simon Broadley, Michael P Pender
Several lines of evidence suggest a definite and unique link between CNS demyelinating diseases and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The aim of the current study was to systematically compare the clinical and laboratory features of patients with coexistent AITD and CNS demyelinating disease with those of patients with just CNS demyelinating disease. Forty-four patients with coexisting CNS demyelinating disease and AITD were identified and their clinical and radiological features were recorded. Blood and DNA were collected and tested for HLA type and for the response of T cells and antibodies to a variety of antigens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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