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Exercise immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818559/-to-boldly-go-where-no-one-has-gone-before
#1
Keith W Kelley
Americans are suffering from a culture of taking pills. Six out of ten Americans utilize at least one prescription drug, and more than one in ten use five or more prescription medicines. Although this torrent of taking pills is already high, drug use in the USA has not yet crested. Prescription drugs have specific targets, but often they adversely affect other tissues and organs. In keeping with the mission of the recently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), Brain, Behavior, and Immunity searches for the underlying cause and potential efficacy of both drug and non-drug interventions...
August 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780738/john-p-craig-md-mph-physician-scientist-educator-and-mentor-1923-2016
#2
M A Haseeb, Pascal James Imperato
John P. Craig (1923-2016) was an eminent physician-scientist, gifted educator, and greatly valued mentor. Born in West Liberty, Ohio on 29 November 1923, he attended Oberlin College, and received his medical degree from Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine. This was followed by an internship at Yale University Medical Center, and then service in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He was a battalion surgeon, preventive medicine officer, and epidemiologist. While in Korea, he conducted important investigations of hemorrhagic fever among American troops...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769550/differences-in-gluten-protein-composition-between-old-and-modern-durum-wheat-genotypes-in-relation-to-20th-century-breeding-in-italy
#3
Michele A De Santis, Marcella M Giuliani, Luigia Giuzio, Pasquale De Vita, Alison Lovegrove, Peter R Shewry, Zina Flagella
The impact of breeding on grain yields of wheat varieties released during the 20th century has been extensively studied, whereas less information is available on the changes in gluten quality associated with effects on the amount and composition of glutenins and gliadins. In order to explore the effects of breeding during the 20th century on gluten quality of durum wheat for processing and health we have compared a set of old and modern Italian genotypes grown under Mediterranean conditions. The better technological performance observed for the modern varieties was found to be due not only to the introgression of superior alleles of high (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight (LMW-GS) glutenin subunits encoded at Glu-B1 and Glu-B3 loci, but also to differential expression of specific storage proteins...
July 2017: European Journal of Agronomy: the Journal of the European Society for Agronomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751932/does-regular-exercise-counter-t-cell-immunosenescence-reducing-the-risk-of-developing-cancer-and-promoting-successful-treatment-of-malignancies
#4
REVIEW
James E Turner, Patricia C Brum
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise training or regular physical activity is beneficial for immune function. For example, some evidence shows that individuals with an active lifestyle exhibit stronger immune responses to vaccination compared to those who are inactive. Encouragingly, poor vaccine responses, which are characteristic of an ageing immune system, can be improved by single or repeated bouts of exercise. In addition, exercise-induced lymphocytosis, and the subsequent lymphocytopenia, is thought to facilitate immune surveillance, whereby lymphocytes search tissues for antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, or malignant transformation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744226/the-mucosal-immune-function-is-not-compromised-during-a-period-of-high-intensity-interval-training-is-it-time-to-reconsider-an-old-assumption
#5
Dennis-Peter Born, Christoph Zinner, Billy Sperlich
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90-95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70-75% of maximum heart rate for 60-80 min...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741519/cancer-prevention-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Barbara K Dunn, Barnett S Kramer
In this review, we address selected areas that are central to the state-of-the-art of cancer prevention science. The emphasis on prevention as a viable and critical approach to decreasing cancer mortality has gained traction in recent years, evidenced by its inclusion in the US Vice President's Cancer Initiative (also termed 'Moonshot'). Cancer prevention occurs by arresting, slowing down, or reversing the carcinogenic process before invasion into surrounding tissue or by avoiding or blocking causative exposure...
December 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738385/pharmacological-and-nonpharmacological-interventions-to-arrest-neuroprogression-in-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Fotini Boufidou, Angelos Halaris
The concept of neuroprogression describes the progressive course of the disorder and stresses the progressive, recurrent, and chronic course of the disease entity under consideration. It subsumes clinical manifestations of the disease process and may also entail morphological, biochemical, neurochemical, immunological, physiological, and genetic aspects that contribute to the progressive course of the disease in question. In an attempt to identify the appropriate agent or method that could arrest neuroprogression in psychiatric patients, we conducted an evaluation of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs under the perspective of current pharmacological and neurophysiological data...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694775/yoga-meditation-and-mind-body-health-increased-bdnf-cortisol-awakening-response-and-altered-inflammatory-marker-expression-after-a-3-month-yoga-and-meditation-retreat
#8
B Rael Cahn, Matthew S Goodman, Christine T Peterson, Raj Maturi, Paul J Mills
Thirty-eight individuals (mean age: 34.8 years old) participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat were assessed before and after the intervention for psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), circadian salivary cortisol levels, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Participation in the retreat was found to be associated with decreases in self-reported anxiety and depression as well as increases in mindfulness. As hypothesized, increases in the plasma levels of BDNF and increases in the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were also observed...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692774/developing-and-refining-new-candidate-criteria-for-sle-classification-an-international-collaboration
#9
Sara K Tedeschi, Sindhu R Johnson, Dimitrios Boumpas, David Daikh, Thomas Dörner, David Jayne, Diane Kamen, Kirsten Lerstrøm, Marta Mosca, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Corine Sinnette, David Wofsy, Josef S Smolen, Raymond P Naden, Martin Aringer, Karen H Costenbader
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to define candidate criteria within multi-phase development of SLE classification criteria, jointly supported by EULAR and ACR. Prior steps included item generation and reduction by Delphi exercise, further narrowed to 21 items in a Nominal Group Technique exercise. Our objectives were to apply an evidence-based approach to the 21 candidate criteria, and to develop hierarchical organization of criteria within domains. METHODS: A literature review identified the sensitivity and specificity of the 21 candidate criteria...
July 10, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686557/the-biopsychosocial-model-40-years-of-application-in-psychiatry
#10
G Papadimitriou
In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630656/physical-activity-black-carbon-exposure-and-dna-methylation-in-the-foxp3-promoter
#11
Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Kyung Hwa Jung, Jacqueline R Jezioro, David Z Torrone, Mariangels de Planell-Saguer, Beizhan Yan, Frederica P Perera, Andrew G Rundle, Matthew S Perzanowski, Steven N Chillrud, Rachel L Miller
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with improvement in lung function; however, pollution exposure during physical activity can lead to a transient reduction in lung function. This paradoxical relationship may be linked to altered T regulatory (Treg) cell activity, which increases with exercise and suppresses airway inflammation, but decreases in association with exposure to air pollution. To clarify these relationships, we investigated buccal cell DNA methylation of the forkhead box p3 (FOXP3) gene promoter, a proposed biomarker of Treg activity...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616851/effect-of-aerobic-interval-training-on-serum-il-10-tnf%C3%AE-and-adipokines-levels-in-women-with-multiple-sclerosis-possible-relations-with-fatigue-and-quality-of-life
#12
Motahare Mokhtarzade, Rouholah Ranjbar, Nastaran Majdinasab, Darpan Patel, Mehdieh Molanouri Shamsi
PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis...
August 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571979/impact-of-high-fat-diet-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-small-intestinal-physiology-before-and-after-the-onset-of-obesity
#13
REVIEW
João Ricardo Araújo, Julie Tomas, Christiane Brenner, Philippe J Sansonetti
The modulation of the intestinal microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has a major impact on both immunological and metabolic functions of the host. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this contribution is to review the impact of HFD on microbiota profile and small intestinal physiology before and after the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. Evidence from animal studies suggest that before the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications, HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis - encompassing changes in composition balance and massive redistribution with bacteria occupying intervillous spaces and crypts - associated with early physiopathological changes, predominantly in the ileum, such as low-grade inflammation, decreased antimicrobial peptides expression, impaired mucus production, secretion and layer's thickness, and decreased expression of tight junction proteins...
May 29, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548925/immunological-consequences-of-ageing-microvascular-hemodynamic-changes-in-view-of-cancer-development-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Jinhyuk Fred Chung, Sang Joon Lee, Anil K Sood
Risk factors of cardiovascular diseases have long been implicated as risk factors for carcinogenesis, but clear explanations for their association have not been presented. In this article, fundamental concepts from carcinogenesis, microvascular hemodynamics, and immunity are collectively reviewed and analyzed in context of the known features of vascular ageing effects, in formulating a theory that suggests reduced microvascular immunity as an important driving factor for carcinogenesis. Furthermore, scientific, preclinical, and clinical evidence that support this new theory are presented in an interdisciplinary manner, offering new explanations to previously unanswered factors that impact cancer risks and its treatment outcome such as chronic drug use, temperature, stress and exercise effects among others...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532013/exercise-enhance-the-ectopic-bone-formation-of-calcium-phosphate-biomaterials-in-muscles-of-mice
#15
Lijia Cheng, Shuo Yan, Jiang Zhu, Peiling Cai, Ting Wang, Zheng Shi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exercise can enhance ectopic bone formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) biomaterials in muscles of mice. METHODS: Firstly, ten transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) knockout mice (group KO) and ten C57BL/6 mice (group WT) were randomly chosen, 10μg Ca-P biomaterials were implanted into the thigh muscle pouch of each mouse which was far away from femur; after that, all animals were kept in open field for free exploration 5min, and the movement time and distance were automatically analyzed...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#16
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515012/breast-cancer-and-exercise-the-role-of-adiposity-and-immune-markers
#17
REVIEW
Supa Pudkasam, Kathy Tangalakis, Nanthapan Chinlumprasert, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Lily Stojanovska
Currently, breast cancer accounts for a quarter of all cancers and 15% of cancer-specific deaths amongst females. The global occurrence of breast cancer has increased in the last decade whilst the mortality rate has decreased. Exercise can be beneficial to breast cancer patients through changes in adiposity and immune responses. Even though there is some evidence supporting the improvement of fat metabolism and immune function after an exercise program in breast cancer, randomized controlled studies are limited and require further comprehensive analysis in this population group...
May 8, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509904/immunological-effects-of-behavioral-activation-with-exercise-in-major-depression-an-exploratory-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
F Euteneuer, K Dannehl, A Del Rey, H Engler, M Schedlowski, W Rief
Major depression (MD) is associated with peripheral inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk. Regular physical exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects. The present study examined whether behavioral activation with exercise affects inflammatory processes in MD. Ninety-eight patients with MD were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) emphasizing exercise during behavioral activation (CBT-E), CBT with pleasurable low-energy activities as an active control condition (CBT-C) or a passive waiting list control group (WL)...
May 16, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504570/saliva-a-reliable-sample-matrix-in-bioanalytics
#19
Michael Gröschl
Saliva is gaining increasing attention as a bioanalytical sample matrix. Mostly because of the easy and noninvasive collection, it is not only beneficial in endocrinological and behavioral science, but also in pediatrics. Saliva also has the advantage of being the only body fluid which can be collected even during physical exercise, for example, during sportive activities, and there are physiological characteristics that make it superior to serum/plasma or urine for specific scientific questions. This review provides an insight into the physiology of saliva formation, explaining how certain compounds enter this bodily fluid, and gives advice for collection, storage and analytical methods...
April 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428879/a-systems-biology-approach-to-investigating-the-influence-of-exercise-and-fitness-on-the-composition-of-leukocytes-in-peripheral-blood
#20
Michael P Gustafson, Ara Celi DiCostanzo, Courtney M Wheatley, Chul-Ho Kim, Svetlana Bornschlegl, Dennis A Gastineau, Bruce D Johnson, Allan B Dietz
BACKGROUND: Exercise immunology has become a growing field in the past 20 years, with an emphasis on understanding how different forms of exercise affect immune function. Mechanistic studies are beginning to shed light on how exercise may impair the development of cancer or be used to augment cancer treatment. The beneficial effects of exercise on the immune system may be exploited to improve patient responses to cancer immunotherapy. METHODS: We investigated the effects of acute exercise on the composition of peripheral blood leukocytes over time in a male population of varying fitness...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
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