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Jiemin Ma, Rebecca L Siegel, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary state-specific estimates of mortality caused by cigarette smoking are important for tobacco control advocacy and healthcare planning in the U.S., but are currently lacking. METHODS: The population-attributable fraction (i.e., proportion of deaths in the population caused by smoking), number of deaths, and number of years of potential life lost because of active cigarette smoking were estimated for each state based on state-specific smoking prevalence data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, recently updated relative risks of smoking, and numbers of deaths from smoking-attributable diseases...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Adriana S Lopez, Bethany LaClair, Vicki Buttery, Yufang Zhang, Jennifer Rosen, Elizabeth Taggert, Sara Robinson, Mychal Davis, Catherine Waters, Carrie A Thomas, Carmen Rodriguez, Ebony Thomas, Jessica Tuttle, Tamara Brantley, Dana Perella, Maria Del Rosario, Mona Marin
Background: In 2007, a routine second dose of varicella vaccine was recommended in the United States for children aged 4 to 6 years to better control varicella-zoster virus circulation and outbreaks. Sentinel varicella outbreak surveillance was established to assess feasibility of surveillance and describe outbreaks that are occurring. Methods: Through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemiology Laboratory Capacity funding, health departments conducted active surveillance for varicella outbreaks in schools from 2012 to 2015...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Gregory D Kearney, Ronny A Bell
The geographic position and high level of poverty in the southeastern United States are significant risk factors that contribute to the region's high vulnerability to climate change. The goal of this study was to evaluate beliefs and perceptions of global warming among those living in poverty in the poorest counties in the southeastern United States. Results from this project may be used to support public health efforts to increase climate-related messaging to vulnerable and underserved communities. This was an ecological study that analyzed public opinion poll estimates from previously gathered national level survey data (2016)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Jeffrey R Kaiser, Shasha Bai, Paul J Rozance
BACKGROUND: The glucose concentrations and times to nadir for newborns of all gestational ages when intrapartum glucose-containing solutions are not routinely provided are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare patterns of initial glucose concentration nadirs by gestational-age groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study of 1,366 newborns born in 1998 at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, appropriate for gestational age, nonasphyxiated, nonpolycythemic, and not infants of diabetic mothers, were included...
March 6, 2018: Neonatology
Claire S Tucker, Melissa G Efurd, Robert L Kennedy
PURPOSE: Competency-based education is employed to ensure students are prepared to perform tasks required by entry-level practitioners. The American Dental Education Association's curriculum for dental hygiene programs states that students should learn skills consistently performed by dental hygienists to the level of competence. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation of a competency- based dental hygiene clinical program at University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Margaret Meador, Jerome A Osheroff, Benjamin Reisler
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most prevalent chronic condition diagnosed among patients served in the safety net in the United States; however, many safety-net patients with hypertension are not formally diagnosed and may remain untreated and at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Identifying undiagnosed hypertension using algorithmic logic programmed into clinical decision support (CDS) approaches is a promising practice but has not been broadly tested in the safety-net setting...
March 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Lauren F FitzHarris, Christopher H Johnson, Steven R Nesheim, Nadia L Oussayef, Allan W Taylor, Ayanna Harrison, Nan Ruffo, Kim Burley, Lawrence House, Emilia H Koumans
OBJECTIVE: To analyze prenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing rates over time and describe the impact of state HIV testing laws on prenatal testing. METHODS: During 2004-2011, self-reported prenatal HIV testing data for women with live births in 35 states and New York City were collected. Prevalence of testing was estimated overall and by state and year. An annual percent change was calculated in states with at least six years of data to analyze testing changes over time...
February 26, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Britni L Ayers, Rachel S Purvis, Williamina Ioanna Bing, Jellesen Rubon-Chutaro, Nicola L Hawley, Rebecca Delafield, Ingrid K Adams, Pearl Anna McElfish
Objectives Pacific Islanders are disproportionately burdened by poorer perinatal health outcomes with higher rates of pre-term births, low birth weight babies, infant mortality, and inadequate or no prenatal care. The aim of this study is to examine Marshallese mothers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences of prenatal care and to identify potential barriers. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with Marshallese mothers, who were 18 years or older, and living in Arkansas. Focus groups focused on mothers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences of prenatal care...
February 22, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Janet B Croft, Anne G Wheaton, Yong Liu, Fang Xu, Hua Lu, Kevin A Matthews, Timothy J Cunningham, Yan Wang, James B Holt
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for the majority of deaths from chronic lower respiratory diseases, the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2015 and the fourth leading cause in 2016.* Major risk factors include tobacco exposure, occupational and environmental exposures, respiratory infections, and genetics.† State variations in COPD outcomes (1) suggest that it might be more common in states with large rural areas. To assess urban-rural variations in COPD prevalence, hospitalizations, and mortality; obtain county-level estimates; and update state-level variations in COPD measures, CDC analyzed 2015 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Medicare hospital records, and death certificate data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Paige A Armstrong, Brendan R Jackson, Dirk Haselow, Virgie Fields, Malia Ireland, Connie Austin, Kimberly Signs, Veronica Fialkowski, Reema Patel, Peggy Ellis, Peter C Iwen, Caitlin Pedati, Suzanne Gibbons-Burgener, Jannifer Anderson, Thomas Dobbs, Sherri Davidson, Mary McIntyre, Kimberly Warren, Joanne Midla, Nhiem Luong, Kaitlin Benedict
Histoplasmosis is one of the most common mycoses endemic to the United States, but it was reportable in only 10 states during 2016, when a national case definition was approved. To better characterize the epidemiologic features of histoplasmosis, we analyzed deidentified surveillance data for 2011-2014 from the following 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. We examined epidemiologic and laboratory features and calculated state-specific annual and county-specific mean annual incidence rates...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Renn Tumlison, Allison Surf
Adult female Guinea worms (Dracunculus spp.) usually are reported to occur singly in the extremities of their hosts, from which they deliver their larvae through fistulae in the host's skin into the water. We visually examined for presence of worms in the fascia of the limbs of skinned carcasses of 184 river otters (Lontra canadensis) harvested in Arkansas, and report observations of cysts on wrists and ankles found on 12 otters. Cysts averaged 15.6 X 24.6 mm in size, were round to oval, and contained masses of up to 19 adult female Dracunculus sp...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Chris T McAllister, Dagmara Motriuk-Smith, Catherine M Kerr
Three new species of coccidians (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from eastern moles, Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus) from Arkansas. Oöcysts of Cyclospora duszynskii n. sp. are subspheroidal with a smooth bi-layered wall, measure 11.4 × 10.0 µm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a single polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal and measure 7.2 × 5.4 µm, L/W 1.3; an indistinct Stieda body is present, but the sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are absent and the sporocyst residuum is composed of medium to large granules of different sizes along the edge of the sporocyst...
February 19, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Jean C McSweeney, Teresa J Hudson, Latrina Prince, Helen Beneš, Alan J Tackett, Caroline Miller Robinson, Roger Koeppe, Lawrence E Cornett
The Institutional Development Award (IDeA) program, housed within the National Institute for General Medical Sciences, administers the Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence (INBRE) as a strategic mission to broaden the geographic distribution of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding within the United States. Undergraduate summer student mentored research programs (SSMRP) are a common feature of INBRE programs and are designed to increase undergraduate student interest in research careers in the biomedical sciences...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Michael A Cucciare, Kristina M Kennedy, Xiaotong Han, Christine Timko, Nickolas Zaller, Brenda M Booth
Rural substance users are less likely than their urban peers to use formal substance use treatment. It is therefore important to understand how the utilization of potentially more appealing care options, such as outpatient medical care (OMC), may affect substance use over time. This study sought to examine whether the number of OMC visits, after controlling for important covariates, was associated with days of alcohol, crack and powder cocaine, and methamphetamine use among a sample of rural stimulant users over a three year period...
March 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Alan W Black, Gabriele Villarini
Numerous studies have examined the influence of rainfall on the relative risk of crash, and they all agree that rainfall leads to an increase in relative risk as compared to dry conditions; what they do not agree on is the magnitude of these increases. Here we consider three methodological decisions made in computing the relative risk and examine their impacts: the inclusion or exclusion of zero total events (where no crashes occur during event or control periods), the temporal scale of analysis, and the use of information on pavement and weather conditions contained with the crash reports to determine relative risk...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Austin Porter, Saleema Karim, Stephen M Bowman, John Recicar, Gregory H Bledsoe, Robert T Maxson
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Arkansas implemented a statewide trauma system to address the high rates of mortality and morbidity due to trauma. The principal objective of the Arkansas Trauma System is to transport patients to the appropriate facility based on the injuries of the patients.This study evaluated four metrics that were crucial to system health. These measures included: treatment location, scene triage, admission to non-designated facilities, and inpatient mortality. Furthermore, the authors sought to quantify how the system is selective towards the severely-injured regarding triage and treatment location...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Marla Jones, Cassie Huffer, Tom Adams, Logan Jones, Bryan Church
In 2003, Arkansas became the first state to require body mass index (BMI) testing in public schools to raise awareness of the growing obesity epidemic among children and adolescents. Limited information exists regarding the effectiveness of school-based BMI screening programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if BMI health report cards affected parents' knowledge or actions regarding their child's health and to determine the accuracy of parents' perceptions of their child as underweight, normal weight, or overweight according to their child's BMI...
December 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
Sally Entrekin, Anne Trainor, James Saiers, Lauren Patterson, Kelly Maloney, Joseph Fargione, Joseph Kiesecker, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Katherine Konschnik, Hannah Wiseman, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Joseph N Ryan
Demand for high-volume, short duration water withdrawals could create water stress to aquatic organisms in Fayetteville Shale streams sourced for hydraulic fracturing fluids. We estimated potential water stress using permitted water withdrawal volumes and actual water withdrawals compared to monthly median, low, and high streamflows. Risk for biological stress was considered at 20% of long-term median and 10% of high- and low-flow thresholds. Future well build-out projections estimated potential for continued stress...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Zachary P Simpson, Brian E Haggard
Trend analysis of stream constituent concentrations requires adjustment for exogenous variables like discharge because concentrations often have variable relations with flow. To remove the influence of flow on stream water quality data, an accurate characterization of the relationship between the constituent and streamflow is needed. One popular method, locally weighted regression (LOESS), provides an effective means for flow-adjusting concentrations. The LOESS fit can be tailored to the data via the smoothing parameter (f), so that the user can avoid overfitting or oversmoothing the data...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Charles W Sheppard, Amy L Groll, Cindy L Austin, Simon J Thompson
PURPOSE: The regionalization of trauma in the USA results in frequent transfers of patients from a primary hospital ED to a higher level trauma facility. While many hospitals have a Picture Archive Communication System (PACS) which captures digital radiological images, these are often not available to the receiving institution resulting in duplicate imaging. The state of Arkansas instituted a trauma image repository (TIR) in July 2013. We examined whether implementation of this repository would impact CT scan duplication in the trauma system...
January 12, 2018: Emergency Radiology
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