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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907126/variability-in-the-sxt-gene-clusters-of-psp-toxin-producing-aphanizomenon-gracile-strains-from-norway-spain-germany-and-north-america
#1
Andreas Ballot, Leonardo Cerasino, Vladyslava Hostyeva, Samuel Cirés
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833622/downregulation-of-a-udp-arabinomutase-gene-in-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-results-in-increased-cell-wall-lignin-while-reducing-arabinose-glycans
#2
Jonathan D Willis, James A Smith, Mitra Mazarei, Ji-Yi Zhang, Geoffrey B Turner, Stephen R Decker, Robert W Sykes, Charleson R Poovaiah, Holly L Baxter, David G J Mann, Mark F Davis, Michael K Udvardi, Maria J Peña, Jason Backe, Maor Bar-Peled, C N Stewart
Background: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial prairie grass and a dedicated feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification and biofuel yields are inhibited by the plant cell wall's natural recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation. Plant hemicellulose polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans structurally support and cross-link other cell wall polymers. Grasses predominately have Type II cell walls that are abundant in arabinoxylan, which comprise nearly 25% of aboveground biomass...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758049/quantitative-identification-of-compound-dependent-on-modules-and-differential-allosteric-modules-from-homologous-ischemic-networks
#3
B Li, J Liu, Y Y Zhang, P Q Wang, Y N Yu, R X Kang, H L Wu, X X Zhang, Z Wang, Y Y Wang
Module-based methods have made much progress in deconstructing biological networks. However, it is a great challenge to quantitatively compare the topological structural variations of modules (allosteric modules [AMs]) under different situations. A total of 23, 42, and 15 coexpression modules were identified in baicalin (BA), jasminoidin (JA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) in a global anti-ischemic mice network, respectively. Then, we integrated the methods of module-based consensus ratio (MCR) and modified Zsummary module statistic to validate 12 BA, 22 JA, and 8 UA on-modules based on comparing with vehicle...
October 19, 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622146/antibiotic-loaded-phosphatidylcholine-inhibits-staphylococcal-bone-infection
#4
Jessica Amber Jennings, Karen E Beenken, Robert A Skinner, Daniel G Meeker, Mark S Smeltzer, Warren O Haggard, Karen S Troxel
AIM: To test antibiotic-loaded coating for efficacy in reducing bacterial biofilm and development of osteomyelitis in an orthopaedic model of implant infection. METHODS: Phosphatidylcholine coatings loaded with 25% vancomycin were applied to washed and sterilized titanium wires 20 mm in length. A 10 mm segment was removed from rabbit radius (total = 9; 5 coated, 4 uncoated), and the segment was injected with 1 × 10(6) colony forming units (CFUs) of Staphylococcus aureus (UAMS-1 strain)...
August 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611492/dynamics-of-ultrasonic-additive-manufacturing
#5
Adam Hehr, Marcelo J Dapino
Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage...
August 17, 2016: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503543/development-and-application-of-ultrasound-assisted-microextraction-to-analysis-of-fenitrothion-in-environmental-samples
#6
Fumiki Takahashi, Kanya Kobayashi, Jiye Jin
A microextraction technique based on ultrasonic emulsification and demulsification was developed for detecting pesticides at trace levels in environmental water samples. In this ultrasound-assisted microextraction (UAME), chloroform was emulsified with an aqueous sample solution containing trace fenitrothion (MEP) by ultrasonic irradiation (48 kHz) for 5 min. The emulsion was then demulsified by ultrasonic irradiation (2.4 MHz) for 10 min. This resulted in phase separation of the water and chloroform without centrifugation...
October 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401574/evaluation-of-antibiotics-active-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-based-on-activity-in-an-established-biofilm
#7
Daniel G Meeker, Karen E Beenken, Weston B Mills, Allister J Loughran, Horace J Spencer, William B Lynn, Mark S Smeltzer
We used in vitro and in vivo models of catheter-associated biofilm formation to compare the relative activity of antibiotics effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the specific context of an established biofilm. The results demonstrated that, under in vitro conditions, daptomycin and ceftaroline exhibited comparable activity relative to each other and greater activity than vancomycin, telavancin, oritavancin, dalbavancin, or tigecycline. This was true when assessed using established biofilms formed by the USA300 methicillin-resistant strain LAC and the USA200 methicillin-sensitive strain UAMS-1...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375189/an-apolar-pistacia-lentiscus-l-leaf-extract-gc-ms-metabolic-profiling-and-evaluation-of-cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis-inducing-effects-on-sh-sy5y-and-sk-n-be-2-c-cell-lines
#8
Simona Piccolella, Paola Nocera, Petronia Carillo, Pasqualina Woodrow, Vincenza Greco, Lorenzo Manti, Antonio Fiorentino, Severina Pacifico
In the course of a cytotoxicity screening of Mediterranean plants vs. neuroblastoma cells, Pistacia lentiscus was of interest. Pl-C extract, prepared from dried leaves by ultrasound assisted maceration (UAM) in chloroform, was profiled through using GC-MS techniques. To evaluate Pl-C cytotoxicity towards SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines, MTT, SRB and LDH assays were performed. The caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, as well as micronucleation, were also evaluated. The Pl-C oxidant/antioxidant ability was estimated using different methods...
September 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354444/impact-of-sara-and-phenol-soluble-modulins-on-the-pathogenesis-of-osteomyelitis-in-diverse-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Allister J Loughran, Dana Gaddy, Karen E Beenken, Daniel G Meeker, Roy Morello, Haibo Zhao, Stephanie D Byrum, Alan J Tackett, James E Cassat, Mark S Smeltzer
We used a murine model of acute, posttraumatic osteomyelitis to evaluate the virulence of two divergent Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates (the USA300 strain LAC and the USA200 strain UAMS-1) and their isogenic sarA mutants. The results confirmed that both strains caused comparable degrees of osteolysis and reactive new bone formation in the acute phase of osteomyelitis. Conditioned medium (CM) from stationary-phase cultures of both strains was cytotoxic to cells of established cell lines (MC3TC-E1 and RAW 264...
September 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256558/alcohol-drinking-patterns-and-risk-of-functional-limitations-in-two-cohorts-of-older-adults
#10
Luz Ma León-Muñoz, Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Esther García-Esquinas, Iñaki Galán, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have found that moderate alcohol intake is associated with lower risk of functional limitations in older adults. However, no previous investigation has assessed this association in older adults from Mediterranean countries, who show characteristic drinking patterns. METHODS: Data were taken from the UAM and the Seniors-ENRICA cohorts in Spain, comprising community-dwelling people aged ≥60 years. At baseline, participants in both cohorts were classified as non-drinkers, ex-drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers (the threshold between moderate and heavy intake was ≥40 g/day in men and ≥24 g/day in women)...
May 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229927/chemical-composition-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-pistacia-terebinthus-essential-oils-derived-from-wild-populations-in-kosovo
#11
Bledar Pulaj, Behxhet Mustafa, Kate Nelson, Cassandra L Quave, Avni Hajdari
BACKGROUND: Plant material from different organs of Pistacia terebinthus L., (Anacardiaceae) were collected in Kosovo with aim to analyze the chemical variability of the essential oils among native populations and to test them for potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: Essential oils obtained from leaves, pedicels, fruits and galls were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against three clinically relevant strains of S...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195020/the-two-rasamsonia-emersonii-%C3%AE-glucuronidases-regh67-and-regh115-show-a-different-mode-of-action-towards-glucuronoxylan-and-glucuronoxylo-oligosaccharides
#12
Patricia Murciano Martínez, Maaike M Appeldoorn, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
BACKGROUND: The production of biofuels and biochemicals from grass-type plant biomass requires a complete utilisation of the plant cellulose and hemicellulosic xylan via enzymatic degradation to their constituent monosaccharides. Generally, physical and/or thermochemical pretreatments are performed to enable access for the subsequent added carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. Nevertheless, partly substituted xylan structures remain after pretreatment, in particular the ones substituted with (4-O-methyl-)glucuronic acids (UAme)...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175462/vancomycin-displays-time-dependent-eradication-of-mature-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#13
Virginia Post, Peter Wahl, R Geoff Richards, T Fintan Moriarty
This study was carried out to determine the time and concentration profile required to achieve vancomycin-mediated eradication of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. This information is critical for the identification of performance targets for local antibiotic delivery vehicles that target biofilm infections. S. aureus UAMS-1 biofilms were grown for 7 days on titanium-aluminium-niobium discs in Mueller Hinton broth. After 7 days, the discs were then incubated in Mueller Hinton broth containing vancomycin at concentrations of 100, 200, 500, 1'000 and 2'000 mg/L...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124826/time-dependent-effectiveness-of-locally-applied-vancomycin-powder-in-a-contaminated-traumatic-orthopaedic-wound-model
#14
David J Tennent, Stefanie M Shiels, Carlos J Sanchez, Krista L Niece, Kevin S Akers, Daniel J Stinner, Joseph C Wenke
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of locally applied vancomycin powder at different times postinfection in a contaminated traumatic animal model. METHODS: This study used an established segmental defect rat femur model contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus UAMS-1 followed by treatment at 6 or 24 hours postinfection. Three treatments were evaluated: debridement and irrigation alone (control group) or in combination with either vancomycin powder or vancomycin-impregnated poly(methyl methacrylate) beads...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092213/immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-myofibroblast-density-in-odontogenic-cysts-and-tumors
#15
Maryam Kouhsoltani, Monireh Halimi, Golchin Jabbari
Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody...
2016: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091926/infectious-dose-dictates-the-host-response-during-staphylococcus-aureus-orthopedic-implant-biofilm-infection
#16
Debbie Vidlak, Tammy Kielian
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) that are typified by biofilm formation. Given the diversity of S. aureus strains and their propensity to cause community- or hospital-acquired infections, we investigated whether the immune response and biofilm growth during PJI were conserved among distinct S. aureus clinical isolates. Three S. aureus strains representing USA200 (UAMS-1), USA300 (LAC), and USA400 (MW2) lineages were equally effective at biofilm formation in a mouse model of PJI and elicited similar leukocyte infiltrates and cytokine/chemokine profiles...
July 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063164/-a-perfusion-system-for-preparing-canine-ureteral-acellular-matrix
#17
Shu-Wei Xiao, Peng-Chao Wang, Wei-Jun Fu, Zhong-Xin Wang, Gang Li, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of preparing ureteral acellular matrix (UAM) using perfusion systems. METHODS: Using the luminal structure of the ureter, the UAM was prepared by perfusing canine ureter with SDS, TritonX-100, or both. The residual nuclei in the UAM were evaluated using HE staining, DAPI staining, DNA quantification, and agarose gel electrophoresis. The three-dimensional ultrastructure and the bioactive components were evaluated by Masson's trichrome staining, Alcian Blue staining, collagen quantification, GAG quantification, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and toxicity detection...
March 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008160/mediterranean-diet-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-two-cohorts-of-community-dwelling-older-adults
#18
Raúl F Pérez-Tasigchana, Luz M León-Muñoz, Esther López-García, José R Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Pilar Guallar-Castillón
INTRODUCTION: In older adults, the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, but its association with health-related quality of life (HRQL) is still uncertain. This study assessed the association between the Mediterranean diet and HRQL in 2 prospective cohorts of individuals aged ≥60 years in Spain. METHODS: The UAM-cohort (n = 2376) was selected in 2000/2001 and followed-up through 2003. At baseline, diet was collected with a food frequency questionnaire, which was used to develop an 8-item index of Mediterranean diet (UAM-MDP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876685/an-ultra-thin-amniotic-membrane-as-carrier-in-corneal-epithelium-tissue-engineering
#19
Liying Zhang, Dulei Zou, Sanming Li, Junqi Wang, Yangluowa Qu, Shangkun Ou, Changkai Jia, Juan Li, Hui He, Tingting Liu, Jie Yang, Yongxiong Chen, Zuguo Liu, Wei Li
Amniotic membranes (AMs) are widely used as a corneal epithelial tissue carrier in reconstruction surgery. However, the engineered tissue transparency is low due to the translucent thick underlying AM stroma. To overcome this drawback, we developed an ultra-thin AM (UAM) by using collagenase IV to strip away from the epithelial denuded AM (DAM) some of the stroma. By thinning the stroma to about 30 μm, its moist and dry forms were rendered acellular, optically clear and its collagen framework became compacted and inerratic...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26857575/xerc-contributes-to-diverse-forms-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-via-agr-dependent-and-agr-independent-pathways
#20
Danielle N Atwood, Karen E Beenken, Allister J Loughran, Daniel G Meeker, Tamara L Lantz, Justin W Graham, Horace J Spencer, Mark S Smeltzer
We demonstrate that mutation of xerC, which reportedly encodes a homologue of an Escherichia coli recombinase, limits biofilm formation in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain LAC and the methicillin-sensitive strain UAMS-1. This was not due to the decreased production of the polysaccharide intracellular adhesin (PIA) in either strain because the amount of PIA was increased in a UAMS-1xerC mutant and undetectable in both LAC and its isogenic xerC mutant. Mutation of xerC also resulted in the increased production of extracellular proteases and nucleases in both LAC and UAMS-1, and limiting the production of either class of enzymes increased biofilm formation in the isogenic xerC mutants...
April 2016: Infection and Immunity
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