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Lawrence E Armstrong, Elaine C Lee, Douglas Casa, Evan C Johnson, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon McDermott, Jakob Vingren, Hymn M Oh, Keith H Williamson
Although case reports of exertional hyponatremia (EH) during prolonged exercise implicate retention of excess fluid, athletes with EH experience either loss, gain, or no change of body weight. Thus, the etiology and predisposing factors of EH may not be the same in all athletes. The present field investigation evaluated two unacquainted recreational cyclists (LC, 31y and AM, 39y) who began exercise with normal serum electrolytes but finished a summer 164-km ride (ambient, 34±5°C) with a serum [Na+] of 130 mmol/L...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Martin D Hoffman
Participation in ultraendurance sports has been increasing in recent years. This participation growth has been associated with an increase in research focused on such events. While the total amount of research related to these sports remains relatively small compared with other sports, the research growth is encouraging. New sources for research funding for ultraendurance sports should advance the science. In addition to continued opportunities with observational studies, promising areas of investigation remain for experimental studies and research that uses ultraendurance-sport environments as models for studies relevant to wider populations...
September 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Robert H Coker, Alyssa N Weaver, Melynda S Coker, Carl J Murphy, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Mathias Steinach
PURPOSE: The Yukon Arctic Ultra is considered the longest and coldest ultraendurance event in the world. Cold exposure and exercise has been reported to influence circulating levels of myo-, adipo- and hepato-kines that may influence considerable alterations in the regulation of metabolism. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of the Yukon Arctic Ultra (430 mile event) on potential activators of brown fat, metabolites and body composition in healthy individuals. METHODS: Eight male and female participants (mean±SEM; age = 44±3 yr; BMI = 23...
September 16, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
I Martínez-Navarro, O Chiva-Bartoll, B Hernando, E Collado, V Porcar, C Hernando
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to explore whether Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) responsiveness to orthostatism, jointly with Executive Function (EF) performance, were diminished following an ultraendurance mountain race. Besides, we wanted to assess whether hydration status was related to either performance or the abovementioned alterations. METHODS: Fifty recreational ultraendurance athletes participating in the Penyagolosa Trails CSP115 race (118 km and a total positive elevation of 5439 m) were evaluated before and after the competition...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Alessandra Vezzoli, Cinzia Dellanoce, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Michela Montorsi, Sarah Moretti, Annamaria Tonini, Lorenza Pratali, Roberto Accinni
Purpose. Response to an ultraendurance competitive race on thiols redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and oxidative stress (OxS) was investigated according to duration. Methods. Twenty-four elite runners were examined: six completed 50 km and eighteen 100 km. Blood and urine samples were collected before and immediately after the race. Erythrocytes and plasma aminothiols by high-performance liquid chromatography, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and OxS biomarkers (protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), and 8-OH-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)) by immunoenzymatic assays and ROS production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance were assessed...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Morteza Khodaee, David R Torres
Visual dysfunction is a relatively uncommon complaint among athletes during ultraendurance races. The pathophysiology of most of these cases is unknown. Corneal opacity has been speculated as the etiology for most of reported cases. We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old man with a partial unilateral corneal opacity and edema at kilometer 150 of a 161-km mountain bike race in high altitude. He was not able to finish the race (12-hour cutoff) because of his visual symptoms. He completely recovered in 3 days with no sequelae...
June 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Michael S Davis, Katherine K Williamson
Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Martin D Hoffman, Jeremy Joslin, Ian R Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Daniel A Baur, Christopher W Bach, William J Hyder, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of participation in a 3-day multistage ultraendurance triathlon (stage 1 = 10 km swim, 144.8 km bike; stage 2 = 275.4 km bike; stage 3 = 84.4 km run) on body mass and composition, hydration status, hormones, muscle damage, and blood glucose. METHODS: Eighteen triathletes (mean ± SD; age 41 ± 7.5 years; height 175 ± 9 cm; weight 73.5 ± 9.8 kg; male n = 14, female n = 4) were assessed before and after each stage of the race...
March 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Patrizia Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Recent studies investigating ultraendurance athletes showed an association between excessive fluid intake and swelling of the lower limbs such as the feet. To date, this association has been investigated in single-stage ultraendurance races, but not in multistage ultraendurance races. In this case study, we investigated a potential association between fluid intake and feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance race such as a Deca Iron ultratriathlon with ten Ironman triathlons within 10 consecutive days. A 49-year-old well-experienced ultratriathlete competed in autumn 2013 in the Deca Iron ultratriathlon held in Lonata del Garda, Italy, and finished the race as winner within 129:33 hours:minutes...
2015: International Journal of General Medicine
Daniel A Judelson, James R Bagley, Jennifer M Schumacher, Lenny D Wiersma
Ultraendurance open water swimming presents unique physiological challenges. This case study aimed to describe cardiovascular and perceptual responses during a successful solo channel swim. Investigators followed a female swimmer's Catalina Channel (32.2 km) crossing, monitoring water temperature (T(water)) and air temperature (T(air)), distance remaining (DR), average velocity, and heart rate (HR(swim)) at regular intervals. Every 24 minutes, the swimmer reported perceived pain (on a scale of 0-10), rating of perceived exertion (RPE [scale of 6-20]), perceived thermal sensation (scale 0-8), and thirst (scale 1-9)...
September 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Many studies have researched the psychophysiological response and energy balance of athletes in numerous ultraendurance probes, but none has investigated an ultraendurance mountain running event. The current study aims to analyze changes in blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, heart rate variability, and energy balance after the performance of an ultraendurance mountain running event. The parameters in the 6 participants who finished the event were analyzed (age, 30.8 ± 3...
March 2015: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Lawrence E Armstrong, Evan C Johnson, Amy L McKenzie, Lindsay A Ellis, Keith H Williamson
The purpose of this field investigation was to identify and clarify factors that may be used by strength and conditioning professionals to help athletes drink adequately but not excessively during endurance exercise. A universal method to accomplish this goal does not exist because the components of water balance (i.e., sweat rate, fluid consumed) are different for each athlete and endurance events differ greatly. Twenty-six male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 41 ± 8 years; height, 177 ± 7 cm; body mass, 81.85 ± 8...
April 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bernd Volker Scheer, Dejan Reljic, Andrew Murray, Ricardo Jose Soures Costa
BACKGROUND: Blisters are the most common dermatologic problem in ultraendurance runners. Their incidence, localization, pain scores, and risk factors in field conditions are poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted an observational field-based cohort study during the 5-day multistage 2010 and 2011 Al Andalus Ultimate Trail (219 km). Daily postrace data on blister frequency, localization, severity, and preventive measures from 50 ultramarathon runners were collected through the direct interview technique...
September 2014: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez
The purpose of the present research was to study the organic response after ultraendurance cycling race. Selected biochemical, leg strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity parameters were analyzed in 6 subjects 5 days before and 5 days after completing a 1700 km ultraendurance cycling race. After the race, participants presented a significant decrease in Hb (167.8 ± 9.5 versus 141.6 ± 15.7 mg/dL), strength (29.4 ± 2.7 versus 25.5 ± 3.7 cm in a countermovement jump), and oxygen uptake and heart rate at ventilatory threshold (1957...
2014: BioMed Research International
Wojciech Drygas, Ewa Rębowska, Ewa Stępień, Jacek Golański, Magdalena Kwaśniewska
Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively...
September 2014: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Lawrence E Armstrong, Evan C Johnson, Laura J Kunces, Matthew S Ganio, Daniel A Judelson, Brian R Kupchak, Jakob L Vingren, Colleen X Munoz, Robert A Huggins, Jay R Hydren, Nicole E Moyen, Keith H Williamson
CONTEXT: The sensation of thirst is different from the complex behavior of drinking ad libitum. Rehydration recommendations to athletes differ, depending on the source, yet no previous researchers have systematically compared drinking to thirst (D(TT)) versus ad libitum drinking behavior (D(AL)). OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 groups of trained cyclists (D(TT) and D(AL)) who had similar physical characteristics and training programs (P > .05). The D(TT) group (n = 12, age = 47 ± 7 years) drank only when thirsty, whereas the D(AL) group (n = 12, age = 44 ± 7 years) consumed fluid ad libitum (ie, whenever and in whatever volume desired)...
September 2014: Journal of Athletic Training
Anita T Cote, Aaron A Phillips, Heather J Foulds, Sarah A Charlesworth, Shannon S D Bredin, Jamie F Burr, Michael S Koehle, Darren E R Warburton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) function after an ultramarathon, and the association of vascular and training indices with the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue. DESIGN: Descriptive field study. SETTING: Fat Dog 100 Ultramarathon Trail Race, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four (13 women) recreational runners (aged 28-56 years). INTERVENTIONS: A 100-km or 160-km mountain marathon...
May 2015: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Shameemah Abrahams, Michael Posthumus, Malcolm Collins
Purpose: Endurance-running performance and joint range of motion (ROM) are both multifactorial phenotypes. A single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs172722 (C/T), in the COL5A1 3-untranslated region (UTR) was shown to independently associate with both phenotypes. Two major functional forms of the COL5A1 3-UTR have been identified and differ by 7 tightly linked polymorphisms that include rs12722 and a short tandem-repeat polymorphism (STRP rs71746744, -/AGGG). It has been proposed that STRP rs71746744 plays a role in the predicted secondary structures and mRNA stability of the 2 major forms of the COL5A1 3-UTR, therefore implying a regulatory role...
May 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Günther Neumayr, Hannes Gänzer, Wolfgang Sturm, Rudolf Pfister, Günther Mitterbauer, Helmut Hörtnagl
The physiological effects of ultraendurance exercise are poorly investigated. The present case report describes the exercise intensity of ultraendurance cycling and its physiological impacts on various organ functions in an amateur cyclist performing the Ötztal Radmarathon twice en bloque in a circuit of 2 identical laps (distance 460 km; cumulative altitude difference 11,000 m). In a pre-race laboratory test the athlete's performance capacity was measured as the maximal aerobic power (VO2max= 70
March 2002: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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