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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644976/biomaterials-that-promote-cell-cell-interactions-enhance-the-paracrine-function-of-mscs
#1
Taimoor H Qazi, David J Mooney, Georg N Duda, Sven Geissler
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. Whether this paracrine function is influenced by the properties of biomaterials in general, and those used for cell delivery in particular, largely remains unexplored. Here, we investigated if three-dimensional culture in distinct microenvironments - nanoporous hydrogels (mean pore size ∼5 nm) and macroporous scaffolds (mean pore size ∼120 μm) - affects the secretion pattern of MSCs, and consequently leads to differential paracrine effects on target progenitor cells such as myoblasts...
June 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#2
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644106/viability-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-progenitor-cells-are-maintained-after-incubation-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis-protein-extract
#3
Mayra Laino Albiero, Rafael Nóbrega Stipp, Miki Taketomi Saito, Márcio Zaffalon Casati, Enilson Antonio Sallum, Francisco Humberto Nociti, Karina Gonzales Silvério
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is a major periodontal pathogen that contains immunostimulatory components. Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs) are responsible for regeneration of the periodontium that is lost due to periodontitis. Pathologic factors within the microenvironment that impair resident PDLSCs are not well understood. The present study investigated in vitro the effects of Pg protein extract (PgPE) on the biological properties of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105(+) cells)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643909/the-fate-of-osterix-expressing-mesenchymal-cells-in-dental-root-formation-and-maintenance
#4
A Takahashi, N Ono, W Ono
OBJECTIVES: Osterix (Osx)-expressing mesenchymal cells are progenitors for tooth root forming cells. The aim of this study was to reveal the fates of Osx-expressing cells during and after root formation using a lineage tracing experiment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To reveal the fates of Osx-expressing dental mesenchymal progenitors, we took advantage of tamoxifen-inducible Cre reporter system. Osx-creER; R26R-tdTomato mice received tamoxifen (0.1 mg/body) at postnatal day 3 (P3)...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643905/diverse-contribution-of-col2a1-expressing-cells-to-the-craniofacial-skeletal-cell-lineages
#5
N Sakagami, W Ono, N Ono
OBJECTIVES: Craniofacial skeletal development requires deliberate coordination of two distinct mechanisms of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Col2a1-expressing cells encompass growth-associated skeletal progenitors in endochondral bones of the limb. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of Col2a1-expressing cells to the craniofacial skeletal cell lineages. We hypothesize that Col2a1-expressing progenitors significantly contribute to various modes of ossification associated with the craniofacial development...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643791/ewsr1-fusion-proteins-mediate-pax7-expression-in-ewing-sarcoma
#6
Gregory W Charville, Wei-Lien Wang, Davis R Ingram, Angshumoy Roy, Dafydd Thomas, Rajiv M Patel, Jason L Hornick, Matt van de Rijn, Alexander J Lazar
PAX7 is a paired-box transcription factor that is required for the developmental specification of adult skeletal muscle progenitors in mice. We previously demonstrated PAX7 expression as a marker of skeletal muscle differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, using analyses of published whole-genome gene expression microarray data, we identify PAX7 as a gene with significantly increased expression in Ewing sarcoma in comparison to CIC-DUX4 round cell sarcoma. Analysis of PAX7 in a large cohort of 103 Ewing sarcoma cases by immunohistochemistry revealed expression in 99...
June 23, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643455/pathways-governing-development-of-stem-cell-derived-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-lessons-from-embryogenesis
#7
Sara Al-Khawaga, Bushra Memon, Alexandra E Butler, Shahrad Taheri, Abdul B Abou-Samra, Essam M Abdelalim
The loss of functional β cells leads to development of diabetes. Several studies have shown that β cells are specified through several stages of progenitors during pancreas development, each stage defined by the expression of specific transcription factors (TFs). Understanding signalling pathways that control the differentiation and specification processes during embryogenesis will facilitate efforts to obtain functional β cells in vitro. Our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in pancreatic β cell development and survival under normal or diabetic conditions has come largely from animal studies...
June 22, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643190/mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-neural-differentiation-of-human-ipsc-is-modulated-by-idebenone-in-a-developmental-stage-dependent-manner
#8
J Augustyniak, J Lenart, M Zychowicz, P P Stepien, L Buzanska
Idebenone, the synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 can improve electron transport in mitochondria. Therefore, it is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive impairments. However, the mechanism of its action on neurodevelopment is still to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the cellular response of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to idebenone depends on the stage of neural differentiation. When: neural stem cells (NSC), early neural progenitors (eNP) and advanced neural progenitors (NP) have been studied a significant stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis was observed only at the eNP stage of development...
June 22, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643176/a-promising-tool-in-retina-regeneration-current-perspectives-and-challenges-when-using-mesenchymal-progenitor-stem-cells-in-veterinary-and-human-ophthalmological-applications
#9
REVIEW
Anna Cislo-Pakuluk, Krzysztof Marycz
Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al...
June 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643126/cancer-stem-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Tamer Yagci, Metin Cetin, Pelin Balcik Ercin
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Only a small proportion of patients benefit from curative treatment and the prognosis is very poor for the majority of cases due to late presentation, resistance to chemotherapy and high recurrence rate. In recent years, progress in stem cell biology allowed us to explain that hierarchically organized cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive histological and functional heterogeneity of hematological malignancies and solid tumors...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643018/heterogeneity-of-gata2-related-myeloid-neoplasms
#11
REVIEW
Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Marcin W Wlodarski, Emilia Kozyra, Charlotte M Niemeyer
The GATA2 gene codes for a master hematopoietic transcription factor that is essential for the proliferation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Heterozygous germline mutations in GATA2 have been initially associated with several clinical entities that are now collectively defined as GATA2 deficiency. Despite pleiotropic clinical manifestations, the high propensity for the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) constitutes the most common clinical denominator of this major MDS predisposition syndrome...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642740/multigenerational-influences-of-the-fut2-gene-on-the-dynamics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#12
Philipp Rausch, Sven Künzel, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Guntram A Grassl, Philip Rosenstiel, John F Baines
The FUT2 gene encodes an α-1,2-fucosyltransferase responsible for the expression of ABO histo-blood-group antigens on mucosal surfaces and bodily secretions. Individuals who carry at least one functional allele are known as "secretors," whereas those homozygous for loss-of-function mutations are known as "non-secretors." Non-secretor individuals are more susceptible to chronic inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's Disease, which may be mediated by alterations in the microbiota. Here, we investigated the dynamics of microbial community assembly with respect to genotype using a Fut2-deficient mouse model, taking the genotype of the maternal lineage over two generations into account...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642734/the-short-stature-homeobox-containing-gene-shox-shox-is-required-for-the-regulation-of-cell-proliferation-and-bone-differentiation-in-zebrafish-embryo-and-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Tomoaki Yokokura, Hiroyasu Kamei, Takashi Shibano, Daisuke Yamanaka, Rie Sawada-Yamaguchi, Fumihiko Hakuno, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi, Toshiaki Shimizu
The short-stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) was originally discovered as one of genes responsible for idiopathic short-stature syndromes in humans. Previous studies in animal models have shown the evolutionarily conserved link between this gene and skeletal formation in early embryogenesis. Here, we characterized developmental roles of shox/SHOX in zebrafish embryos and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using loss-of-function approaches. Morpholino oligo-mediated knockdown of zebrafish shox markedly hindered cell proliferation in the anterior region of the pharyngula embryos, which was accompanied by reduction in the dlx2 expression at mesenchymal core sites for future pharyngeal bones...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642678/a-cold-blooded-view-on-adult-neurogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Anabel R Simões, Christa Rhiner
During brain development, highly complex and interconnected neural circuits are established. This intricate wiring needs to be robust to faithfully perform adult brain function throughout life, but at the same time offer room for plasticity to integrate new information. In the mammalian brain, adult-born neurons are produced in restricted niches harboring neural stem cells. In the fruit fly Drosophila, low-level adult neurogenesis arising from a dispersed population of neural progenitors has recently been detected in the optic lobes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642583/sox2-is-required-for-inner-ear-neurogenesis
#15
Aleta R Steevens, Danielle L Sookiasian, Jenna C Glatzer, Amy E Kiernan
Neurons of the cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG) transmit hearing and balance information to the brain. During development, a select population of early otic progenitors express NEUROG1, delaminate from the otocyst, and coalesce to form the neurons that innervate all inner ear sensory regions. At present, the selection process that determines which otic progenitors activate NEUROG1 and adopt a neuroblast fate is incompletely understood. The transcription factor SOX2 has been implicated in otic neurogenesis, but its requirement in the specification of the CVG neurons has not been established...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642277/adipose-tissue-macrophages-develop-from-bone-marrow-independent-progenitors-in-xenopus-laevis-and-mouse
#16
Syed F Hassnain Waqas, Anna Noble, Anh C Hoang, Grace Ampem, Manuela Popp, Sarah Strauß, Matthew Guille, Tamás Röszer
ATMs have a metabolic impact in mammals as they contribute to metabolically harmful AT inflammation. The control of the ATM number may have therapeutic potential; however, information on ATM ontogeny is scarce. Whereas it is thought that ATMs develop from circulating monocytes, various tissue-resident Mϕs are capable of self-renewal and develop from BM-independent progenitors without a monocyte intermediate. Here, we show that amphibian AT contains self-renewing ATMs that populate the AT before the establishment of BM hematopoiesis...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642138/molecular-cloning-of-chicken-tet-family-genes-and-role-of-chicken-tet1-in-erythropoiesis
#17
Yuya Okuzaki, Hidenori Kaneoka, Ken-Ichi Nishijima, Seitaro Murakami, Yuki Ozawa, Shinji Iijima
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase has potential as an active eraser to regulate the genomic DNA methylation status. We herein cloned chicken TET (cTET) family genes, and confirmed their functions. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed that cTET1 was strongly expressed in erythrocytes throughout development. This cTET1 expression pattern, together with the results of methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation, suggests that cTET1 contributes to demethylation around the promoter region of the definitive-type β-globin gene βΑ in erythroid cells...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642016/electrospun-vascular-scaffold-for-cellularized-small-diameter-blood-vessels-a-preclinical-large-animal-study
#18
Young Min Ju, Hyunhee Ahn, Juan Arenas-Herrera, Cheil Kim, Mehran Abolbashari, Anthony Atala, James J Yoo, Sang Jin Lee
The strategy of vascular tissue engineering is to create a vascular substitute by combining autologous vascular cells with a tubular-shaped biodegradable scaffold. We have previously developed a novel electrospun bilayered vascular scaffold that provides proper biological and biomechanical properties as well as structural configuration. In this study, we investigated the clinical feasibility of a cellularized vascular scaffold in a preclinical large animal model. We fabricated the cellularized vascular construct with autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) followed by a pulsatile bioreactor preconditioning...
June 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641662/-effect-of-pdk1-on-neutrophil-differentiation
#19
Wei-Li Wang, Le Wang, Tian-Yuan Hu, Cong Li, Wei-Ping Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To knock out PDK1 by using Vav-Cre and observe the effects of PDK1 knock out on the ratio, number and differentiation of neutrophil. METHODS: The PDK1 expression level of Vav-Cre;PDK1(lox/lox) mouse in the bone marrow cells was analyzed by RT-PCR. The effect of PDK1 on hematopoietic progenitor was observed by CFU-C assay, and the effect of PDK1 on the ratio and number of neutrophil was detected by flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: The RNA expression level of bone marrow cells of Vav-Cre;PDK1(lox/lox) mouse was dramatically lower than that of the control mouse...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641614/-effect-of-microrna-214-on-migration-of-cord-blood-cd34-cells-induced-by-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Jing Ming, Jian Wang, Xu Ye, Hui Xu, Xing-Bing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible effect of MicroRNA-214 (miR-214) on migration of umbilical cord blood CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells induced by BM-MSC. METHODS: After transfection of the inhibitor or mimic of miR-214, the cultured supernatant of BM-MSC were collected respectively. The expression of miR-214 in BM-MSC was detected by real time quantitative PCR, the effect of supernatant on CD34(+) cell migration was evaluated by chemotaxis assays...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
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