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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778488/the-2016-bernard-sachs-lecture-timing-in-morphogenesis-and-genetic-gradients-during-normal-development-and-in-malformations-of-the-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Harvey B Sarnat
Nervous system development is quadradimensional. Both normal ontogenesis and developmental malformations are explained in the context of the fourth dimension, timing. Timing of the onset of either the genetic expression of a mutation or an epigenetic event that may be teratogenic is primordial in determining morphogenesis and the forms of malformations with their functional consequences. Multiple genotypes may cause similar phenotypes or a single genotype with different degrees of retained normal genetic expression may result in variable phenotypes...
March 30, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777755/folic-acid-and-primary-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Jan D van Gool, Herbert Hirche, Hildegard Lax, Luc De Schaepdrijver
With 4 mg folic acid daily, it may take 20 weeks to reach red-blood-cell folate levels between 1,050 and 1,340 nmol/L, optimal for reduction of the neural tube defect risk. Therefore, folic acid supplementation should be started 5-6 months before conception. The residual risk with optimal red-blood-cell folate levels is reportedly 4.5 per 10,000 total births. The residual risk in pooled data from countries with mandatory folic acid fortification is 7.5 per 10,000 pregnancies, regardless of pre-fortification rates...
May 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776969/identifying-genetic-players-in-cell-sheet-morphogenesis-using-a-drosophila-deficiency-screen-for-genes-on-chromosome-2r-involved-in-dorsal-closure
#3
Richard D Mortensen, Regan P Moore, Stephanie M Fogerson, Hellen Y Chiou, Chimdindu V Obinero, Neel K Prabhu, Angela H Wei, Janice M Crawford, Daniel P Kiehart
Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal closure, a process during Drosophila embryogenesis, has emerged as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis. ∼140 genes are currently known to affect dorsal closure and new genes are identified each year. Many of these genes were identified in screens that resulted in arrested development. Dorsal closure is remarkably robust and many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this complex biological process remain...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773902/nedd9-promotes-oncogenic-signaling-a-stem-mesenchymal-gene-signature-and-aggressive-ovarian-cancer-growth-in-mice
#4
Rashid Gabbasov, Fang Xiao, Caitlin G Howe, Laura E Bickel, Shane W O'Brien, Daniel Benrubi, Thuy-Vy Do, Yan Zhou, Emmanuelle Nicolas, Kathy Q Cai, Samuel Litwin, Sachiko Seo, Erica A Golemis, Denise C Connolly
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) supports oncogenic signaling in a number of solid and hematologic tumors. Little is known about the role of NEDD9 in ovarian carcinoma (OC), but available data suggest elevated mRNA and protein expression in advanced stage high-grade cancers. We used a transgenic MISIIR-TAg mouse OC model combined with genetic ablation of Nedd9 to investigate its action in the development and progression of OC. A Nedd9-/- genotype delayed tumor growth rate, reduced incidence of ascites, and reduced expression and activation of signaling proteins including SRC, STAT3, E-cadherin, and AURKA...
May 18, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772239/small-gtpase-r-ras-participates-in-neural-tube-formation-in-zebrafish-embryonic-spinal-cord
#5
Shinya Ohata, Hideko Uga, Hitoshi Okamoto, Toshiaki Katada
Ras related (R-Ras), a small GTPase, is involved in the maintenance of apico-basal polarity in neuroepithelial cells of the zebrafish hindbrain, axonal collapse in cultured murine hippocampal neurons, and maturation of blood vessels in adult mice. However, the role of R-Ras in neural tube formation remains unknown. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), we found that in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos, the lumen was formed bilaterally in rras morphants, whereas it was formed at the midline in control embryos...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769304/first-person-chih-wen-chu
#6
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Chih-Wen Chu is the first author on 'The Ajuba family protein Wtip regulates actomyosin contractility during vertebrate neural tube closure', published in Journal of Cell Science. Chih-Wen is an associate scientist in the lab of Sergei Sokol at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA, investigating apical constriction and planar cell polarity, with a focus on protein dynamics at the cell junctions...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767673/modeling-the-impact-of-folic-acid-fortification-and-supplementation-on-red-blood-cell-folate-concentrations-and-predicted-neural-tube-defect-risk-in-the-united-states-have-we-reached-optimal-prevention
#7
Krista S Crider, Yan Ping Qi, Owen Devine, Sarah C Tinker, Robert J Berry
Background: The US CDC and the Institute of Medicine recommend that women capable of becoming pregnant consume ≥400 µg synthetic folic acid/d to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). The United States has 3 sources of folic acid: fortified enriched cereal grain products (ECGPs), fortified ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, and dietary supplements. Objective: Our objectives were as follows: 1) to estimate the usual daily folic acid intake and distributions of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations among women consuming folic acid from different sources; 2) to assess the usual daily total folic acid intake associated with optimal RBC folate concentrations for NTD prevention; 3) to predict NTD prevalence; and 4) to estimate the number of preventable folate-sensitive NTDs...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763679/maternal-dietary-nitrate-intake-and-risk-of-neural-tube-defects-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Nader Rahimi Kakavandi, Amin Hasanvand, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari, Ahmad Habibian Sezavar, Hassan Nabizadeh, Mohammad Parohan
Despite growing evidence for the potential teratogenicity of nitrate, knowledge about the dose-response relationship of dietary nitrate intake and risk of specific birth defects such as neural tube defects (NTDs) is limited. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the dose-response relation between maternal dietary nitrate intake and the risk of NTDs. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus up to February 2018 for observational studies...
May 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757767/the-prevalence-of-scoliosis-in-spina-bifida-subpopulations-a-systematic-review
#9
Arne Heyns, Stefano Negrini, Katrien Jansen, Pierre Moens, Sebastiaan Schelfaut, Koenraad Peers, Carlotte Kiekens
Prevalence of scoliosis within spina bifida subpopulations is important for diagnostics and therapeutic purposes. This review determined the prevalence of scoliosis within spina bifida subpopulations by means of a systematic literature review by using the following databases: Medline-Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane and Pedro. All Dutch- and English-written literature using the MESH-terms: "Spinal Dysraphism", "Neural Tube Defects", "Scoliosis" was analysed using the exclusion criteria: animal studies, case reports, studies regarding the prevalence of spina bifida among patients with scoliosis, studies with inclusion of patients with scoliosis <11° without possibility to identify subgroups with scoliosis >10°, studies without an own study group, articles comprising the same patient group as another article, neural tube defects besides spina bifida and articles without specification of spina bifida subtype...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755911/posterior-fontanelle-encephalomeningocele-in-a-neonate-a-case-report
#10
Abdurrahman Raeiq
Encephalomeningoceles are subtypes of neural tube defects (NTD). We present the case of a one-day-old neonate who was found to have a posterior fontanelle encephalomeningocele that was only discovered after birth. The unique presentation of this case and the surgical management is also considered.
March 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754802/intracellular-calcium-mobilization-is-required-for-sonic-hedgehog-signaling
#11
Dana Klatt Shaw, Derrick Gunther, Michael J Jurynec, Alexis A Chagovetz, Erin Ritchie, David Jonah Grunwald
Graded Shh signaling across fields of precursor cells coordinates patterns of gene expression, differentiation, and morphogenetic behavior as precursors form complex structures, such as the nervous system, the limbs, and craniofacial skeleton. Here we discover that intracellular calcium mobilization, a process tightly controlled and readily modulated, regulates the level of Shh-dependent gene expression in responding cells and affects the development of all Shh-dependent cell types in the zebrafish embryo. Reduced expression or modified activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) intracellular calcium release channels shifted the allocation of Shh-dependent cell fates in the somitic muscle and neural tube...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751775/cxcl12-engineered-endothelial-progenitor-cells-enhance-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-after-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#12
Yaning Li, Shuang Chang, Wanlu Li, Guanghui Tang, Yuanyuan Ma, Yanqun Liu, Fang Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes a multitude of brain damage. Neurovascular injury and myelin sheath degradation are two manifestations of ischemic brain damage. Therapeutic strategies aiming only at repairing the neural components or the vessels cannot efficiently restore neurological function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the advantages of both promoting angiogenesis and secreting trophic factors that would promote neurogenesis. Chemokine cxcl12 gene therapy has also been shown to promote angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and remyelination, attracting EPCs, neural progenitor cells, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the injured sites of the brain...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750727/adipofascial-flaps-with-acellular-dermal-matrix-compared-with-myocutaneous-flap-reconstruction-in-lumbar-myelomeningocele-defects
#13
Navid Pourtaheri, Derek Wang, Daniel Calva, Karan Chopra, Anand R Kumar
BACKGROUND: Adipofascial flaps (AFF) with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) have the potential to reconstruct neural tube defects without sacrificing muscle that may be critical for long-term function. Comparative studies between myocutaneous flap (MF) reconstruction, the accepted standard reconstructive technique, and AFF/ADM remain under-reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of myelomeningocele reconstruction using muscle sparing AFF/ADM versus MF. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was conducted on consecutive myelomeningocele patients reconstructed with MF or AFF/ADM over an 84-month period...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749918/operative-and-consultative-proportions-of-neurosurgical-disease-worldwide-estimation-from-the-surgeon-perspective
#14
Michael C Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Ronnie E Baticulon, Serena Faruque, Walter D Johnson, Robert J Dempsey, Michael M Haglund, Blake C Alkire, Kee B Park, Benjamin C Warf, Mark G Shrime
OBJECTIVE The global magnitude of neurosurgical disease is unknown. The authors sought to estimate the surgical and consultative proportion of diseases commonly encountered by neurosurgeons, as well as surgeon case volume and perceived workload. METHODS An electronic survey was sent to 193 neurosurgeons previously identified via a global surgeon mapping initiative. The survey consisted of three sections aimed at quantifying surgical incidence of neurological disease, consultation incidence, and surgeon demographic data...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749639/the-homeodomain-transcription-factor-prox1-is-a-direct-target-of-soxc-proteins-during-developmental-vertebrate-neurogenesis
#15
Anne Jacob, Hannah M Wüst, Johannes M Thalhammer, Franziska Fröb, Melanie Küspert, Simone Reiprich, Elli-Anna Balta, D Chichung Lie, Michael Wegner, Elisabeth Sock
The high-mobility-group-domain containing SoxC transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 are expressed and required in the vertebrate central nervous system in neuronal precursors and neuroblasts. To identify genes that are widely regulated by SoxC proteins during vertebrate neurogenesis we generated expression profiles from developing mouse brain and chicken neural tube with reduced SoxC expression and found the transcription factor Prox1 strongly downregulated under both conditions. This led us to hypothesize that Prox1 expression depends on SoxC proteins in the developing central nervous system of mouse and chicken...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746219/feasibility-of-continuous-intraoperative-neural-monitoring-during-transoral-endoscopic-thyroidectomy-vestibular-approach-in-a-porcine-model
#16
Daqi Zhang, Shijie Li, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Tie Wang, Jiao Zhang, Gaofeng Xue, Hui Sun
BACKGROUND: Experimental study to evaluate feasibility of continuous intraoperative neural monitoring (C-IONM) in transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA). METHODS: Duroc-Landrace pigs were orally intubated with electromyogram endotracheal tube. Automatic periodic stimulation (APS) electrode was allocated in the operative field through the 5-mm ports. APS was then repose on vagal nerve (VN) with different approaches: (1) median, that is, between sternothyroid and thyroid gland; and (2) lateral, that is, between sternocleidomastoid and sternothyroid...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745900/downregulation-of-ribosome-biogenesis-during-early-forebrain-development
#17
Kevin F Chau, Morgan L Shannon, Ryann M Fame, Erin Fonseca, Hillary Mullan, Matthew B Johnson, Anoop K Sendamarai, Mark W Springel, Benoit Laurent, Maria K Lehtinen
Forebrain precursor cells are dynamic during early brain development, yet the underlying molecular changes remain elusive. We observed major differences in transcriptional signatures of precursor cells from mouse forebrain at embryonic days E8.5 vs. E10.5 (before vs. after neural tube closure). Genes encoding protein biosynthetic machinery were strongly downregulated at E10.5. This was matched by decreases in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, together with age-related changes in proteomic content of the adjacent fluids...
May 10, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742660/management-of-labor-and-delivery-after-fetoscopic-repair-of-an-open-neural-tube-defect
#18
Jaden R Kohn, Vibha Rao, Allison A Sellner, Dina Sharhan, Jimmy Espinoza, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, William E Whitehead, Michael A Belfort, Magdalena Sanz Cortes
OBJECTIVE: To report labor, delivery, and neonatal outcomes in a cohort of women delivering neonates who had undergone fetoscopic neural tube defect repair. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from April 2014 to January 2018. All patients met Management of Myelomeningocele Study eligibility criteria. We included patients with completed second-trimester fetoscopic neural tube defect repair (laparotomy, uterine exteriorization, and minimally invasive access through two or three uterine ports) followed by standardized management of labor and delivery at our institution...
May 7, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733843/modulation-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-reduction-of-neural-tube-defects-by-quercetin-3-glucoside-in-embryos-of-diabetic-mice
#19
Chengyu Tan, Fantong Meng, E Albert Reece, Zhiyong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects in infants. Maternal hyperglycemia stimulates the expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2 (NOS2), which can be regulated by transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family. Increases in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generate intracellular stress conditions, including nitrosative, oxidative, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses, and trigger programmed cell death (or apoptosis) in the neural folds, resulting in neural tube defects (NTDs) in the embryo...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732722/network-correlation-analysis-revealed-potential-new-mechanisms-for-neural-tube-defects-beyond-folic-acid
#20
Xiaoya Gao, Richard H Finnell, Hongyan Wang, Yufang Zheng
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are clinically significant congenital malformations which are known to be folic acid (FA) responsive, such that supplementation significantly reduces the prevalence of NTDs. Nonetheless, some individuals fail to respond to FA supplementation; hence NTDs remain a significant public health concern. The mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of FA supplementation remain poorly understood. Mouse models have been used extensively to study the mechanisms driving neural tube closure (NTC)...
May 6, 2018: Birth Defects Research
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