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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162726/foxj1a-is-expressed-in-ependymal-precursors-controls-central-canal-position-and-is-activated-in-new-ependymal-cells-during-regeneration-in-zebrafish
#1
Ana Ribeiro, Joana F Monteiro, Ana C Certal, Ana M Cristovão, Leonor Saúde
Zebrafish are able to regenerate the spinal cord and recover motor and sensory functions upon severe injury, through the activation of cells located at the ependymal canal. Here, we show that cells surrounding the ependymal canal in the adult zebrafish spinal cord express Foxj1a. We demonstrate that ependymal cells express Foxj1a from their birth in the embryonic neural tube and that Foxj1a activity is required for the final positioning of the ependymal canal. We also show that in response to spinal cord injury, Foxj1a ependymal cells actively proliferate and contribute to the restoration of the spinal cord structure...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160184/awareness-use-and-information-sources-of-folic-acid-supplementation-to-prevent-neural-tube-defects-in-pregnant-japanese-women
#2
Shumi Yamamoto, Yoshinao Wada
OBJECTIVE: Folic acid supplementation and folate-rich diets are recommended for women of childbearing age worldwide to prevent congenital anomalies. We aimed to determine the current status of folic acid supplementation among pregnant Japanese women and identify means to increase the intake of these supplements. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: A total of 1862 pregnant women who consulted the perinatal centre from September 2014 to December 2015 completed a questionnaire concerning knowledge about folic acid, sources of information and the use of folic acid supplements...
November 21, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158391/maternal-prolactin-during-late-pregnancy-is-important-in-generating-nurturing-behavior-in-the-offspring
#3
Taku James Sairenji, Jun Ikezawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shinnosuke Masuda, Kaoru Uchida, Yurie Takanashi, Hiroko Masuda, Tomoko Sairenji, Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru, Kazutoshi Sayama, Kaisa Haglund, Ivan Dikic, Noriyuki Koibuchi, Noriaki Shimokawa
Although maternal nurturing behavior is extremely important for the preservation of a species, our knowledge of the biological underpinnings of these behaviors is insufficient. Here we show that the degree of a mother's nurturing behavior is regulated by factors present during her own fetal development. We found that Cin85-deficient (Cin85(-/-)) mother mice had reduced pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) secretion as a result of excessive dopamine signaling in the brain. Their offspring matured normally and produced their own pups; however, nurturing behaviors such as pup retrieval and nursing were strongly inhibited...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152996/birth-defects-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection-in-mexico
#4
Silvina Noemí Contreras-Capetillo, Nina Valadéz-González, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Rafael Eduardo Carcaño-Castillo, Freddy Pacheco-Tugores, Hirian Alonso Moshe Barrera-Pérez, Doris Pinto-Escalante, Manuel Lliteras-Cardín, José Alfredo Hoil-Parra, José Luis Cáceres-Solís, Norma Pavía-Ruz
Part of the work agenda of international health authorities is to define the clinical spectrum of the congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in different territories. We describe the clinical variability that gave rise to the suspicion of CZS in 3 newborn patients in the south of Mexico with active transmission of Zika. All of them presented Zika RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and positive antibodies for IgM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. None of the mothers tested positive for active viremia, only one mother had Zika-symptoms and titers of Zika-positive IgM...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151265/cnn3-regulates-neural-tube-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-stem-cell-properties
#5
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the calponin family of actin binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142848/injury-of-the-external-branch-of-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-in-thyroid-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Andre S Potenza, Vergilius J F Araujo Filho, Claudio R Cernea
The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) innervates the cricothyroid muscle (CTM) to promote lengthening and thinning of the vocal fold, thus increasing voice pitch. The close relation with the superior thyroid vessels (STV) puts the EBSLN in risk every time the superior pole of the thyroid is dissected. It travels downward to innervate the CTM, lateral to the thyroid cartilage and to the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (IPCM), being eventually covered by this muscle fibers as it approaches its entry point...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142255/a-nonredundant-role-for-the-trpm6-channel-in-neural-tube-closure
#7
Yuko Komiya, Zhiyong Bai, Na Cai, Liping Lou, Namariq Al-Saadi, Courtney Mezzacappa, Raymond Habas, Loren W Runnels
In humans, germline mutations in Trpm6 cause autosomal dominant hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia disorder. Loss of Trpm6 in mice also perturbs cellular magnesium homeostasis but additionally results in early embryonic lethality and neural tube closure defects. To define the mechanisms by which TRPM6 influences neural tube closure, we functionally characterized the role of TRPM6 during early embryogenesis in Xenopus laevis. The expression of Xenopus TRPM6 (XTRPM6) is elevated at the onset of gastrulation and is concentrated in the lateral mesoderm and ectoderm at the neurula stage...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141214/partitioning-of-one-carbon-units-in-folate-and-methionine-metabolism-is-essential-for-neural-tube-closure
#8
Kit-Yi Leung, Yun Jin Pai, Qiuying Chen, Chloe Santos, Enrica Calvani, Sonia Sudiwala, Dawn Savery, Markus Ralser, Steven S Gross, Andrew J Copp, Nicholas D E Greene
Abnormal folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) is implicated in neural tube defects (NTDs), severe malformations of the nervous system. MTHFR mediates unidirectional transfer of methyl groups from the folate cycle to the methionine cycle and, therefore, represents a key nexus in partitioning one-carbon units between FOCM functional outputs. Methionine cycle inhibitors prevent neural tube closure in mouse embryos. Similarly, the inability to use glycine as a one-carbon donor to the folate cycle causes NTDs in glycine decarboxylase (Gldc)-deficient embryos...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141180/motor-neuron-migration-and-positioning-mechanisms-new-roles-for-guidance-cues
#9
REVIEW
Minkyung Kim, Brielle Bjorke, Grant S Mastick
Motor neurons differentiate from progenitor cells and cluster as motor nuclei, settling next to the floor plate in the brain stem and spinal cord. Although precise positioning of motor neurons is critical for their functional input and output, the molecular mechanisms that guide motor neurons to their proper positions remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent evidence of motor neuron positioning mechanisms, highlighting situations in which motor neuron cell bodies can migrate, and experiments that show that their migration is regulated by axon guidance cues...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139540/neurosphere-formation-potential-resides-not-in-the-caudal-cell-mass-but-in-the-secondary-neural-tube
#10
Ji Yeoun Lee, Eun Sun Lee, Saet Pyoul Kim, Myung-Sook Lee, Ji Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim, Young-Il Hwang, Kyu-Chang Wang
The caudal cell mass (CCM) is known as the main player in secondary neurulation, forming the secondary neural tube (2NT). This suggests that the CCM may have the character of neural progenitor cells. The neural potential of the CCM and the 2NT (CCM + 2NT) was assessed by in vitro culture of neurospheres during Hamburger and Hamilton stages (HH) of secondary neurulation (HH16 to HH32). We also analyzed the neural potential of the developing central nervous system (CNS) by comparing the neurosphere culture from the brain, upper / lower spinal cord, and CCM + 2NT from various HH stages...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139138/folate-status-in-women-of-reproductive-age-as-basis-of-neural-tube-defect-risk-assessment
#11
Lynn B Bailey, Dorothy B Hausman
Reliable folate status data for women of reproductive age (WRA) to assess global risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) are needed. We focus on a recent recommendation by the World Health Organization that a specific "optimal" red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration be used as the sole indicator of NTD risk within a population and discuss how to best apply this guidance to reach the goal of assessing NTD risk globally. We also emphasize the importance of using the microbiologic assay (MBA) as the most reliable assay for obtaining comparable results for RBC folate concentration across time and countries, the need for harmonization of the MBA through use of consistent key reagents and procedures within laboratories, and the requirement to apply assay-matched cutoffs for folate deficiency and insufficiency...
November 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139074/excessive-use-of-nitrogenous-fertilizers-an-unawareness-causing-serious-threats-to-environment-and-human-health
#12
Moddassir Ahmed, Muhammad Rauf, Zahid Mukhtar, Nasir Ahmad Saeed
Farmers occasionally need to add nitrogen fertilizer to their farms and gardens to make available just the precise nutrients for their plants' growth. The applications of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers to various crops have been continuously increasing since last many decades globally. Although nitrogen fertilizer contributes substantially to yield enhancement, but excessive use of this manure has posed serious threats to environment and human health. Rate of nitrogen fertilizers application has a close relationship with nitrate accumulation in surrounding environment, groundwater, as well as leafy and root vegetables...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138704/caudal-regression-and-encephalocele-rare-manifestations-of-expanded-goldenhar-complex
#13
Gabriella D'Angelo, Lucia Marseglia, Salvatore Aversa, Sara Manti, Caterina Cuppari, Mariaconcetta Cutrupi, Carmelo Salpietro, Eloisa Gitto
Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term "expanded Goldenhar complex" has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138679/modulatory-mechanism-of-polyphenols-and-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-lps-challenged-pregnancy-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Tarique Hussain, Bie Tan, Gang Liu, Ghulam Murtaza, Najma Rahu, Muhammad Saleem, Yulong Yin
Early embryonic loss and adverse birth outcomes are the major reproductive disorders that affect both human and animals. The LPS induces inflammation by interacting with robust cellular mechanism which was considered as a plethora of numerous reproductive disorders such as fetal resorption, preterm birth, teratogenicity, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion, neural tube defects, fetal demise, and skeletal development retardation. LPS-triggered overproduction of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which mediates inflammation via stimulation of NF-κB and PPARγ transcription factors...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133009/periconceptional-maternal-fever-folic-acid-intake-and-the-risk-for-neural-tube-defects
#15
Stephen M Kerr, Samantha E Parker, Allen A Mitchell, Sarah C Tinker, Martha M Werler
PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown an association between maternal fever in early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to reduce the risk of these outcomes. METHODS: Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1998-2015), we examined the impact of folic acid on the relationship between maternal fever in the periconceptional period (28 days before and after the last menstrual period) and NTDs...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129155/transgenerational-inheritance-of-familial-lipomyelomeningocele
#16
Thomas Larrew, Ramin Eskandari, Kenton R Holden, Amy Chen, Catherine J Spellicy, Julie R Jones, Jennifer A Lee, Michael J Lyons
Lipomyelomeningocele is a type of neural tube defect characterized by lipomatous tissue causing a defect in the vertebrae, infiltrating the dura, and tethering the spinal cord. Despite significant neurologic consequences, the underlying etiology remains poorly understood. We present a father and son with remarkably similar presentations of lipomyelomeningocele. Genetic testing did not reveal an underlying cause but whole exome sequencing identified variants in the ARHGAP29 and RADIL genes in the proband and his affected father...
December 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128408/adding-folic-acid-to-corn-masa-flour-partnering-to-improve-pregnancy-outcomes-and-reduce-health-disparities
#17
REVIEW
Alina L Flores, Amy M Cordero, Michael Dunn, Joseph E Sniezek, Miguel A Arce, Krista S Crider, Sarah Tinker, Cynthia Pellegrini, Rita Carreón, Jose Estrada, Sara Struwe, Coleen Boyle
Although strides have been made in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), Hispanic women remain more likely to have a baby born with an NTD and less likely to know the benefits of, or consume, folic acid than women of other race/ethnic groups. In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated that all enriched cereal grain products be fortified with folic acid; however, corn masa flour (CMF), used to make many corn products that are a diet staple of many Hispanic groups, was not included under this regulation...
November 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125540/is-high-folic-acid-intake-a-risk-factor-for-autism-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Darrell Wiens, M Catherine DeSoto
Folate is required for metabolic processes and neural development. Insuring its adequate levels for pregnant women through supplementation of grain-based foods with synthetic folic acid (FA) in order to prevent neural tube defects has been an ongoing public health initiative. However, because women are advised to take multivitamins containing FA before and throughout pregnancy, the supplementation together with natural dietary folates has led to a demographic with high and rising serum levels of unmetabolized FA...
November 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125517/genetic-epidemiology-of-neural-tube-defects
#19
Philip J Lupo, A J Agopian, Heidi Castillo, Jonathan Castillo, Gerald H Clayton, Nienke P Dosa, Betsy Hopson, David B Joseph, Brandon G Rocque, William O Walker, John S Wiener, Laura E Mitchell
It has been estimated that 60-70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) have a genetic component, but few causative genes have been identified. The lack of information on genes associated with non-syndromic NTDs in humans is especially notable as the "genomic revolution" has led to new tools (e.g., genome-wide genotyping arrays, next-generation sequencing) that are helping to elucidate the full spectrum of genetic variation (from common to rare) contributing to complex traits, including structural birth defects. However, the application of modern genomic approaches to the study of NTDs has lagged behind that of some other common structural birth defects...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125506/should-the-dose-of-folic-acid-be-adjusted-for-mexican-population-the-pilot-prevention-program-implemented-in-nuevo-leon-mexico
#20
Laura E Martinez de Villarreal
In 1980 Smithells et al. reported that the intake of folic acid (FA) prevents the recurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) [1]. After this and several other studies were conducted, the intake of 400 micrograms of folic acid per day, at least three months before and three months during pregnancy for prevention of NTD, was proposed [2,3,4]. Other strategies were also developed to increase folate blood levels in woman of childbearing age such as promoting the consumption of folate rich foods and food fortification (flour and most recently rice) [5]...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
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