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Ultraendurance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739377/blood-hemostatic-changes-during-an-ultraendurance-road-cycling-event-in-a-hot-environment
#1
Brian R Kupchak, Josh B Kazman, Jakob L Vingren, Danielle E Levitt, Elaine C Lee, Keith H Williamson, Lawrence E Armstrong, Patricia A Deuster
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine blood hemostatic responses to completing a 164-km road cycling event in a hot environment. METHODS: Thirty-seven subjects (28 men and 9 women; 51.8±9.5 [mean±SD] y) completed the ride in 6.6±1.1 hours. Anthropometrics (height, body mass [taken also during morning of the ride], percent body fat [%]) were collected the day before the ride. Blood samples were collected on the morning of the ride (PRE) and immediately after (IP) the subject completed the ride...
July 21, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#2
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303338/blood-glucose-kinetics-and-physiological-changes-in-a-type-1-diabetic-finisher-of-the-ultraman-triathlon-a-case-study
#3
Christopher W Bach, Daniel A Baur, William S Hyder, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: To investigate the blood glucose kinetics and physiological effects experienced by a type 1 diabetic (T1D) finisher of a 3-day, multi-stage ultra endurance triathlon consisting of a 10 km swim and 144.8 km bike (stage 1), a 275.4 km bike (stage 2), and an 84.4 km run (stage 3). METHODS: The athlete self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) levels via fingerstick blood draw and hand-held glucometer. Researchers evaluated blood glucose kinetics via a continuous glucose monitoring device...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257712/the-effects-of-a-36-hour-mixed-task-ultraendurance-race-on-mucosal-immunity-markers-and-pulmonary-function
#4
David Bellar, Kellie A Murphy, Ritvik Aithal, Greggory R Davis, Tim Piper
OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to assess the changes in mucosal immunity and pulmonary function among participants in a 36-hour mixed task ultraendurance race. METHODS: Thirteen of the 20 race participants volunteered for the investigation (age 34±5 y). The event consisted of a mixture of aerobic, strong man, and military-style exercise. Participants had a pulmonary function test and gave a finger stick capillary blood sample and unstimulated saliva samples both before the event and upon dropout or completion...
March 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710151/exertional-hyponatremia-and-serum-sodium-change-during-ultraendurance-cycling
#5
Lawrence E Armstrong, Elaine C Lee, Douglas Casa, Evan C Johnson, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon McDermott, Jakob Vingren, Hymn M Oh, Keith H Williamson
Although case reports of exertional hyponatremia (EH) during prolonged exercise implicate retention of excess fluid, athletes with EH experience either loss, gain, or no change of body weight. Thus, the etiology and predisposing factors of EH may not be the same in all athletes. The present field investigation evaluated two unacquainted recreational cyclists (LC, 31y and AM, 39y) who began exercise with normal serum electrolytes but finished a summer 164-km ride (ambient, 34±5°C) with a serum [Na+] of 130 mmol/L...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701969/state-of-the-science-ultraendurance-sports
#6
REVIEW
Martin D Hoffman
Participation in ultraendurance sports has been increasing in recent years. This participation growth has been associated with an increase in research focused on such events. While the total amount of research related to these sports remains relatively small compared with other sports, the research growth is encouraging. New sources for research funding for ultraendurance sports should advance the science. In addition to continued opportunities with observational studies, promising areas of investigation remain for experimental studies and research that uses ultraendurance-sport environments as models for studies relevant to wider populations...
September 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669446/metabolic-responses-to-the-yukon-arctic-ultra-longest-and-coldest-in-the-world
#7
Robert H Coker, Alyssa N Weaver, Melynda S Coker, Carl J Murphy, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Mathias Steinach
PURPOSE: The Yukon Arctic Ultra is considered the longest and coldest ultraendurance event in the world. Cold exposure and exercise has been reported to influence circulating levels of myokines, adipokines, and hepatokines that may influence considerable alterations in the regulation of metabolism. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of the Yukon Arctic Ultra (430-mile event) on potential activators of brown fat, metabolites, and body composition in healthy individuals...
February 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548786/hydration-status-executive-function-and-response-to-orthostatism-following-a-118-km-mountain-race-%C3%A2-are-they-interrelated
#8
I Martínez-Navarro, O Chiva-Bartoll, B Hernando, E Collado, V Porcar, C Hernando
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to explore whether Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) responsiveness to orthostatism, jointly with Executive Function (EF) performance, were diminished following an ultraendurance mountain race. Besides, we wanted to assess whether hydration status was related to either performance or the abovementioned alterations. METHODS: Fifty recreational ultraendurance athletes participating in the Penyagolosa Trails CSP115 race (118 km and a total positive elevation of 5439 m) were evaluated before and after the competition...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504148/oxidative-stress-assessment-in-response-to-ultraendurance-exercise-thiols-redox-status-and-ros-production-according-to-duration-of-a-competitive-race
#9
Alessandra Vezzoli, Cinzia Dellanoce, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Michela Montorsi, Sarah Moretti, Annamaria Tonini, Lorenza Pratali, Roberto Accinni
Purpose. Response to an ultraendurance competitive race on thiols redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and oxidative stress (OxS) was investigated according to duration. Methods. Twenty-four elite runners were examined: six completed 50 km and eighteen 100 km. Blood and urine samples were collected before and immediately after the race. Erythrocytes and plasma aminothiols by high-performance liquid chromatography, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and OxS biomarkers (protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), and 8-OH-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)) by immunoenzymatic assays and ROS production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance were assessed...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095539/corneal-opacity-in-a-participant-of-a-161-km-mountain-bike-race-at-high-altitude
#10
Morteza Khodaee, David R Torres
Visual dysfunction is a relatively uncommon complaint among athletes during ultraendurance races. The pathophysiology of most of these cases is unknown. Corneal opacity has been speculated as the etiology for most of reported cases. We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old man with a partial unilateral corneal opacity and edema at kilometer 150 of a 161-km mountain bike race in high altitude. He was not able to finish the race (12-hour cutoff) because of his visual symptoms. He completely recovered in 3 days with no sequelae...
June 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092307/gastritis-and-gastric-ulcers-in-working-dogs
#11
REVIEW
Michael S Davis, Katherine K Williamson
Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679208/in-response-to-incidence-of-exercise-associated-hyponatremia-and-its-association-with-nonosmotic-stimuli-of-arginine-vasopressin-in-the-gnw100s-ultraendurance-marathon
#12
LETTER
Martin D Hoffman, Jeremy Joslin, Ian R Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26560107/fluid-retention-muscle-damage-and-altered-body-composition-at-the-ultraman-triathlon
#13
Daniel A Baur, Christopher W Bach, William J Hyder, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of participation in a 3-day multistage ultraendurance triathlon (stage 1 = 10 km swim, 144.8 km bike; stage 2 = 275.4 km bike; stage 3 = 84.4 km run) on body mass and composition, hydration status, hormones, muscle damage, and blood glucose. METHODS: Eighteen triathletes (mean ± SD; age 41 ± 7.5 years; height 175 ± 9 cm; weight 73.5 ± 9.8 kg; male n = 14, female n = 4) were assessed before and after each stage of the race...
March 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508884/feet-swelling-in-a-multistage-ultraendurance-triathlete-a-case-study
#14
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Patrizia Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Recent studies investigating ultraendurance athletes showed an association between excessive fluid intake and swelling of the lower limbs such as the feet. To date, this association has been investigated in single-stage ultraendurance races, but not in multistage ultraendurance races. In this case study, we investigated a potential association between fluid intake and feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance race such as a Deca Iron ultratriathlon with ten Ironman triathlons within 10 consecutive days. A 49-year-old well-experienced ultratriathlete competed in autumn 2013 in the Deca Iron ultratriathlon held in Lonata del Garda, Italy, and finished the race as winner within 129:33 hours:minutes...
2015: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25819111/cardiovascular-and-perceptual-responses-to-an-ultraendurance-channel-swim-a-case-study
#15
Daniel A Judelson, James R Bagley, Jennifer M Schumacher, Lenny D Wiersma
Ultraendurance open water swimming presents unique physiological challenges. This case study aimed to describe cardiovascular and perceptual responses during a successful solo channel swim. Investigators followed a female swimmer's Catalina Channel (32.2 km) crossing, monitoring water temperature (T(water)) and air temperature (T(air)), distance remaining (DR), average velocity, and heart rate (HR(swim)) at regular intervals. Every 24 minutes, the swimmer reported perceived pain (on a scale of 0-10), rating of perceived exertion (RPE [scale of 6-20]), perceived thermal sensation (scale 0-8), and thirst (scale 1-9)...
September 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25693897/psychophysiological-response-and-energy-balance-during-a-14-h-ultraendurance-mountain-running-event
#16
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Many studies have researched the psychophysiological response and energy balance of athletes in numerous ultraendurance probes, but none has investigated an ultraendurance mountain running event. The current study aims to analyze changes in blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, heart rate variability, and energy balance after the performance of an ultraendurance mountain running event. The parameters in the 6 participants who finished the event were analyzed (age, 30.8 ± 3...
March 2015: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25559907/ultraendurance-cycling-in-a-hot-environment-thirst-fluid-consumption-and-water-balance
#17
Lawrence E Armstrong, Evan C Johnson, Amy L McKenzie, Lindsay A Ellis, Keith H Williamson
The purpose of this field investigation was to identify and clarify factors that may be used by strength and conditioning professionals to help athletes drink adequately but not excessively during endurance exercise. A universal method to accomplish this goal does not exist because the components of water balance (i.e., sweat rate, fluid consumed) are different for each athlete and endurance events differ greatly. Twenty-six male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 41 ± 8 years; height, 177 ± 7 cm; body mass, 81.85 ± 8...
April 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25275735/the-enemy-of-the-feet-blisters-in-ultraendurance-runners
#18
Bernd Volker Scheer, Dejan Reljic, Andrew Murray, Ricardo Jose Soures Costa
BACKGROUND: Blisters are the most common dermatologic problem in ultraendurance runners. Their incidence, localization, pain scores, and risk factors in field conditions are poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted an observational field-based cohort study during the 5-day multistage 2010 and 2011 Al Andalus Ultimate Trail (219 km). Daily postrace data on blister frequency, localization, severity, and preventive measures from 50 ultramarathon runners were collected through the direct interview technique...
September 2014: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25180188/changes-in-biochemical-strength-flexibility-and-aerobic-capacity-parameters-after-a-1700-km-ultraendurance-cycling-race
#19
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez
The purpose of the present research was to study the organic response after ultraendurance cycling race. Selected biochemical, leg strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity parameters were analyzed in 6 subjects 5 days before and 5 days after completing a 1700 km ultraendurance cycling race. After the race, participants presented a significant decrease in Hb (167.8 ± 9.5 versus 141.6 ± 15.7 mg/dL), strength (29.4 ± 2.7 versus 25.5 ± 3.7 cm in a countermovement jump), and oxygen uptake and heart rate at ventilatory threshold (1957...
2014: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25177192/biochemical-and-hematological-changes-following-the-120-km-open-water-marathon-swim
#20
Wojciech Drygas, Ewa Rębowska, Ewa Stępień, Jacek Golański, Magdalena Kwaśniewska
Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively...
September 2014: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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